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"Ou!is<l58 7 

. , 1 


; / 

PfcQclodoxia Epidemica . 


Very many Received 

T E N E N T S, 

And commonJy prefumcd 


By T u o M A s B R o w n: D' of Phyfick.i.<» 

llie Third Edition, ^ 

Corre<fted and Enlarged by the Author. 


With fomt Marginall Obfcmdons, and i Tabic 
Alpbabectcoll ac the end. 

.yj ii-i ii 

Jut. "Sc a,t I o> 

£x LiMi aligirt ]M frijidirunt Jathrei hnfi t/l fmiuhfifunum j 
Strum iffaim cegnitit vtrM i rcius tffs rfi. 


Printed by 9^. \V. for 3\(^atb.Ekins,Ai the Gun in 1 

^iw/j Churcb-Yard, idjS. 









.Jf I 


• .•• ••• • • 

.• . ; ••• - 

• •• • 
• •• 

• •• 

r • 

• ••• • •«• • 

» S < • • • 

f • 

«■ - 1 

to the R E A b E tt . 

Oiild Trttth difptnfei wceooldbc concent, 
with ''PUth, th« Knowledge ■■• — I --Re- 
tnembrSnce; tliat IntellcL ^m 

were but reminifccntial <;vo'_t..„:i, ....: acw 
imttrifiirons but the colourillaing of old 
mps trhichltdodpalein thcfoul befote. for what is 
'orle, knowledge is made by oblivion, »nd to purch»fc 
'dear and warrantable body of Truth, we mutt forget 
iJd pare with much we know. Our tctidcr Eai^uiiJcs 
iking up Learning at large, and together with true and 
allured notions, receiving many, wherein ourrcviewiog 
judgements do find no huisfaclion.And therefore in this 
'•fcfchfiiitind round of Koowlcdge, like the great and 
lemplary Wheels of Heaven,' we muft obferve two 
lirdcs : that while we are daily carried about, and 
hirlcd on by the fwing and rapt of the one, we may 
lalntain a natural and proper court e, in the flow and 
iberwiiecl o( the other And this we Ihall more readily 
irform, if we timely furvcy our knowledge jimpartial- 
Ty ilngling ouctholc encroachmcnos, which junior com- 
pliance and popular credulity hath admitted. Whereof at 
prefent we have endeavoured a long and ferious JJvi/o ■ 
propofing not only a large and copious Lift, but from 
perienceand realbnattempting their decillons. 
And fittt we crave eiceeding pardon in the audacity 
the Attempt;humbly acknowledging a work of fuch 
concernment unto truth, and difficulty in it fclf.did well 
Icrve the conjuniftian of many heads. Aad furely mote 
Iventageous had it been unto Truth, to have fallen in- 
Ai to 



(■ t 


To the ^ader. 


to the endeavours of ibme co-operacing advancers , chat 
might have performed it to the life, and added authori- 
ty thereto ; which the privacie of our condition,and un- 
equal abilities cannot expe<%- Whereby notwithftanding 
we have not been diverted ^ nor have our folitary at. 
tempts been fo difcouraged, as to difpair the favourable 
look of Learning upon our fingle and unfupported 

Nox have we let fall our Pen,upon difcoutaeement of 
Conaadifkion, Unbelief and Difficulty of diflwaiion 
from,raciicaced beliefs, and points of high pre(cripcion , 
althougii we aie very fenfible, how hai^dly teaching years 
do learn, what roots old age contracteth unto errors, and 
how fuchas are biu acorns in our younger brows,grow 
Oaks in our ddec heads, and become inflexible unco (he 
poweifulleft arm of reafon. A Ichough we have alfo bc' 
held!, what cold requitals others have found in their Se- 
veral redemptions of Truth i and how their ingenuous 
Enqutti«s been difmiued with cenfure, and ob- 
loquie of fiugularities. 

Some conHderation we hope from the courfe of our 
Profefsion, which though it leadeth us into matiy truths 
that pafs undi(cerned by others, yet doth it diilurb their 
Communications, and much interrupt the office of our 
Pens in (heir well intended Tranfmif sions. And there- 
fore furcly in this work attempts will exceed perfor- 
mancesjit being compofedby fnatches ortime,as medical 
VAcations,and the fruiciefs importunity o(f^rojcofy would 
permit us. And therefore airo,perhaps it hath not found 
that regular and confl^nt ftile , thole infallible experi- 
ments, and tho(e alTured determinations, which the fub- 
je6t fometime requireth , and might be expeAed from 
others, whofe quiet doors and unmolefled hours afford 
no fuch diftradions. Although whoever (hall indiffi;- 
rently perpend the exceeding difficulty, which either the 
obfcurity of the fubjeft, or unavoidable paradoxologie 
muft often put upon the Attemptor, will eafily difcern, a 



To t he "B^ader. 

workoF chis nature is not to be pcrrotmed upon one 
Icgg ; and fliould fmcl of oyl, if duly and dcfervedly 

Our firrt intentions confidering the common intercft 
of Truth, rcfolvedtopropofcit unto the Latinc icpub- 
lique and equal Judges of fiirofc , but owing in the 
firft place this feivice unto our Countrey, and therein 
efpccially unto its ingenuous Gentry, vtc have declared 
our felf in a language bed conceived. Although I confels 
the quality of the Subjcifl will fometimes carry us into 
cjcprcrsions beyond mecr Englifll apprehenfions. And 
indeed, if elcgancic ftill procecdcth, and Englifll Pens 
maintain that ftream, we have of late oblcrvcd toflow 
from many ; we (liall within few years be fain to learn 
Latine to underhand Englifll, and a work will prove of 
equal facility in eithcr.Norhavc we addreffed our Pen or 
Stile unto the people, { whom Books do not rcdrcfs, and 
are this way incapable of leduflion^but unto the know- 
ing and leading part of Learning. As well underftanding 
( at leaft probably hoping ^except they be watered from 
higher regions, and frudlifying meteors of Knowledge, 
thele weeds muft lole their alimcntal lap, and wither of 
themfelves. Whofe conlen ing influence, could out en- 
deavours prevent i we fliould truft the reft unto the 
fytheof Timf,and hopefnll dominion of Truth, 

We hope it will not be unconfidered, that we find no 
open trad, or conftanc manudu^on in this Labyrinth ; 
but are oft-times fain to wander in the Amtricn and un- 
fravelled pans of Truth. For though not many years 
part , Dr. iPrimnJe hath made a learned and full Dif- 
courie of vulgar Errors in Phyfick, yet have we dilcul^ 
fed buttwo or three thereof Srifio Maairii hath alfo left 
an excellent trad in halltn^ concerning popular Errors j 
but confining himlclf only unto thofc in Phyfick, he 
hath little conduced unto the generality of our doArine. 
Liurnims /«i4ertBJ,by the lame Title led our cxpeSation 
into thoughts of great relief; whereby noiwithffanding 
A } wc 

To the %eader. 

'n\m^\ vuit 




we reaped no advantage •, it anfwering fcarce at all the 
promifc of the infcription. Nor perhaps (if it were yet 
extant) fliould we find any farther Afsiltance from that 
ancient piece of -^w^rfiy^pretending the fame Title. And 
therefore we are often conftrained to (land alone againft 
I the ftrength of opinion, and to meet the Goliah and Giant 
of Authority, with contemptible pibbles^and feeble ar- 1 
gumentSjdrawn from the fcrip and flcnder ftock of our, 
fclves. Nor have we indeed fcarce named any Author 
whole name we do not honour; and if detra(5tion could 
invite us, dilcretion furely- would contain us from any I 
derogatory intention j where higheft Pens and friendiell 
eloquence muft fail in commendation* 

And therefore alfo we cannot but hope the equitable! 
confidcrations , and candour of reafonable minds. We| 
cannot expert the frown of rheolo^ie hereiujuor can they 
which behold the prefent ftatc of things, and controver- 
fie of points fo long received in Divinity ^condemn our 
fober Enquiries in the doubtfuU appcrti nancies of Arts, 
and Rcceptarics of Philofophy . Surely Philologers and 
Critical Difcourfers, who look beyond the fliell and ob- * 
vious exteriours of things, will not be angry with our 
narrower explorations. And we cannot doubt^ our Bro. ; 
thers in Phyfick( whofe knowledge in Naturals will lead j 
them into a nearer apprehenfion of many things deli- 
vered ) will friendly accept, if not countenance our en- 
deavours. Nor can we conceive it may be unwelcome 
unto thofe honoured Worthies, who endeavour the ad- 
vancement of Learning: as being likely to find a clearer 
progression, when fo many rubs arc levelled, and many 
untruths taken off, which pafsing as principles with 
common beliefs , difturb the tranquility of Axioms , 
which otherwife might be raifed. And wife men cannot' 
but know,that arts and learning want this expurgation : 
and if the courfe of truth be permitted unto its felf j like ! 
that of time and uncorrected computations, it cannot 
efcape many errors, which duration ftill enlargeth. 


To the 


LalUy, wc arcnoi Magjllctial in opinions, nor bavc 
cDi^lcor-likeobcrudcd our conceptions ; but in [be 
uiuroihcy of Enc^uirics ordili^uilitions, baveonly pro- 
ofed them unto more ocuUf difccrners. And theretorc 
pinions 2re ^cCj and open it is for any to cbink or dc- 
larc the contrary. And we ftiall fo far encourage con- 
:tadiilion,as to promife no dillurbancc,or rc-oppofc any 
iPen, that (hall Fallacioufly or captioufly refute us \ that 
11 only lay hold of our fapfes, fingle out Digrellions, 
loioUarics, or Ornamental conceptions, to evidence his 
own in as indifferent truths. And (liall only take notice 
of fuch, whofe experimental and judicious knowledge 

II Diall folemnly look upon it; not only to dcftroy of ours, 
■but to ellablifli of his own; not to traduce or exteauaie, 
■but to explain and dilucidate, to add and ampliate, ac- 
cording to the laudable cuftom of the Ancients in theit 
fobcr promotions of Learning. Unto whom notwith- 
llanding, wefliil! notcontentioufly rejoin, or only to 
juftific our own, but to applaud or confirm his maturcr 
afTertions •■, and (ball confer what is in us unco his 
name and honour ; Ready to bcfwallowed in any wor- 
thy enlarger ■• as having acquired our end,if any way ,or 
under any name we may obtain a work, fo much delit- 
ed,and yet defiderated of Truth. 

Thomas BROW^f. 




Concaining the General part. 

OF thefirfi autfe of common Errors, the common infirmtj ofhamMne nature. 
Chapter i« 

Afartberillnfirdtionof the pome. chap. 2. 

Ofthefeconicdnfe offefuUr Errors Jthe erroneous^p.3. 

of the neerer cunfes of common errors both in the wifer and common fort ^ mifafpre^ 
henfion^fnlUcyorfdlfededuEHon^ credulity ^fttfinitj ^adherence tMto Antiquity, 
Tradition and Authority^ comained in the following Chapters. 

Ofmiftaki^ mifapprehenfion^ fallacy orfalfe deduHion. chap.4. 

of credulity and Jupinitj. chap. 5. 

Ofotftinate adherence uuto antiquity. chap. 6. 

Vnto Authority. chap. 7 . 

Of Authors who have mofi promoted popular conceits. chap.8 • 

Of others indireSly effeEting the fame. chap.9. 

Of the lafl and great promoter offalfe opinions ^the endeavours ofSatan^ c. i o, 1 1 . 

- - • — 


Begioing the particotar-part coDcerning Mineral and 

Vegetable bodies. 

THE common Tenent that Cryflall is nothing elfe but Ice firongly congealed. 
Chapter, i . 
Concerning the Loadjlone^ of things particularly fpoken thereof evidently or proba 

blytrue : of thinp generally ieUeved or particularly delivered evidently oi 

probably falfe. Ofthemagneticalvertneoftheearth. Of the four motions of 

theftone^ that is, its verticity or direfiion^ its coition or attraEIion, its decline 

tiou^ vuriation^andalfo of its tAntiquity. chap.2. 

A R^eRiou offundry opinions and relations thereof Natural, Medically Hi- 
^ fforiciU, Magicall. chap. 3 . 

Of bodies EUElrical iugeneralL 

of Jet and ^mber in particular^ that they attraH all light bodies, except Baftl, 
and bodies eyled. chap .4 . 

Compendioufly of fiveral other Tenents. 

That a Diamond is made foft,or brokf by the blood of a Goat* 

That glafsispoyfon, and of malleable glafs. 

Of the cordial quality of Gold in fub fiance or decoOion. 

Thai a potfutlofafbes will contain as much water as it would without them* 

Ofwhite powder that kills -without report. 

That Coral is fojt under water, Ifut hardneth in the ayr. . 




h%4> T«t,IU« I, CU.A i/i„l„Mj^,l„„mk4> lm*<Jjttn i. fr,f„^- 


i •"*/""«'"•'■ ■' 'ibii' 

of fiiodry Taxnrscnnuraiag VcgtuUei. 
Tfcx ikintt^ MA^irtkfJ rr/lmUML lh,/tf,^,mf. 

r»« it iiftlAl/ f idfftui f. ^; ik» «f 

TiAiCMim,Cinrir,cl,Kt,MMa^n In ikfmi irfrmif>iif4m Ha. 
Ohkl R>fi tfjma ii« jlnmtt nnrj jnr Mfi. ChnJIm^ F.a. 
TIlM SfrrrA t ndlti luctb « fn^r ta irtAk ir If/fin /rm. 
ThA, a A],, f„fn-j,frm lit miftUrftf t.i{tmAf mJ Tisikr. 
TbaUim iHmaiinifrifinBiviMAiaitflEhui!. cb>p.6. 

Of It, fr,f,g, ifihijur fnm >i( M^ai u ik. Jtfki. 

OftlirrAiuUHXtf tkt faf n tU nn. 
^lntCAwfliirecdmfiibimftttaejiuUiVMirji wttbmSMjttitrj. d»f,y. 

of popular and received Tcnents coocctoiag Ammils. 

TPUt M» EtfluM hMtb m fum/. QupW I. 

TiUf 4M tnrfi tutbtvCsIl. chap.a. 

TkstsPiganlutbMCMU. cbip.i. 

TkdtMSevtrittfedftibe bttrnttriitttrfhU ttfiifUj itffimiu dlltp.4. 

TLu M Baiitf kAtb ihe Ufi »f»nt^^nrr tbtm oftbt ttbtr. cblfL J . 

Th«t <f Bur hingifartb btr cmii ii^trmnu w mijbtfei. . dllp. 6. 

0/tbe S^fitisk, chap.7. 

Tifdt4 IVmlf jirfi fmmg4miii,hittJ ttdmUmfjimhim, dttp.8. 

Ofibt hmg iiftffDm: dttp. 9. 

Tbtt I* Kiniifi/irr tiMXfd tj tin iiUfirmtttwben tie wimi it. dup. I o. 

OfGryfhimt. cbap.n. 

oftbt Pbdmx. ^ " diap.i 2, 
Oftbt fifAni ifTiMbt'f ibijreae i« ibtir htdAitiU afthtlt>ierjoi$» ofFrotJX- 1 ] , 

TbMtMSdUwMiJtr livti in tbt fu-t. dtkp. 1 4, 

of til AmfbiibeMM,tr Serfnt -with twtbtjult m*viwl riiber mtj. chapb I J. 

Tbmjttm^Vtf*rif»rttlhorwMjthnMihtkiknHUsftbtirJjm- chap.tfi. 

Tint Hurt/ ire twfb nu*/( MtAftnuit. chip. 1 7- 

Tbdt JU«U/ *rt i/itJ omJ have m fjtt- dup. 1 8- 

TbiU Zjimfriei hni mn^ tjej. cblp.iy. 

Tk*iSmMyltb*vtrwitjn.»mAMibetait ^thdrhtrm. 

Tbtt the Cbsmlit' livn *mfj h '/''■ cbap. » t . 

TbMtih<Ofiritl£tJij^efittb Irw». ( 

ftbiXJmt$Ttub»rm. chap.l]. 

'iutdJijIiiimMitimtbtLadsrtiinbeir ifitduiibtStit. c'bapi24' 

CompeodionOy oflbmeotben. 
of tbt mm ft Mil nttt ef S wMtu btftre tbtir iimi. 
That ibtfieJitfl'iMoekj ttrrMfmb m. 
TlMitirk/miitntijtivtm^pitblkk/Mdfrtt Stmf- 

A TablfrofthcCohtents. 

of the mife efn Bittern by futting the till in 4 Seed. 
* TtfdtWhelpjareblindnifieAdjfcJ, Mid thin heiintaftt. 
,\*pfthfiintif4tbj'bti^ttintTMd4ndtiSfuUr\dl49ttti^aCot1(^'' - ■ 

ThMtMn B^rwighMi knowings. 

Of Worms. 

TfjMt Flui mdl^ethat hummmr jHtJi iythtir immht orwings. 

OftheTaif0firfwullte4.^ideXf^.,^^;.;. .,. , ^ ,. 

Of the Glowworm'.' 
OftheprtvidenceefPifmirttiniitingtff'thetnis'of'Ca-trt •■' ■ chaprftS. 

ThAtSni^sfiing^Ttithmmitlbtrt.]^ , chap.ifi. 

......XHE:.F.QmTR36ok^ ,[' ; '^ 

' . of many popular andTewvedTeaents concerning man. 

THdtmanbMhiHljdntreSifigure^HdthdtlolMl^tlfttheAveH. ChapMV l 
Thiit the heart ofm/in is feated en tbi ItftJUe. , . chap.2. 

'Tg»ftttriftesifiM},n^ie left fide. chap.j. 

of jht fourth finger of the left h*«d whereon we wetr our Rings. chlp.4. 

of tht right and left hand. ^ _ . _ ^ ^ cliap.5. 

of fwimming, that fame w»en jwim'ndturdUj, thai mtfidrowne^i ^oat theninth 
day when thtir.gall breaketh women prone and menfupim or upon iheir back^ c.6. 
That uieft wHghbtMvifr dead^kenialive,andtef»*e meat then after; ■ chap,/. 
That there are fcveral pafagej for meat and drinl^. chap.8. 

"Of ti>^ciiffome of fainting or blefstnguptnfaef'.ing: '-■' " '■ • cliap:9. 

That^Jcwsftini. ..i.w ,-. 

ofhimUs. , ., .,j, '■-.■-...., 

"vf'the'grtatClmWericalyear^th'ittu 6i. '* ' " ■ chap.t2. 

^fthtCanicMUrerDo^-'dajeyi"'^- ' -^ ■ '< ■ ■ . ■ ■ . thapaj. 

T^H^.pjfXH BOOK- ' •. • ■ 
- jOf many ibings^queftiooablc as.they arc defcfibrd in Piftures.-" 

^F the piFl we of the Pelican. Ctiaptcr't. 

~Of,tht.pi^MreofDi^hfnt. . . ■ '■ chap.2. 

■l^^ifMreofaGrafshepper. . . <;bap.3, 

the piBnre tfthe Serpent tempting Eve. 'chap,'4. 

dfiheft£li4reJ»T'i:>fdAmiuAFviT»(thN»vris.'"' ; ' -'' .'*'i.'- ■ • -\h^.5. 
Qf^()fpiBHrts of the lewtrndEafiern Nati^i a.^)eirferftr,sti^*iir ^avivmrM 
' thefalsovir. .*' . . . • 'chap.6. 

of the pin ure of our Saviour with long hair. •*^' '■ '«■*''■■ ■ '■ ■ chap.?.' 
t^jhtpi^nreofJbrahamSafrifidngJfaac.. * \ -■ ■' V- ctapi8. 
'' the pifiure if Mofes with horns. , . .■ ■ chap.9. 

'iheSsi4tchc!inii>f the twelve Tribes tflfrdtf. chip. 10. 

Of thepiclurej of the Sybils. ' '*' ■ -■ " ■■•,,■ ■ thapiIJ. 

"' ' ■" ' ' ■' ■ ■ ■ '■-• pijjp ,2; 

' cfiap.13. 

Q£(6f giSure dffcribii^ the fie^lf ofCleopatr/t. 
ofthiplRurtsofthtninewwthkj:*' ' "* ' 

OftheptliureofJephtthfacrifieinghisdaAgbur... . x chap 14. 

of the piEinre (if lohn the Baptifi^* Camels skin^.^.^ .. ., . . . . ch|p,^5. 

OfthepiBareoftheChrifioplMr. ' ' cliap'.l6. 

Ofthcpil}Mre6fS.Gtvgt. --'^ '■" ' ' ■"■ . chap. 1 7. 


A Table ot the Cootents. 

of tUe fiStn-etfletom. 



Compcndioufly of rnony poputir CuUams, Oinaii)Jis,Pidlircb 
^_i Priducsaod Ohfervuions. 

^H| 0/4)1 H4rt ereftiii^ thtbigh ntj. 

^n Of thtomMM-U »fftxr'tmi tfOTvli tthdRdvtni. 

^^ Of ihef^liii^ tfSslt. 

Of irf4kim^ iht £«-ja«//. 

of tbt trnt Uvn^itt. 
— H-- Oftht fl/itk. iMfiSi^ tr t^timlliit^ 

OffptiifK^ Mtuier thfR§ft. 

Of frnt^y^itUamiig iktfair. 

Of fmmitr^ft-lii'i. 

OfbAlf HfiH Mvlli. 

Of»i>e fn timref fsjri»g tfmmb. 

Ofljtni btjuL NjPM rpoKti mddfitna, 

Oftbifjjia^, ZJnjiirl ttaiUfi. 

Oftht fiilmrttfC»dihe Ftttber. 

Ofiht piSurt efSmm, Mmh, Ainitht Winls. 

Of the Suit ddntiit^ ■/■ Bitflcr d»j. 

Ofiht SiUy Htwtrcmn-ing^mfvHtchiUftmhuUt. 

Ofttin^ drnnh^ after ji mintk 
of tf*t 0ft4irtmi of tht devil iriih * (Lum Imif cbtp.ll. 

Of tbt p/rdiliism nf thtjtdr^tufuiitgfTtfn tiitimftSit m OiiJ^ f^plti. 

"tintt CtiUdrrn wt^ld nMMrsUj fftlk, Htbrr». 

of rtf rattling tt l^tt SwslUwi. 

Oflighti lutrianl Mmm sf the AffMrititMifffiriU, 

Oftht VfArittX »f Ctrdl. 

0/Mofcs kis R»d in iht difen>fry efMintt. 
Of difiivtrittg of dtniifnU mMttn Ij btol^ar ^4^, cti«p.2z. 





Concernuig fundry Teaeocs Geographtcall aad Hiftocicall. 

COnctrwH^tht (itiismtifcf ihtmrld^ tb4t the limt ihlfff it nt prtdfrij 
Ifwan, Aicttnmfnljit ufrefumtd. Chapter i. 

:pf tutus t^airJn iivk4t/e4fi'>fr p»i»t9j tht ZeJiiick^ltbef4H,llfta 4Jtkrj4rf 
', fcHtrdl/j mddt tifty vt M «<(■», itinJ <tf fArtitiiUrlj itxtrsMn. clup. 2 

Oflhl Mvi/tini af tht ft4fmt^ndf»itr iffMrtiritf tbtft4r, 4etcrdtnj_ umt ^Jhf 
mmtrj And Fbj/ttiAitsjhM tbt ctmnun eatnftut tf tht Atttttnti, mtid ithich u 
SillreiAiutd^ftmt, it vtry aHtfH«n4bii. cbsn }. 

OffrmtcsmfHiAtimtfdtjs^AMA^dmclUns tfsnt f4rt tftht jtAr Hitta «MtVr. 

(hap. 4. 
^DivrtftiM ojtbt wifdomtfCtdin tht fitCAttditKtianpfihrStui. chap.5. 

CtHcermiMV tht vittgAr tfiman^hta the t4rtbw*> fUnderlj ftsjUdhiftrt ihrflnd. 

OfE4p4>idiVtfi,4ndfnf<rriesrtfpt8ivtljiifetiMiUi*C*»iMritt. d»p-7' 
Of tbt ftvn btAdt of Ni/t. chap 8 . 

Ofthtf^rtMntfi ufNtti. 
of ill iitHMLuieH, Amd ctrtain limt thiraif. 



A Table of the Contents. 

That it never rainttb in ty£gjpt, &c. 

Of the Rid Sen. 

Of the b Incite fs ofTlegroes. - 

Of the fame. 

A digrefsi$nof Blacknefs. 


of [owe others. 

chap 8. 

chap. I o. 
chap. 1 1 . 
chap. 1 2. 
chap. 14. 






Concerning many hiftorial Tenents generally ^med,and fome 
deduced from the Hiftory of holy Scripture. 

THat the forbidden fruit rvns nn Apple. Chapter i ., 

That A Man hath one Rib left then a fVoman. chap. 2. 

That MethufeUh mufintcds be the Icmgeft liver of all the pojieritj ofAdamxh. 3 . 


chap. 5. 

chap. 6. 



chap. I o. 
chap. 1 1 . 
chap. 1 2. 
chap. 1 4. 
chap. 15. 

That there was no Rainbow before theflyod. 

OfSem , Ham and Japhet. 

That the Tower of Babel was ereHeddgainfl afecond Deluge. 

of the Mandrakes of Leah. 

of the thne Kings ofCollein. 

Of the food off ohn the Baptifl in the wilder nefs. 

of the conceit that John the Evangelijl fhould not die. 

Of fome others more briefly. 

Of the ceffation of Oracles. 

Of the death of Ariflotlt. 

Of the wi[h of Vhiloxenus to have the nesl^ofa Crane. 

Of the lakfAfphaltites^ or the dead Sea. 

Of divers other Relations. 

of the woman that conceived in a Bath. 
dfCraffus that never laughed but once* 
That our Saviour never laughed. 
OfSergius thefecond^or Bucca de Porco. 
That Tamerlane was a Scjthianfhepberd. 

Of divers others. 

Of the f9vertj ofSelifarius. 
Offintlus'Decumanus^rthe tenth wavo. 
Of Parifatis thatpojfoned Statinu by one fide of a knife. 
Of the woman fed with pojfon thatfijould have pojfoned Alexande 
Of the wandring few. . 

OfFner Bacons Br af en head that f poke, 
of Epicurus. 

More briefly. 

That the Armj of Xerxes drankjwhole Rivers dry. That Hdnibal eat through 
the Alps with Vinegar, f-if Archimedes his burning the Ships of Marcellus. 
of the Tabu that were all {lain. Of the death of tA^fchjlus. Of the Cities of 
Tarfus, and Anchiale built in one day. Of the great Ship Sjracufia or Alex • 
andria. Of the Spartan bojes. chap. 18. 

Of fome others. chap. 19. j 

I Of fome Relations whofe truth we fear. ^^ ^ chap.20. ^ 

chap. 1 6. 

chap. 17. 

Cmap. t. 
of tbt C^mffj ^ C9mn»» Errvf. 

iH E ffrft ar.ll fetlter raiirc of common Error, is the com- 
mon infirmity oftiumantr Nituri:-, of whofc dcccwiWc 
(Ofidnion, alrhouEh perlnjK tliere Ihould not necil any 
I'lhw cviiSion, tiicii ilic iVftjui-nE error* we (liall oor 
fcTvM (ommic , tvcn in the cspicf^ Jwlarcnicnt hia-cof 
Yet ftinll wc illuftracc the fame Itinn nmreintilllilili-con- 
(liturioru , and perftn* prefumcdii* thr i'tom it»m condi- 
tion , AS time, that is our tir(l and ingcnerated turc-fa.- 
tilers. Frum wbom as we derive ijar bong , and the 
lU wonndsof conflinition-. fomay wc mlnnictnanncr csajfeolirin (it"!::!- 
iHchcde;*ravic\*o!' ibcfr part*, wliofc traduiSions wen pure in iftem , and 
irongiimb butonte rem»rted ftonitiod. Wl«ii>iitwitliflanding(if pol^iry 
my take leave to jtulgcot die lad, ai tliey srcaiTurcdivi fiifftt in the pnnifii- 
K ) were grolly detnvcd in tficir peritftioo ; nnd (6 weaJdy ddadcd in 
dariry of tbeir underftanding, ttist it hath left no fnull obfturiiy in cars, 
c crrnr llwuld gain iii>on ihriD. 

Vor rirtl, Tliey ftcrc detcivfti by Satan ^ and that noiih an invijible intintui- 
hut an open anddiftovcrablcap(iarition, tliatl*, inthcftirtnof a Serpent . 
'hcccby ilthougli iben: were niany occafionsof fuljiiuon, and liiih as could not 
fcapc a weaker orcamfpcftion, ycr did the unwary apprehcnJion of £vi 
J advanagc thereof. It bath thertfrire fccmtd jlrai^ untolbmc, fhc 
llicddudedbya Serpent , or fubjcd her reaGin ti> a bcail, which God had 
teduniobers. it tiathcmpuzMledthecmiuiricioiothcrsEoappirchcnd^nd 
enforced tlietn unto ltrani;c conceptions, to makf out, how without teat or doiibt 
fhecoulddiftourfcwitlilutbacrcature, or hear a serpem fpeak, without (iifpi- 
tion of iinporture. TliewiHof others, havcbecn fo hold m to accufc her (inipii- 
city in rt'ccivinghrtienipcauon lb coldly- and when ludifpccious cHeiSsof thr 
fruit were (VfHnifcd, as to awtkcthcm like gods -, not to dcfircat leaft not to won- 
der he purlued not that benchthiinfdf- And had it been their uwn cafe wouM 
perhaps have replied, If rhc talle of this fruit raaketh the caters KKc godt, why 
remaineiidiouabeaft? If it niakeihus but likcgod),wc3rcfo already. If Urere- 
by our eyes flittll be opened hereafter , they arc at prcfent qmck enough lo dif- 
cover tbf dcctic , andweddircthem no opener to oehold our own (hflinp. If to 
fcnotrgoodaodevilbeouradvancagc, alcboogb wchavc treewiUunoboth, wc 
C dcJirc 

f'ai liii'piue. 
hom our firiL 
parent* touM 
be ia Jcect- 

inquiries into Fulmar 

Book I. 


Adam fuppof- 
cd by (omt to 
have been the 
wifeft man 
diac ever was. 

Adum and 
Eve bow they 


, J 

Adam whence 
(probably) in- 
duced to eat. 


Hiiaher Cain 
Intenced lo 

ikiU /. 

defire to perform but one ; we know 'tis good to obey the Commandment of 
God, butcvilifwetranfgrefsit. 

They were deceived by one another, and in the greateft difad vantage of delufion^ 
that is, the flrongerby the weaker : For £w prefented thcfruit, ^ndjisUmr^' 
ceived it from her. Thus the Serpent was cunning enough to begin the deceit in 
the weaker ^ and the weaker' of forength fufficienc to confummate the iraud in 
the flronger. Art and fallicy was ufed unto her , a naked offer proved futiicient 
unto him: So hisfupeftruftion was his ruine, and the fertility of his fleep, an 
iffue of death unto him. And although the condition of fex and poftcriority of i 
creation might fomewliat extenuate the error of the woman: Yet was it very { 
ftrange and inexculable in the man ^ efpecially, if as fome affirm, he was the wifelt j 
of all men fince ; or if as others have conceived, he was not ignorant of the fall ol 
the Angels, and had thereby example and punilhment to deter him. 

They were deceived from themfelves, and their own apprehenfions ^ for Eve 
either miftook or traduced the Commandment of God. Of every tree of the 
garden thou mayeft freely eat, but of the tree of knowledge of good and evil thou 
(halt not ear, for in the day thou cateil thereof, thou (hall furely die. Now Eve 
upon the queftion of the Serpent returned the precept in different terms ; \ ou I 
(hall not eat of it, neither (hall you touch it, left perhaps you die. In which 
delivery, there were no iefs then two miftakes, or rather additional mendacities ^ 
for the Commandment forbad not the touch of the fruit, and pontively faidye 
(hall furely die ^ but (he extenuating, replied , ne forte moriumfu^ left perhaps ye 
die. lor fo in the vulgar tranflation it runneth, and fo is it expre(red in the Thar- 
gum or Paraphrafe oifonathan. And therefore although it be faid, and that very 
truly, that the Devil was a liar from the beginning, yet was the woman herein 
the hrft cxprefs beginner : and falfified twice before the reply of Satan. And 
therefore aJfo to fpeak ftri Aly , the lin of the fruit was not the firft olbnce : They 
firft cranfgre(red the rule of their own reafon,and after,the Commandment of God\ 

They were deceived through the conduA of their fenfes, and by temptations 
from the objcft itfelf ; Whereby afthough their intelleduals had not failed in the 
theory ot truth, yet did the iniervient and brutal faculties controle the fuggeiti- 
on of reafon : Pleafure and profit already ovcrfwaying the inftrudions of ho- 
neft)' and, fenfualicy perturbing the reafonable commands of vertue. } or fo is 
it delivered in the text: That when the woman faw that the tree was good for 
food, and that it was pleafant unto the eye , and a tree to be defired to make one 
wife, (he took of the fruit thereof and did eat. Now hereby itappearech, that 
Eve before the fall, was by the fame and beaten way of^ allurements inveigled , 
whereby her pofterity hath been deluded ever fince •, that is, thofe tree delivered 
by Saint ^ohn^ the luft of the fle(h, the luft of the eye , and the pride of hie : 
Wherein indeed they fecmed as weakly to fail, as their debilitated pofterity, ever 
after. Whereof notwithflanding fome in their imperfeftions, have relifted more 
powerful! temptations ^ and in many moralities condemned the facility of thcu: 

Again, They might for ought we know^ be ftill deceived in the unbelief of 
their mortality, even after they had eat of the fi-ui t. For Eve obferving no im . 
mediate execution of the curfe, (he delivered the fruit unto Adam : Who after 
the tafte thereof, perceiving himfclf ftill to live, might yet remain in doubt , 
whether he had incurred death-, which perhaps he did not indubitably believe, 
untill he was after convided in the vifible example of AbeL For he that would 
not believe the menace of God at firft , it may be doubted whether before an 
ocular example, he beleived the curfe at laft. And therefore they are not without 
all reafon, who have difputed the fad of Cain^ that is, although he purpofed to , 
mifchicf, whether he intended to murthcr his brother ; or defigncd that, where- 
of he had not beheld an example in his own kind. There might be fome-what ; 

in I 

I, B ■ 1. 'lid C§mm«» £ x x o r i . | 

bfCibatbewooldnoi fnvcdonCt or desired undone, wbenhebrAkt fonh »i 

'crperu<ly,£ibdorchc ItadtloneunctviUy ; My iiifuity » grrAW /hn esa te \ 

wrgiprvmt- j 

Some nic«i« T confel* ibcrc are wliicli cxtcnnatc, bur nunvmoKtlaugnTn- 1 

his. mtun ilid not cquivalttice the lutiiicy ui tier ii.-Uuct;on , wrc tluil rcter >c 
itotfie Schoolman. Wbcclicr chcrc wiunorin fiff niireat inj'ulHceindttftv- 
iag lier Iitubantl , asmtprudcnceui berngdctnvcd berfclf. crivtiiillv liioieMi:- 
ingtlicfruit , hercye«wciet'(»cju:dlx-i'orehi* , and (In? ' 
forcbetaftcd of it , we leave it onto the MoraliK Wl' 
bcnot AHcgoritiil, tfiacis, whcthertlietempcauonot c'l ■ ■ i.. 

iiO€ilKfeduAion')t*thcraiiofiti, and bighcr ports, by ihi: intcnum .inilfoit.;;i(«: 
tarulrics : Or whether the tree in tbc mulll of the garJeo, were not that pwt in the 
center of tbc body, on which was aftcnvonl tlit appointment of circumcifioo in 
we leave it unto tbc ThjtmuMfi. Wbclbcrthcrc wcreanypubcy mibc 
Idevil totcmpctheinbcibrcthcconjundion. or wbctbcrtbciffuebcfijcetenwcion 
■Qight in juilire luve furfcred with ihofc after, welcatcitunto the Lawj'cr, 
Whetlier jld^pt fwekncw the adtenc of Gtrill, w the Tepantion of bis error by 
bitSaviuurj howthe eiecucioaof thecurfclhouldbavc been urdcrcj, if after 
f-Tf had eaten. --(liMB had yet reliifcd. Whcilier if they had tilled (he tfce of 
lilebetoietbaiofgooj and e^il, tlicy had yet fuficred tfic curie of murialtiy 
or whciber the clficacy of (fwttnc bad not over -powered die pcrulcy of the other , 
we leave it uuio Ood. Kor he aloiKcan rruly dctcrnunc ihdc and all things die j 
Whoxs he hath propofed the world unto oitrdifputaiion, To h«th he r<f(crvrd ma- 
ny thingt unto his own rcfolution; whole daermuuttons we ciukhk hope h-om 
flcOi , but mull with reverence fufpcod unto that grcit day , whole ju(bcc QuU 
ailter condemn our curiofiiici, or rcfolvc our difiiuifitions, 

Laflly, Man was not ooly dccdTcable in his integricy, but (be Angcb ofligbi in 
oil tbctr clarit)'. He thu bid be would belike luc liighcA , did err, ifinfoinc 
way be conceived nothttnfell'fo alcexdv; but inaticmptingfohighuncffed from 
Umfclf^ be mif-nnderUood the nature of God, and hdd i ialfe appreheolion o£ his 
owoi whereby vainly ancmpung not only inlbleacici, butimpolGb<liiict, bede- 
ceived bimfelf OS low a^ bdl. In brief, there is nothing infallible but God, who 
cannot poffiblc err. Foriliingiarc rcallytnicasil)cy corrcfpond unto tuicon- 
ception -, and have fo much verity, ai ihcy hold of contbrmity unto that tntet- 
lea, in whufc Idd they had their tirli dctcrminaiioiu. And ihcrcrore being the 
role, he annot be irregular -, nor being tratb it fdf, coaceirably adma tbe ud- 
poiliblefocieiy of error. 

T»< Tit 

4 [V, A!'. 

Chap. II. 
AfnrtkriUn^tiion efthefsmti 

BEingthiifddiided before thcfstt, ittsnowouterif their conceptioat were 
decatfuU, and could fcarcefpak without an error after. For what is very 
remarkable ( and no man I know bath yet obferved ) in the rdaboo of Scripture 
bdbrciheflood, there is but otKfpeeiDddivefed by man, wherein there If not 
an errotDuns conception -, and flriAly examinfll, moll hainouny in jnrious unto 
tnub. Tbe pen of Mvfii is brief in che account beibre the flood, axid tbe Ipcecbei 
Torordcdare fix. 

C2 The 

Emjtiiries into Vulgar 



i The firft is that ot Adam^ when upon the expofiulacion ot'God, he rcj^licd ^ I 
I heard thy vocie in the garden, and bccaufe I was naked, 1 hid my felf. In which 
reply, there was inchidcd a very grofs miftake, and it' with mainiaincd, 
a nigh and capital error. Vor thinking by this retirement to obfcuie Iiimfclf 
from God, he infringed the omnifcicncy and effential ubiquity ot his Maker. Who 
as he created all things, io is he beyond and in them all, not only in power, as un- 
der his fub jeftion, o:* in his prefence, as being in his cognition, but in his very Ef- 
fence,as being the foii! of their caufalities, and the eflcntiall caufeof their exillcn- 
cies. Certainly, his pofterity at thisdiflance and after fo perpetuated an injpair- 
ment,cannot but condemn tlie poverty of his conception, that thought to oblturc 
himfelf from his Creator in the (hade of the garden, who had beheld him before 
in the darknefs of his Chaos, and the great obfcurity of nothing • That ihour,lit to 
flie from God,which could not flie himfelf, or imagined that one tree fliould con- 
ceal his nakednefs from Gods eye,as another had revealed it unto his own. Thofe 
tormented fpirits that wifli the mountains to cover them, ha^e fallen upon de::res 
of minor abfurdity,and chofen waies of lefs improbable concealment. Though this 
be alfo as ridiculous unto reafon, as fruitlefs unto their defires ; tor he that laid the 
foundations of the earth,cannot be excluded the fecrecy of the mountains-nor can 
there any thing efcape tlie perfpicacity of thofe eyes which were before Hght, and 
in whofe opticks there is no opacity. 1 his is the confolation of. all good men, unto 
whom his ubiquity afTordeth continual comfort and lecuhty : And this is the ar- 
fliftion of hell,unto whom it affordeth difpair,and remedilels calamity. 1 or thofe 
reftlefs fpirits that flie the face of the Almighty, being deprived the fruition of 
his eye, would alfo avoid the extent of his hand ^ which being impofli We,their fuf- 
ferings aredefperate, and their affliftions without m'fif.on^ untill thej^ can get out 
of Trifmegifiw his circle, that i«s, ro.>vrona their wings above the univerfe, and 

pitch V»cy*»nJ nKi<i\iity. 

The lecond is that fpeech oiAdam unto God •, The woman whom thou gaveft 
! to be with me, (lie gave me of the Tree, and I did cat. This indeed was an un- 

Thcfin of/f' 
dam an J Eve 
Icfs cxcufable, 
and why ? 


fatisfeftory reply, and therein was involved a very impious error, as implying 
God the Author of tin, and accufing his Vaker of his tranfgrcflion. As if he had 
faid. If thou hadft not given me a woman 1 had not been deceived : Thou promi- 
fedll: to make her a help,but (he hath proved diilruftion unto me : Had I remained 
alone,I had not finned,but thou gavell me a confort,and fo 1 became feduced. This 1 
wasaboldandopenaccufationofGod, making the fountain of good the contri- 
ver of evil,and the forbidder of the crime an abetter of the taft prohibited. Surely 
his mercy was great that did not revenge the impeachment of liis juftice ^ And his 
goodnefs to be admired, that it refuted not his argument in the puniflim jut of his 
excufation, or only purfuedthe firll tranfgrellion without a penalty of this the 

The third was that of Eve •, The Serpent beguiled rrc, and I did ear. In which 
reply there was not only a very feeble extufe, but an erroneous trar.flatingher 
own offence upon another. Extenuating her liri from that which wr.s an I'.ggra- 
vation, that is to excufe the faft at all, much more upon th.c fuggeftion of a beaft, 
which was before in the ftrifteft terms prohibited by her God. lor althougli \vc 
now do Iiope the mercies'of God will confider our degenerated integrities unto 
fome minoration of our offences, yet had not the (mcerity of our firit j arents, lb 
colourable cxpcftations, unto whom the commandment was but i-nple, and their 
integrities belt able to relift ciic motions of its tranfgretlion. yVnd therefore fo hei- 
nous conceptions have rifen hercof,tIiat fome liave feemed more a^igry th.crewith, 
then God himfelf: Being fo exafpcrated with tlie offence/ds to call in qucllion their . 
(alvation, and to difpute the eternal punifhment of their Maker. Afluredly with j 
better reafon may pofterity accufc them, then they the Serpent, or one another ^ 
andthediljpleafureof the Pr/zi^w;!;/ nnift needs be irreconcilable who pereinpto- 


holy Script«nc, and tficy bi>tli i'ornimdiT, 
fijrC1iriftwajmTfHr.illy (lainioyfir/, an.; 
bisdc3tl!a*wdtasJ'W*u, biitchcfin had .^ 
bad aa )'irJ4f , ioi mod tJiat Rncc [tave fallen liiLn ■[ , for ihcy like /^Xj^dd^rc 
dttKb,andni)t untTcijucntly purfuf It : C«« on the contrary grew afrsid thcic- 
pr, and obtained a fccuremcnr t'rooi ir. AiTnredly il hu dcfpair continued, there 
was ponifliment enough in life , aod Jtifliccfufficioit mthc men:^- of lio prnir- 
ftion. VoriLc tifrof thi:de(«<qoaljtlw.inxi«i«of deaths who inuortf- 
fiint inquietudes bur aft tin; lite df the damned, and antidpatc the dcfolacioas of 
Hell. T"is indeed .1 (in in man, biil a [mniflimcnt ooely in DcvuU, who oflend 
not Gild bur alfliift rbemfelvci, in thf apjwinted defpair of his mercies. AJidas to 
bewiihtiGi all hope it the aiRiiHion mrhedamned, fo i»it thehappinds of the 
blefTol ^ whdlmvingrheircspcftationiprcftM, areoof diHraAfdwiihruturititt- 
So is it ,il|i) thrirfdiarytoravc no f-aith - for enjoying the bwiitical vifion, 
ibcrcii nothing unto tbcmincvidcnti and in ihcfhiidon of tlic ob/eftofraith, 
they have received Ebtfi'iiUcvaruanonii' it. 

The hA fptrth waj tliai of Lgmtch, I have fliin a man to my wound, *ni a 
young man to my hurt : !f CmVbc avenged fcen fold, ifuly L*mefU fevcnty and 
fcren fold. Now heixin there fctsnsto be s \cry trrencotislihtion ; frnm the in- 
dalgcnctfofGodnnroC.««,con[|udir.ganinimunity unio liunfclf, thati*, arc- 
Caaffprotcttionfromarjneleesainpk, and an eicmption irojn punifhrnentin a 
niS [hat nauirally dcfcHi-ed ir. ThcF.rmr r- •'■'.■"""' ■-n-j% ctmtraiT to that 
*>f Cot, whom the firfWin/ conceive tha: / . >;il!fd- He defprtir- 

ed of God> mrrt ',■ in the fanic FaA, where : ; he bv a decollation 

t)f all tiflpeanndiitiui-d his mercy , this by i.. -.- , lucreot ddboycJ his 

Jitftice. Tbooghthe fin were lc(s, the error was as great, lor a ii it ontruc 
cfaac his iBCrcy will not foe give offenders, Or liis benignity co-Dpente to theit con- 

verlions ; 

Ariumcntt of 
fenStlvc qui- 
jltymoft pre- 
vailing l>|M)R 
vulgar capa- 

Bn^riis intt Vitlg*r 

Book I, 

voiioos i So is ic alfo of no teft falficy ro affirm his juftice will not exad account 
ofJinners, orpuoilhfuchas continue in their tranfgreflions. 

Thus may we perceive, how weakly our fathers did err before the Floud , bow 
continually and upon common difcourfethey fell upon errors after, itiscbere- 
icve no wonder we have been erroneous ever lince: And being now at greatcft 
di^ncc from the beginning of error, arealmoft loftinitsdiflcmination, whole 
waiesareboundlels, aadconfclsnedrcumfcription. 

Chap. III. 
of the fect/id C4fife tf ftfuUr Errtri ^ the errmttmdt^t- 
fi$n cf the fettle. 

HAving thus declared the ^lltble nature of man even firom his lirft produdi- 
on, we have beheld the general cauie of error. But as for popular errors, 
they are more neerly founded upon an erroneous inclination of the people -, as 
being the moft decepcable part of mankind , and ready with open arms to receive 
the encroachments of error. Which condition of theirs although deduceable 
from many grounds , yetfliallwe evidence itbut from a finr, andfucbasoK^ 
neerly and undeniable declare their natures. 

How imequal difcerners of truth they are, and openly expofed unto error, will 
firfl appear from their unqualified intelleiftuals , unable to umpire the difficulty 
of its dmentions. For error, co fpeak largely, tsa fiilfc jadgemcnt of things, or an 
tfTentunto fedfity. Now whether the obieftwbereuiitotTicy deliver up their af- 
ient be true or falfe , they are incompetent judge*. 

For the alTured truth of thing* i» •iaiycO. from the principlesof knowledge 
and caufc* vtUvI' at^iuuiuic ilicir verities. Whereof their uncultivated underftand- 
ings, fcarceboldingany theory,theyarebutbaddifcerncrsofverityi andinthc 
noaierous track of error, but cafually do hit the point and unity of truth. 

Their underftandingisfofeebleinthedifcernmentoffalfidcs, and averting the 
errors of reafon,that it fubmitteth unto the fallacies of fenfe,and is unable to reAi- 
fie the error of its fenfacions. Thus the greater part of mankind having but one 
eye of feofe and reafon , conceive the earths bigger tbentheSun, thelited 
Stars lefTer then the Moon, their figures plain, and their fpacesfi'om earth equi- 
difiant. For thus their fenie infbrmeth them, and herein their reafon cannot rcAi- 
iie them -, and therefore hopdefly continuing in miftakes, they live and die in their 
abfurditieSj palling their dayes in perverted apprehetilions, andconcepdonsof 
the world , derogatory unto God , and the wifdom of the creation. 

Again being To illiterate in the point of intelleA, and their fenfe fo tncorreded , 
they are farther indifpofed ever to attain unto truth, as commonly proceeding in 
tbofe wayes , which have moft reference unto fenfe, and wherein tncre lycth moft 
notable and popular ddufion. 

For being unable to weild the intellcAual arms of reafon, they are 6un to be- 
take themfelves untowaftcTs and the blunter weapons of truth -, aficdingthe 
grofs and fenfible waiesof doiftrlne , and fuchaswill not conlift with (Irid and 
fabcilc reafon. Thus unto them a piece of Rhetorick is a fufficient argument of 
Logick, an Apologue of ty£fif^ beyond a Syllogifm in £«r^«r4 ^ parables then 
nvpofitions, ancTproverbs more powerfiill then demonflrations. And there- 
fore are they led rather by example , then precept i receiving pcrfwalions from 
vifible inducements , before intelleftual inftrudions. And therefore alfo they 
judgeof humane adions by the event J for being uncapable of operable cir- 
cumftances, oriightlyto ;udge thcprudendaUtyofafturs, they only gaze upon 
thevifible fuccds, and ther^ter condemn or cry up the whole progreiTion- 


Boos I. 

tnd Ctmmf. 

MnJ fo fT»rnrh»ctrwifH!intl>e!.oftvti; of ' 

r sppr 'ItOTToiB 

ihardlyb. ,l .... 
r unco ijtid bui nu-i 



Inbritf , » rKiprocarion , or nthcr an Invcrdon oi" ttic C.r^ n 
^^ Jod one way, a? lie madcui another -, iliw i«, after our Iina^.j. .i : .■ 

Moreover, their undcrflanding ibm weak in it felf , and perverted by fcnfibk : 
dflurivi-.^ . I- \«lHrthcr inipaited by ibe dominion of dieir app?titet rhiiiiv , , 
J brunl pare of die foul, which lording it over the fovirapn 
,Ts the anions of that noble part , uid choak* tlioiV r;; ;. 
/.i-iw bach left thaiiof ical'on. And tbcicforc they d>' m r .. i 
Iwariii \\-]i\\ cri\>r» , but vice* depending dicrron. Thu? ilicy comiH' ■ ■ 
wimanany l^[bcrthenl>cddern hurcsfon, or cotnpliwwit'iibciral l 
Hcntc ibcy inibratc not vei'uic fur it fcif, bur its rtrwatJ ^ and cL:.. 
from pleal'urc iir uulity n far [nnrc [viwcrtliH , then that froin verroou* iinncliy ; i 
WbitU Af-ih^mrr nnd hiseontrivcr* well iirdtrrflood , wbcnbeftt out thr felicity 1 
tf hii iieiivcii , by tltcwntcncmcnuofflcllj, andtbe drligbtsof knfr : (lightly} 
paflingovcr cbc aicoinpltOuuct;t of tbc foul , and thebeaniude of that part' 
which artb and vilibilitiCF too weakly affcd. But tlfc wiH'jm of our Sa- 
Yiour, and tlic (implicit)- oi" his trutn proceeded ant*ilter way-, defy'ing the 
JMipiiUr rrovtfions of happinef? from fcnGWc nrpeftattons j piating b.a feli- 
city in ilnngt removed irotn feiie, anj the intellcrtual enjoyment of Uod. 
And tbcftfote the doCtriiKof the one was neNcr afraid of Univerfinci., or en- 
deavoured tbcbanifluiieiiiof Jeirning like ibeoibcr. And thoagh C"ii/rt» dorb 
fcmctimembblcat j</*/fi , and beTdc llic Apnftate Clirftian , fome Heathens 
have i|'jcftioncd Iii* I'mlofopliicai part or trtjty nf thcCrcation : Vei is tbcrc 
ifitrdy no realoiKible /U^wh , that wi'l not adtnirc the rationall and well ground- 
ed prcccpcs: of drift -, wk>fe life, a* it Vftu confiinnable unto hiidoAnne, ih 
iVM ihat unto the highrA nilei of twfon ■, tind mull therefore flourifti in the 
advoDCEntntt of Icaniiug, and (he perfirftion of parts heft able to compre- 
ibend it. 

A(iain, Their individual imperfcfiiPn* bring great , they arc nitn-e over cn- 
larecdby ibeir oMregation , atld bang erroneous in their iTrgltniiiitbcis once 
imdledtoKthrr, they will bccrror it leS For bcinga tonftifionfif i^navrtand 
fimU, anda farraginous concurrwKc of all rondioow, temper*, fes, and ago •, 
it isbm inLuri] if tbdr detcrmiirations be monftroui , and many waies incon- 
fiflent With tnjrb. .^ndtbcrcroic wile men have atwaie* applauded tlieir own i 
fudgctnenr, inrbc contradiftmn of thatof the people-, and tbcir fobereft ad- 
Tcr&ric, bavccvcralFotdrd tliemthclWcof fiwHand madmen ; andtofprak 
impartiallyj ihcir aiSions ha\e often made good thcCtS^tltUfj. Hadortjht 
heea Judge , be would nfit have arquittcd eliar f.jjlrian rabble of roaJnels , 
whonpna aviiiblctniracle, fatlmg into lb high a conceit of /*<»/ nni\ /iarKoi^K , 
tbatthn'icniwdcheiiiie^jifitn'', the other AfrrcMi-itu -, chat tbcy bniught o»pn 
and garundt , and were hardly rcAnincd ftotn facriticmc tinro tticm -, did not- 
toitblbmling fnddetdy after fiillDpon /'•>«/, and having iloncd him, drew him 



Enqairits into Vulgtir 

Book I. 

I for dead out uf tlie cicv. It miglit have liazarded the Hdes or Dimocritw^ bad - 
hebeen prelenr ac that t'imulc of />ff»mM ^ when the people flocxing roge-' 
ther in great numbers, feme cryed one thing, and fome another, and the affein- 
bly wai confufcd, and the moft pare knew not wherefore they were come toge-' 
ther 1 notwithftanding, all with one voice for the fpaceof two hours cricdouc,' 
great is Diana of the Ephefiant. It had overcome the patience of foh^ as it did ] 
uiemeeknefs of Mofa, and would furcly havcmaftercd any, but the longaoi- 1 
cnicy and lading fufferance of God : Had ihcy beheld the mutiny in the wil- , 
dernefs, when after ten great miracles in £5;^^^, and fome in the lame place, they, 
melted down their ftoin ear-rings intoacalt , and monflrouny cried out ; Thcfe 
arc thy gods O Ifrael, that brought ihecoutof thelandcf i'^^^/. Iimuchac-, 
cufeththe impatiencie of Pcur, who could not endure theftavesof themulti-; 
tude, and is the grcatell example of lenity in our Saviour, when he dcfired of 
God forgivencfs unto thofe, who having one day brought him into the City in ■ 
triumph, did prefently after, aft all diihonour upon hjii,, and nothing could 
be heard but Crucifige in their courts. Certainly hi Jiat conlidereth thefe 
things in Gods peculiar people , wiUealily difcernho'u little of truth thereisin! 
thewaiesof the multitude ; andihough fomciimes they are flattered with that i 
Aphorifm , will liardly believe the voice of the people to be the voice of 1 
God. { 

Lallly, Being thus devided from truth in themfclvcs, they are yet farther re- 
moved by advenient deception. Fortrueitis (andlhope Ihallnotoflendclieir I 
vulgarities, ) ifl fay they are daily mocked into error by fubtlcr devifors, and! 
havebe;n exprelly deluded, by all prorbllions and ages. Thus the Pritfls of 
Eldertime. have put upon them many incredible conceits, not only deluding 
their apprehenlions with Ariolaiion, South-faying, and fuch obJiquc Idolatries j | 
but winning their credulities unto the literal and down-right adorcment of Cats ; 
Lixzards, and Beetles. And thus alfoin fome ChrilUan Churches, wherein is 
prefumcdanirreprovable truth, if all bctruethatis fufpefted, or half whatis' 
related, there have not wanted many ftrangedeceptions , and fome thereof are I 
ftill couicffed by the name of pious frauds. Thus Thendus an Impoflor was ! 
able to lead away four thoufand into the wildernels, and the ddufions of M^\ 
batntt almoft the fourth part of mankinde. Thus all herdies, how grofs focver, j 
have found a welcome with the peojrfe. Tor thus, many of the J«ws were 1 
wrought into belief, iti^i Hcr6d^N^sx.h.z Meffias ., zad. David George oi Lejdm' 
zni Anirn, were not without a party amongft the people, who maintainetl the * 
fame opinion of tlicmfclvesalmoUinourdaics. I 

Phytitians ( many at leaft that make profelTion thereof^ befidc divers Idi' 
diftoverablewaiesof fraud, have made them believe, there is the book of 6te I 
or the power of Aaranj brclVpIate in Urines, And therefore hereunto they j 
have rccourfe, as unco the Oracle of life, the great determinator of virginity , ' 
conception, fertility, and the infcrurable iniirmities of thewholebody. Foras^ 
though there were a feminality in Urine, or that like the feed it carried with it ! 

■ the Idea of every part , tliey fooliftily conceive, we vifibly behold therein the ' 
Anatomy of every particle , and can thereby indigitate their difeafes : And i 

■ running into any demands, exped from usa fuddcn refoluiion in things, whereon \ 
the Devil of Dtlphas would demurr j and we know hath taken refpite of fome ' 

1 daiestoanfwercafierquefKons. 

I Saitimhancoes, Qnack^ahfri^ lad Charlatans, deceive them in lower d^ees, i 
CM in re- Were *.y£fip alive, the Piaz.KA and Pont-Ntuf could not but fpeak their fidlacies ; ! 
jndP«Ji, mean while there arc too many, whofe cries cannot conceal clicirmifchicf. Fori 
Mhere Moun- ; ^^^^ injpofturcs arc full of cruelty, and worfe then any other -, deluding not '■ 
only uuo pecuniary defraudations , but the irreparable deceit of death. I 

Afiralogeri^ wtuch pretend cobeof CakaU with the fiars (fucb Imeaoas' 
. abule i 

The Auifiers 
etnfurf itpon 

ihelc prinkii 

^B o o K I. dwd CtmtHM E F K o n t . i 

abuft that worthy eivqairy ; ,! i»avc notb«n v. ■ , ! i ptinrK. WW 

Imvir.gwijoiulicir belicfunco pnnupk-* whcu ■ u dtiubirlMtn- 

fclvn, hAve made tbem believe that arbiimv .■. — '.. U.,-. , liave nntrtiicy | 
catil'et Above; whereupon ilvcir acdulitiei xlfcnt iiniu nny (Ho^^DDickSi and 
daily fwallow tbe prcditftiota of men , which conrtdcnnc ilic indi-pendpncie ot' 
their caulcf, and concingCDcic in tlinr evenu , itt only in inc prdncnce of God. I 
Jortune-tcllcrt, Jugler*, Ccoinfiturtfrs , and the like inc4ntiiK»y inipoftwi,! 

mtghcDintnonly nicDot tnleriour rank, and from whom inthoui tlluininotionl 

dih' cancxpc^no iimte then Iroai tliemJelvcs, do daily indproMIi»lly4ciude' 
tbetn. Itrtto whom ( what is dcplorabli: m men and QinliiAns ) too many 
applying ihcmfelvc* ; bcrwiit jcftandeamdV, betray tbccatil'c of trmh,and in* 
loiiibiy iiiiic >ip the legionary body of error. 
Suulfh and Po/iMini/, unto whom /f-ajism li' Srdtt, is the firA confiiierable, 
tboagh iiwcrc tbeir bolinels lu deceive tt'.c people, as a uiisiiDC, do hold, 
HC mjclnstobccontealrd iwm than,, unto wbom althouph they reveal tbe 
viCble dclign, ycc do tbcy comraonljt concenl the caniral imennon. And thctc- 
^rebave tlicycvcf been the inilnimenK of great dd'gns, yet fcldam cndcr- 
flood il>e true intcoikin f»f any ^ accomplifliinf; the drifii of wifcr heads , as ina- 
oiotiteaiMli^Doraot Agcnti, the general ddtgn of the wrirld-, who though in 
rooie ladiuoeuffcnfe, and in a natural togmnon perform tiKir proper lAlom, 
yet do ibey imknowtngly concurr unto higher ctnls, and blindly advance the 
grcKiiXentionot'Naturc. Nowtiow&c tbey may be kept la ignoranre, a great 
ipte there is in the people of Xamr, wtui never kocw the crae and proper 
: of their own City. Vor befide that cninmoo appcllatitwi received by the 
Cqzciu, it hsda proper and fecret name citncealed frotnthem: Cmjm Mhrrmm 
fttrntH iii£irt ftcrrtis CrrtntomArMtn ntfM h^irtKr , faitli PJmir <, left the naoK 
cfaereof being difcovered unto their cneniks, dmr PiMUt andPatronal Godj, 
"it becillcd forth bycharnaand incaoottioos. For according unto ihetradi- 
innof AtAeUtMii, [be tutelary fpiritt will not tcmovc atrommonappdlaotiiiv, 
bQcatiln: prop:r namo of thine* wbereanto they are protectors. 

Thu* having been deceived t»y tbemfiH vcj, and continually deluded by othert, 
they mull nced^i be Ihitfxi with crron, and even over-ran with tlicfe inlmoui 
fiUSicv ; wlureunin whofoever (haU rdign their reafons , cither (ram the 
lootofdcicii in thcmfelvo, or inability to reHH fuch trivial ingannatioos from 
otbers, although thor condition and fbrtancs maypbcc them many Spheres above 
ihe multitude-, ye: are they (till within die lineof vulgarity, and Democracical, 
of ChlLb. 

Chaj-. IV. 

of tbeaeareritaJ mere JmmedLut Csafct tf fifuUr tntts^ heth in the 
m[tr And CBmmm flirty Mifap^refjeftf/aa, F*U4Cj, tr fjilfe ditiiiffie/i, 
Credatitj , Sufiiiityy aMtertnee tnto Jntiquitj^ TraditiM and An- 

He tirft is a niiltike,-or a milconcqition of rhing(,eit(tcr in their lifll apprc- 
hcnlioie, orfecondary rdationi. So£t:-(mi[lm)lcibcCorainandincnt,eilher 
fiom the immediate injuuftionof God. orfromthefccondary narrationof l)cr 
husHuid. So might tiK DilciplcfmitlakeowSaviour, inhisanfwcr unto Fttrr, 
(ontcrnii^ the death of /rfcw^atisdelivcrcd, fUmli, Vettr feeing ?<**, faith 
unto Jffm. tord, and wharfliallrhw man do? fifus faith. If I wiil , that he 
tarry ciU \ come, wtiat ii that unto thee ^ Then went this laying abroad among. 
D the 

It-mi, m\n7. 
icvtr { 

iJidf Ciry. 



inquiries into Vnlgdr 

Book i. 

The belief of 
«vhence occz^ 

and Amphi- 
bologie, how 
they differ. 

Pytbagnroi his 
precepts mo- 

xfJAu£dv im 
yet in i^(r^. 

the brethren , that that Difciplc ihoald not die. Thus began the conceit and opU 
oftheCfifr4i^rw:thatis,inthc naiftakcof the firft beholders , as is declared by | 
Servius'^ when fome young Theffalians on horfeback were beheld afar oflF, while 
their horfes watered, that is, while their heads were deprefled , they were concei- 
ved by the firft Speftators, to be but one animal ^ and anfwerable hereunto have 
their pidures been drawn ever fincc. 

And as fimple miftakes commonly beget fellacies, fo men reft not in faUe appre- 
heniions, witbont abfurd and inconfequent didudions; from fallacious founda^ 
tions, and milapprchended mediums, ereding condufions no way inferrible firom 
their premifes. Now the fallacies whereby men deceive others, and are deceived 
themfelves, the Ancients have divided into Verball and Reall. Of the Vcrball, 
andfuch as conclude from miftakes of the word , although there be no lefs then 
fix, yet are there but two thereof worthy oar notation •, and unto which tiie reft 
may be referred : that is the fallacy of Equivocation and Amphibologie - which 
conclude from the ambiguity of fome one word, or the ambiguous f\ ncaxis of 
many put together. From this fidlacy arofi; that calamitous error of the Jews, 
mifapprehending the Propheficsof their Meffias, and expounding tliem alwaies un- 
to literal and teinporal expedations. By this way many errors crept in and per* 
verted the dodrineof Pjthagm'as^ whilft men received his precepts in a different 
fenfe from his intention -, converting Metaphors into proprieties, and receiving as 
literal expreflions, obfcure and involved truths. Thus when he en joy ned his Dif- 
ci pies, an abftinence firom beans, many conceived the)' were with fevericy debarred* 
the ufe of that pulfe-, which notwithftanding could not be his meaning; for as 
^^//?(^;i:asm^ who wrote hislifCyaverrech, he delighted much in that kind of food 
hin)ielf. But herein as Pltttarch obierveth, be had no other intention, then to dif- 
fwade men firom Magiftracy, or.undertaking the publike oflfices of Itate^ for by 
beans were the Magiifarates eleded in fome parts of Greece • and after his daies, we 
read in Thucydides^ of the Counfel of the bean in Athens. The fame word alfo in 
Greek doth ligniiie a Tefticle, and hath been thought by fome an in jundion only 
of continency , as AhL GeRim hath expounded, and as Emfedocles may alfo be in- 
terpreted: tnatis, Tefticulh miferi dextras fulducite '^ and might be the driginal 
intention of Pythagoras^ as having a notable hint hereof in Beans, from the natural 
fignatureoftfie venereal organs of both Sexes. Again, his in jundion is, not to 
harbour Swallows in our houfes : Whofe advice notwithftanding we do not con- 
temn, who daily admit and cherifh them : For herein a caution is only implied, not 
to entertain ungratefull and thanklefs perfons, which like the Swallow are no way 
commodious unto us ^ but having made ufe of our habitations, and Served their 
own turns, forfakeus. So he commands to defacn the print of a cauldron in the 
afhes,after it hlth boiled.Which ftridly to obferve were condemnablefuperftition: 
For hereby he covertly advifeth us not to perfevere in anger ., but after our choler 
hath boyled, to retain no irapreffion thereof In the like fenfe are to be received, 
when he advifeth his Difciples to give the right hand but to few, to put no viands 
in a chamber-pot, not to pafs over a balance, not to rake up fire with a fword, or 
pifsagainftthcSun. Which enigmatical deliveries comprehended ufeful verities, 
but being miftaken by literal Expofitors at the firft, they have been milunderftood 
by moft lince, and may be occafion of error to verbal capacities for ever. 

This fallacy in the firft delufion Satan put upon Eve , and his whole tentacion 
might be the lame continued^ fo when he faid, Ye (hall not die, that was in 
his equivocation , ye (hall not incur a prefent death, or a deftrudion immediatly 
enfuing your tranfgreifion. Your eyes fliall be opened ; that is, not to the en- 
largement of your knowledge, but dilcovery of your (hame and proper confii- 
j lion ^ You fliall know good and evil •, that is, you fhall have knowledge of good \ 
; by its privation, but cognifance of evil by fenfe and vifible experience. And the ' 
) famefeUacy orwayof deceit fo well fuccceding in Paradife, he continued in his 

Oradcs^ i 

Bo or T, 

and Ccfftmsn E & tt o x. t 

>: men more warily ondaitood , 
.'■L-nt with ill* intcnlJUQ. Brtttni 
ilnnj.,^ ..;... i.^;_^ ii...: -u... .'...^ju... ;i. .:_ivi- kjrcJhiiowfi MocboL The 
.■iiiiinuau m^iiL bntc buik tboD woihltia woUs. oc doubled (Ik Altar at 

TbcdrcliJ of diii falUcy it very Ijirp 
kat inifUlvct^ for iwcndcil cxpri'. 
1 dciiuft'ons from Metaphors, ivi ^ 
wrprctaxivi"!. Wliercby lave rile; 

! Iifivin n.jv k" tomrriinl aIHr£>- 

■■■ ngW 

It YUlgir sod rciiflds Hcndtcs ioDiViiui; oi will U cv-id^ni uiilu, any tnic 
lUeuniiae their tbuadltiunr, at dicy iktiu ivlainl b^ Efifhmm,.4»fiim^cic.B* Hiittfitm. 
*t*tidm. j 

Odier wai« ti..:.- 
wor<U, diat is, ^<:;! 

(Jeduftions, otuiu 

cxtradjAiouaryandrtiUJii ■ ;,^^(^ 

wcobfcrve that nicii arc m ' ■ fc arc 

fi(N/«. And }'4.l4CiM rti*friiKfH!ii 

Jbe tlrlli'i, rait'h'pT-tiKipL'. Wbttti fallatiif if commiicd, wbea t queflioa ia 

inadcflmL-dium, orwcJlTumca tnnliumasgranted, wheteoi" we remain as Bnla- 

iiiedasoi'lhetjurilion. Briefly, whrr'-^V" ■ '''-'"^d asa principle, u>prDvc 

ioiIki thing, whidiiiiKit cuncedc^ : , ibistaiUc'ivwsAEvedc- 

avcd. when (he took for granutj, iln :lvc I'Jcvi!-, yc lhaJln()t 

(iirdy dic,t'orCoJdodi know that m :t liiaeof, your eye fiull 

beopcncJ^audyoulhallbctoGoJ*. \' -t ilfTrmaiion yfbaun, 

widiout aiiy proof or proUhIc indm .. : ; ,eo the command of God 


hen liwy 


<j. iihe 

■!f [h«. 


Jttnd'loniicr hclijir of her (ill* Andtlji' 

xulcd our Saviour ar^loPiUtt•^ wbu Jcajanduiga !■- 1 . ■ 
leallcj^iion of fomc crinie wotdiyof p)Ddt^uu[ii]ii , 
id noc bcmwordiy uf death, we wouij" not lave li:. ; 
' wirarintlicrcwasndlhrracturaiiooofihepci'roR., notr.iciil, 
Who well umlerfloud a ban: accufadon wa* no prcfumpcion of guitt, »nd the 
(tamooTf ot thcpeople ni>3cculationaiall. TbcfanicfalUcieitromeuiiicurTdiii 
ihcdirputc,bctwccD/eAacdhiifnc»di J diey often taking that tbrgraiucd which 
altcrwaid tie difprovab. 

IhcimmiiH A .iillafcrm»JMm ijHiJ Mi Jiamn /rwpAVirrr.when from tint which 
is but tnie in aqu^LfinlfcDfc, an laconditiooal and ablblute verity is inferred ; 
mosfcning the fpcaal cocdidaanoi) of dungt un(o ibcir ccncral acccpiions, or 
concluding troni their (In A arrepd<)n, unroihstwiihouMll hcnitation. Thisfal- 

■kcie men commit when they argue 6:001 a gartitiilar ro a genera!^ at when Wf con- 
dude the vne or cjualiiia of a tew upon a whok Nation. Or from a pan umo the 
jlrliole. ThuiicheDcvi] arcucd with our Saviour, and by this he would |<ri'wade 
iBinhcinigbtbefccure.ifiiecaUliimfclf from the Pinaclc ; forlawJ !ic,iciswrii- 
icn,heniaJIgivchii Angcis dargctoncernina thee, and iniimrhandi ihej- fhall 
bear thee up , lea!^ at any tiu'c ^hou dafh uiy foot atjsmli a fiooe. Bqc this 
ahtiouwas fiiilanous, loviiigoutpirtof [be text. He lluUkecpthcc malliby 
^w Waits ^ [hatif^athewaieiiofcighicQufnert.andnotofrjl'hauenipis : fo he urged 
^H ^P^''^ ^'^' ^^^ whoie.aod interred rnorcin the (,omlulicjD,thcQ waicoataineil to die 
^H pr^.-ififo Bv ilicfauieiaUaciewcprotecd, whaiwecgotludcfromtlicugo unta 
^B^ ill Bydiiiinaoathmcntldolurybrttcrcptin, men tiinvertiiig 

^V I' .'t' idolsintotlmrpropcrworfiiip, andrcceivingthcaiirdcn- 

^g r- ' ' T' die fubllaiKeandthiog it lelf. ^uiheli^tuc ot iJf/if atlirft 

crtL'icdinhi^iiicmoryj waiiaancrtimes adored ai a Divinity. Androvllbipthe^ 
Di (ncramcnt 


TfM Oi^l(.*l 
of IJblbry. 


JBffquiries into Vulgar 

Boo K ]^ 

UntTctficicf I 
times fiill of; 
Scholars, and 
empty of I 

The natural 
genius or In- 
much to be re^ 
g^drd in the 
choifc of a 

chough the attempts of fome have been precipitous , and their enquires fo auda- 
cious as to come within command of the flaming fwords , and loft themfelves 
ia attempts above humanity ^ yet have the enquiries of moft defeAed by the way, 
and tired within the fober circumference of knowledge. 

And this is the reafon why fome have tr^anfcribed any thing • and although 
they cannot but doubt thereof, yet neither make experiment by feme, or enquiry 
by reafon -, but live in doubts of things whofe fatisla Aion is in their own power ^ 
which is indeed the inexcufable part of our ignorance, and may perhaps fill up 
the charge of the laft day. For not obej'ing the didates of reafon, and negledijag 
the cries of truth, we^ilnot only in the truft of our undertakings , but in the 
intention of man it felf. Which although more venial in ordinary conftitotions, 
and fuch as are not framed beyond the capacity of beaten notions , yet will it 
inexcufably condemn fome men, who havmg received excellent endowments , 
have yet fat down by the way , and fruftrated the intention of their habilities. 
tor certainly as fome men have flnned in the principles of humanity, and muft 
anfwer, for not being men, fo others offend if they be not more ^ Afdgis extra 
vitU^ quam cum virtutibHs^ would conunend thofe : • Thefe are not excufable 
without an Excellency. For great conftitutions, and fuch as are conftellatcd 
unto knowledge, do nothing till they out-do all ^ they come ihort of themfelves 
if they go not beyond others, and muft not (it down under the degree of wor- 
thies. God expefts no luftre from the minor ftars , but if the Sun (hould not 
illuminate all, it were a (in in Nature. Vltimw tonorum^ will not excufe every 
man, nor is it fufiicient for all to hold the common level : Mens names (hould 
not only diftingulh them : A man (hould be fomthing, that men are not, and 
individual in fomewhat befide his proper nature. Thus while it exceeds not the 
bounds of reafon and modefty, we cannot condemn (ingularity. Nos numtrm 
fiimus , is the motto of the multitude, and for chac reafon are they fools. For 
things as they recede from unity, the more they approach to imperfcftion, and 
deformity ^ for they hold their perfeftion in their (inaplicities , and as they 
neareft approach unto God. 

Now as there are many great wits to be condemned, who have negleded the 
increment of Arts, and the fedulous perfuit of knowledge ^ fo are there not a 
few very much to be pittied^ whofe induftry bein^ not attended with natural 
parts, tney have fweat to little purpofe, and rolled the ftone in vain. Which 
chiefly proceedeth from natural incapacity , and genial indifpc^tion, atl^ to 
thoie particulars wbereunto they apply their endeavours. And this is one reafon 
why> though Univerfities be full of men, they are oftentimes empty of learning. 
Why as there are fome which do much without learning, fo others but little wiui 
it, and few that attain to any meafure of it. For manyneeds that undertake it 
were never fquared nor timbred for it. There are not only particular men, but 
whole nations indifpofed for learning-, whereuntois required not only education 
but a pregnant Minerva^ and teeming conftitution. For the wifdom of God hatli 
divided the Genius of men according to the different af&irs of the world : And 
varied their inclinations according to the variety of Adions to be performed 
therein. Which they whocondder not ; rudely ru(hing upon profeffionsand 
waies of life unequal to their natures ^ di(honour not oply themfelves and their 
fiuidtions, but pervert the harmony of the whole world. For if the world went 
on as God hath ordained it ^ and were every one implied in points concordant to 
their Natures ; Profeiiions , Arts, and Common-wealths would rife up of thou- 
felves^ nor needed we a Lanthron to find a man in ^ri&rip/. 


c»*y. vr. 




fo l"u, , 

tblK:., ilit.T V 

CLiupurann n: ,1 

cnvfcsi AjiJi'.. It 

the nearer uci.) Li — ;. ^-i.. l....L\ -■ i...^,,.j ^,.„^. uuf 

fdvw; and wiuciy waih out ot liic track nt 1 rml'. 

Porfirft, MenhtTL-fayLrnpijfradiraidonion ibeir time, wbicli tkr ingenuity 
of no i»gc flioulJcnJurc, oriniifcd tb»" prcfymption oi any dultvcr vc: fninn 
IhaiHifffacrnf! alwmiiOOO, ycaragf), ciinra\C\1 it O" i 
cxainmc<>rrtfttterhcii(Fftrtn«ot'hU prciwcff'jrs; GAlf i: 
moll of any. Y« diii otit any ofcbcfecoocnvcthem(c!v(- k 
chttrdiiSKCTSS^OTiiJci irrefragable*, butw(>en d)c\* either 
VeHtioni, or rcjeft mber mens opiniofiE, titcy proceed witJi J 
oaity •, rftablifliingdwiraffcrtitin, notonly ivith greaJ (blic!! m.g 

tiKinalTo onto the torreSionof futaredlfeovcri', 

SccaiMHy, McntIu(adotc[tmci[*fin, coniider not tlisc thofc times were once 
prefent : tliiUti, aiourowna-cat tii»inftiint,and wc our fcke* unwthofeto 
come, as thc^- unto i»« prdem ^ as werdycontbctn, even fo will thofc oniw, 
andotagiiiticuihcrcaftLT, wboat [frelent nSn Jemn our felvcs- Wiiiih vcrysb- 
furdity iiiiaily commiitedamoflgtlutcveninthrdlecni and cenfurcof nuronrn 
times. And to fpc^ imptiitiiilly , old men fwim whom we fl>t»uld cxpciS the 
grcatcftcxMnpIcof wifdom, domollctfetTl m tins poim of folly , comaicnd- 
ing ihcdnicj of tljcir yooih , ihcj' ffirte rtiTicmbcr , at leatl wdl iinderftood 
Doti extolling thofc timis thtir younger years lave beard their t'athericoo- 
demn.andcoodemningrholtiinneilhe gray hcnds of their poilority (hall com- 
mcod. And thus u it the humour ftf mnny heads to cstol the daics of their fore- 
tuners, anddectaim agamfUhc wicKcdncfs ofiimrs prcfcnt. Which twtmib- 
ftanding tlicj' cannot handfomly do, without the borrowed hclpaiid fBiyrcs of 
tiihcspallj condcmnmpilK-vicesof their timcf, by the cxprcHior.s of vjcts in 
ontcs which tbej- commend -, which eanixjt but argue t)>e tommunnyof vicein 
both. W*r4CY thcrclbrc, jMvtintBxni Prrfnu were no I'rophcts, alihotigli their 
lines did fectn to indigiuic and f^mt at our time*. There is a certain fift of vircJ 
coimmned in all ago, and declaimed ;^ainlkby all Authors , wliidi will iall u 
loi^ as humane nature ^ or digctlcd intocotnmoa place* :iny frrvc tor any ibem^ 
and iKVCtboouttif datcuniillDoomi-day, 

Tfurdly, The leftimonir* of Ar.titiisity and fuch as pa&oniailtnillytimmEfi 
us, were notif wctoniidcrihun alwaycs foesaft, ast" examine the Joftnrtr 
they delivered. lorfonic. and tholl- tfie acutclt of than, tiiive Iti't nnto us ma- 
ny ttutigj of ftl!:cy, controolaWc, not only by crimalnnJcollcfliveroafon, hue 
tommonandtouinrcv obfervatiun. Hctc<« the«f want ript many euaniplK in 
Arijltilf, through a!l ills book of animalsvivc (hallinfhnce only inthrevof hU 
ProfclcnjK, and a!) contained under one Scftior- The firfl cniiiurrth why a 
Mandothcougb , bur not anOie orCow \ wbc:ea« notwitblbmling the cnn- 
rrary is often obfcrvcd by Hn*and-men , iind ftancb ctraftrmeJ by thofcwho 



Enquiries im0 Vulgdr 

The Antiqui- 
ty , and fomc 
nonblc in- 
ftances of 
Plagtanifm , 
tlitt is , of 
or fiicking 


An ancient 
, Autftor who 
'writ, frtf^ 

\A mcrcMili" 
.km 9 whereof 

' yet exttnr. 

I . 

Boo K !• j 

have exprefly treated de re rufiica^ and have alfo delivered divers remedies for it. 
Why Juments , as Horfes, Oxen, and Aflfes •, have no eruAation or belching, : 
whereas indeed the contrary is often obferved, and alfo delivered by Collumeta. '• 
And thirdly ; why man alone hath gray hairs ? whereas it cannot efcape the . 
eyes,and ordinary obfervation of all men, that Horfes, Dogs , and Foxes , wax ' 
gnty with age in our Countries ^ and in the colder Regions many other animals' 
without it. And though favourable conftruftions may fomewhat extenuate the 
rigor of thefe conceflions, yet will fcarcc any palliate that in ihe fourth of his ; 
Meteors , that fait is cafieft difolvible in cold water : Nor tHat of Diofcorides^ \ 
that Qyickfilver is beft preferved in veffels of Tin and Lead. j 

Other Authors write often dubioufly , even in matters wherein is expefted | 
a flrid and definitive truth - extenuating their affirmations, with aiunt^ ferunt^ '. 
fortajfe: AsDiAfcoriJeSyGalen^AriJhtlCj and many more. Others by hear- (ay •, 
taking upon truit moil they have delivered, whofe volumes are meer colledions, 
drawn from the mouthes or leaves of other Authors ^ as may be obferved in - 
Plinie^ t/Clian^ AthefutHt, and many more. Not a few tranfcriptivcly, fubfcrib-j 
ing their Names unto other mens endeavours , and meerly tranfcribing almod j 
all they have written. The Ijttines tranfcribing the Greeks , the Greekjy and : 
Latines , each other. Thus hath frnftine borrowed all from Trojrtu Pomfeifu ^ 
and fHlifu Solinm^n a manner trafiuribed P/iiUfV.Thus have LuHan and Afuleitu 
ferved LuciHi Prdttnfis ^ men both living in the fame time, and both tranfqi- 
binjg the fame Author, in thofe famous Books, Entituled Ltuim by the ohe, 
and Aureus Afinus by the other. In the fame meafure hath Simocrates in his 
Trad de Nilo^ dealt with Diodorus Siculm, as may be obferved, in that work 
annexed unto Herodotus^ and tranflated by fw^erfnannus. Thus Eratofihenes 
wholly tranflated Tiimtheusde InfuUsj not referving the very Pre6ce. The 
fame doth Strabo report of Eudorus , and Arifton in a Treatife Entituled de 
Nile. Clemens Alexandrinus hath obferved many examples hereof among the 
Greeks^ and P/iii; fpeaketh very plainly in his Preface, that conferring his Au- 
thors, and comparing their works tojgetber ^ he generally found thofe that went 
before verbatim tfanfcribed^ by thofe that followed atter , and their originals 
never fo much as mentioned. To omit how much the wittieft piece of (Miid is 
beholding unto Parthenius Chius ^ even the magnified VifgU hath borrowed 
almoft in all his works : in his Eclogues from TheMritus^ his Georgickj from Hejlod 
and Araf us y bis ty£neads from Horner-^ tbefecond Book whereof containing the 
exploit of 4fi/f0ii and the 7Vo;4ii horfe (as Mdcrobius obfervethj he hath ver- 
bdtim derived firom Pif under. Our own profcffion is not excufable herein. Thus 
Oriiafiusy 9y£rius, and ty£gimt4 have in a manner tranfcribed Galen. But Mar- 
ceUus Empericus, who hath left a fiimous work de MeMcamentis, hath word for 
word, tranfcribed all Scribonins Largus, de compojitione meJ&camentorum , and 
not left out his very peroration. Thus may we perceive tfie Ancients were but 
men , even like our felves. The pradice of tranfcription in our daies was 
no monfter in theirs : Plagiarie had not its nativity with Printing • but began in j 
times when thefb were difficult, and the paucity of books fcarce wanted that • 
invention. ^ } 

Fourthly, While wefo eagerly adhere unto Antiquity, and the accounts of 
elder times , we are to confider the fiibulous condition (hereof. And that we 
fhall not deny , if we call to mind the mendacity of Greece , from whom we ■ 
have received moft relations, and that a confiderable part of Ancient times, was ; 
by the Greeks themfelves temjcd fiv^M^ that is, made up or ftuflfcd out with ; 
fables. And furely tfic fabulous inclination of thofe daies, was greater then any ! 
fince • which fwarmed fo with &bles , and from fuch flender grounds , took f 
hints for fidions, poyfoning the world ever after ., wherein , how far they ex- ' 
cccded, may be cxamplified from Pn/iepAiif)*/, inhis book of fabulous narrations. ■ 

That i 

^Bfllo O ft I. 

dnd Cemmeti E n k o k. s 


Tbai fubtc oi Orfbtm^ who by tlic mdoiiy of lii? mafici nude woods and Tfct ^M 
ticcstololltiwtnm , WMrureduponnllcnder foundnDOri; for rbnewereamiw £''*^ 1 
of nuJ women. rctircJ un:o a nwjumiin, Irom whence borg padticd by \a% ^^^l^ 
Munck , they ddrenJcd wiUi bonglu m Uinr hatnU.whttli umo tbc febHloiity UMtK 
ot'dwle cime, (Tovcd s lutficienc ground tocd^bnuc uiifo all poUcfity ibc j 
Magickofc/rf/rrfcvHwp, ajid it* power co atuniS (lit fcnllcfs irce about it. 
That A/eJfi (he laiiiou> Sorcrrcft toulJ renew youth , and irnir old men young 
jiga^n, Wif Roihiag clic, but ih-n Ironi tbc kiiowicilgc of limple^ ibc b&ii Re- 
ccit lo nuke whicc hair bUtK, an4 reduce old heads imo th? cindiirc uf youth 
agsiB. rbe fiblc oiCtri^n and Ctrirtrai With ibrcc had* wm thii : Cert*!" 
wasofilieGcy TruArims, that is, of thrcchcadt, and C>»-/vr»jof the faiiK 
[liatc wuouc of tus d'jgs, which running into a cave upon purt'uic of \vs ma- 
itits Oxen, Hrrtnlfj pofortr drew him out of that pUtc, frooi wbcnn; the 
(onceic^ol iboft- daitsatfiiincd ao \ek , then tlut Hi->rM/;; defended inu hell, 
and brought up Cerlnrnj ituo tbe hnbiianon of the liVing. Upon the li)(c 
gruimd> wu ratird the figment of SrUrem , wlw dwelling in « Uty called 
Ht^Aitnchirid , the taiKiCs of tbolc timet a<^f;n(^l turn an hundi'trd hands. Twiu 
ground cnoughto hincy wingsunto Art^/xt, inihat he Oole outof a windDW 
Irooi Mtaa), ajid liulnl away wiiJi hisfnn /Mnv; who licennghiicrmric wife- 
ly, dcaped , but his foo tarrying too high a Ciilwas drowrwd. That JV«A» 
weeping (jveibcr children was turned intn a Hone, was nothing clli:, but that 
duringocrlift, ft* erected over their fcpulturcs, a Marble Tomb or her own. 
When AUnnX^AA. undone bimfclf with dogs , and the prodigall attendance of 
bunting, they tnadea folcninltury bow he was devoured by his Hounds. And 
npootnc like grounds wasraifcd il*c Anrhropopliagicof l>ii-mriifj bis Hoi^ln- 
Upon a (lender foundation Wis built, tttc fable of the ji/itMUurr ^ for one 
TMiruj a fervant ol' Miws git hi* Mifireft PdfipfiM with tbifd ■, from whence 
ilKln&ntwasMined AftmuwHi- Now ihisutno the t'abulofity of thoktimcs 
was cbou^tfuilidenc to accufc Pttftfhiu of Beal^iality, or adinitung conjun^ion 
wttbaBuli^ and in fuaeeding li^ gave a hint of depravity iioto DrmiUAn 
toaftibc fable into reality. In like manner, is Diiuiimi plainly deiivcretJi, 
the fimous table of Cfctrea had lis naiivjty ; who bcine nooihcrbut the ttMU- 
mon Ferryman of t/i'^/f, that wafted ovor the dcau bodies from Afrmphu. 
was iiiBjic by the Greeks lobc the Icrrymanof Hell, andfoleinn lloncs rajfed 
aficrot luia. LalUyj wcOiallDocnecdtocnlArgp, ifihatbetrue which ground- 
ed cite gcncratioti ol Oyisr and Wf/rtidouE of an tgg, bftaufcthey were born 
andtw-ouglitusjiniin upper room, according unto ibc word *;', whichwichihr 
LaftiitntfKunj had aUo (hat llgnincxion. 

litthly, We applaud many things delivered by the Ancients, which arc in 
ihemletvcs hot unlinar)', and o^pic Ihort of our own conceptions. Thus we 
nfually exiol, and our Orations cannoc d'tape the fayings ot ihc wife men of 
CiTttcr, Nvf(t tiiffinn of ThaUs .- Nofct ttmftu of Piiucm . NHH nimis of 
j C/f«J'»»/ii'/ i which notwiiblbrding to fpcak indiffevenily, arc but vulgar pre- 
cepts m Morality, carrying with them nothing aboveihe Imc , or beyond tftc 
eiiemporary fiSitcniioiity of conunoo conceiii with ns. Tbuiwc magnibVthe 
. Apoiiicgcms . or rcpotcd replies of wifiJom , whereof many are to be ftwn in 
Ltfrtim, more in Ljcafiketai , not a few in the fccond book of MacnbiHt^ in 
ibc falts of CK<ro, Angufinst and [be Comical wits ot ihole ciincs: in moll 
wtmeof dicrc is not much to adtnitc -, and are me tt^nks exceeded, not onlv tn 
I the rcplirsof Wile men, butUiepalTages of fottctyand urbanities ot'our times. 
I And iliui we eKtol thcu' adages or Proverbs -, and Jirafmtu hath taken great 
pains to maiecolledionsofihcm ; wIiereofnotwithilaiKling the greater part, wiU 
i believe, unto indifferent jndges bedleemed oo cictraordumrics'., and may be 
p3raldlcd,ifnotexiceded,bythofeuf more unletrncd nations, and many ot our 
ciwn. E Sixilily, 



Enquiriis into Vnlgsr 

Book i. 

A pcdamical 
vanity > to 
in matters of 
common Cenfe 
or of familiar 

Some remark- 
able miftikes 
anong the 

(fimply J but a 
nean argu- 
ment efpecial" 


Sixdy, We urge Auchoricies, in points that K^ed not, and introduce the ce- 
ftimony of ancient Writers, to confirm things evidently believed, and whereto 
no reafonable hearer but would alTent without them ^ liich as are , Nem9 mor- 
talium omnihus horis fdfit. Virtute nil frdftsMtins , nil pnlchrius. Omnia vincit 
dmor. PrdclMrnm ^uiddr.m Veritas. All which, although things known and 
vulgar, are frequently urged by many men, and though trivial verities in our 
mouths, yet notrd from Plato^ Ovid, oc Cicero , they become reputed elegan- 
cies, for many hundred, to inftance but in one we meet with while we are 
writing.. Antoniiu Guevara that Elegant Spaniard, in his book entituled. The 
Diall pf Princes , beginneth his Epidle thus. Apolanins Thjaneus difputing 
with the Scholars of Hiarchas^ faid, that among all the affedions of nature, 
nothing w^as more natural ^ then the defire all have to preferve life. Which be- 
ing a confefTed truth , and a verity acknowledged by all ] it was a fuperfluous 
aj&dation , to derive its Authority from Afelonins , or feek a confirmation 
thereof as tar as India ^ and the learned Sbcoiars of Hiarchas, Which, whe- 
ther it be not all one to ftrengthen common Dignities and principles known by 
themfelves, with the authority of Mathematicians ^ or think a man (hould be- 
lieve the whole is greater then its parts, rather upon the Authority of EttcUde^ 
thee if it were propounded alone ^ I leave unto the fecond and wifer cogitations 
of all men. Tisfure a pradice that favours much of Pedantery ^ a referveof 
Puerility we have not fiiaken ofT from School ^ where being feafon^l with Minor 
fentences ; by a n^led of higher enquiries, they prefcribe upon our riper ears, 
and are never worn out but witn our memories. 

Laftly, While we fo devoutly adhere unto Antiquity in fbme things, we do 
not copfider we have deferted them in feveral others. For they indeed have not 
only been imperfed, in the conceit of fome things, but either ignorant or erro- 
neous in many more. They underftood not the motion of the eighth fphearfrom 
Weft to Eaft, and fo conceived the longitude of the fhrs invariable. They con- 
ceived the torrid Zone unhabitable,and fo made fruftrate the goodlieft part of the 
Earth. But we now know 'tis very well empeopled , and the habitation thereof 
etteemed fo happy, that fome have made it the proper feat of Paradife •, and been 
fo bx from judging it unhabitable, chat they have made it the firft habituation of 
all. Many of the Ancients denied the Antipodes^ and fome unto the penality of 
contrary affirmations - but the experience of our enlarged navigations, can now 
afTcrt chem beyond all dubitation. Having thus totally relinquifht them in fome 
things, it may not be prefumptuous, to exatnine them in others ^ but furely moft 
unr^ifonable to adhere to them in all, as though they were in&llibie, or could not 
err in any. 

Chap. VII. 
of K^uthmtj. 

NOr is only a fefolved profbration unto Antiquity a powerful! ^cnemy unto 
knowledge, but any confident adherence unto Authority, orrefignation 
of our judgements upon the ceftimony of Age or Author whatfoever. 

For firft. To fpeak generally an argument from Authority to wifer examina« 
tions, is but a weaker kind of proof •, it being but a topical probation, and as 
we term it , an inartificial argument, dep^ding upon a naked affeveration : 
wherein netther declaring tbecaufcs,afleaionsoradjnndsof what we believe^ 
it carriethnot with it the reafonable inducements of knowledge. And therefore 
Contra negamem frincipia^ Ipfe Sxit , or Oportet difcentem credere , although 
Pofhilates very accomodahle onto Jnnkr indodrinations •, yet are their Au- 

sttJ CamNon B n n o n ^^ 

viiifs bDt Kinfwrary , aod not to be unbraced heymd tlio mmoriiy of our 
cik^^uaU. ioT our Advanced beLcfi itrc txjt to be builc upondiAjrec, 
; hiving rMcivcil die probable inducements ot* trucb, wc become cman- 
ued iTiun cdbrnonal cogagcmena , andarcto crcft upoh the hceibiifeof 

Sccundly, Uoto rcnfooablc perpcnlinm it bnU no pLice in fbmc .SciencA, 
ftnall io others, and lugeretb mauv retlciAions, even wlire it H ninft admit- 
cd- itisot ni] VflfiduyutlK MaitiematicU, efpccully tbe mother psnthcrer 
of, Aridtmctit'i and Gt'omeuy. lor tlicfe ScicntM coiuiudicg trom dignities 
and princif Its ktwwn by tlvcmfclvcs: receive not ratiitadwn f:om probable 
rcaliin* . much Icfi from b.tre and jicrcmpiory affcverimtm, .And iherefore 
if att j4tt>r»i Ihould decree, that in every Triangle, two fides, whlt:h focvcr 
(k taken , arc greater ilien the lide renmining , or thai in retanglc cnangJe* 
ihe ffjunrc whith is made of the Tide ihit labfndaii th^ right angle , u 
eijual (o tlie fyuarcs which are made of the li^! ■ ite right angle ; 

Mcliuiigh iliere be a certain truth therein , - <.o;wiihlbnding 

would not receive fmiititition without dci! . ;', 'lis trncj 

by (be vulgarity of Phdolophcr? , tbcie arc iiiirn' poiin' liclievcd without 
probatioii ; nor if a man .ttfirm from J'lahmj , that ihc Son is bigger then 
the Earth, ftult Ik probably meet with any tontrjdi^ion ? wi)crciinto noi- 
wiihllanding Aftrooomets will not afTert without fome convincing arguracnc 
or demontlraiive proof thereof And ihwcRire ccnainly of all men a Philofo- 
pbcr ihouW be no fwearcr : for an ottli which ij the end of ctmtroverfies in 
Law, cannot determine any here ; nor are the decpeft SacraincntJor defpcrate 
inipret:a(i(i[u of any tbrce topccl'wade, where rctlon only, and necdfary mf tA- 
Mmi niuil induce- 

Iln natural Hiilofophy n»ore generally [mrfucd amongft us , it arrieth bal 
mdcT conlldcrauon -. for tliat atfo proteeding from fctled I'rinciplci, therein' 
cspe^cd a fati*ii)di<]n from Cientifitill progreilions , and foJi a« beget a 
re radonit! bdicf. lor if Autbijritvmigot fuvc made oot the aflertionsof 
iflofophy, wc mtgh[ ba»c IwW, that Ihow was bhck., that the sa WJU 
E the fwcdlof (he Earth, and many of the like abfurditie*. Tlienwas ^4ri~ 
itlt in(uriou*ty tall up«:'0 Afdifm , lo rcjeft the iffa-tiom of Afi^xAgifuf, 
tjlm^xuiiautitr, and EmfiAtctu; (hen wcrt; n>c alio iingraiettdl unto liinil'elf ^ 
gom whom our /««»«■ endeavoiirfraibranng many things on his authority, our 
, mature and fecoadary eDi]uiriej, arc forced to anrt tnofe re(e|>nont, and to adhere 
onto lite nearer atcouot of Real'oii. And alcfmugh it be not umifuat, eVcn in 
philoftifJiical Tradaics to make enirnicration of Authors, yci arc tlwe rcafons 
nfiiallyintroduced,and[oingcnuou5Kcadersdocarri' thcltioak in tfie ncrfwafi- 
cm. And furely ii weaccoum ttreafcinablo among our felvcs, and nor mjunoiii 
unto rational Author?, no farther to abet their opinions then as thej' are fnpiwrc- 
cd by folid Kcafons-.ciwtaintj' with more excufablcVefcrvaiion may we Ihrink 
uilicir bare idlimonics ', whoteargutncntis but precarioui, and fubfills upon 
the tbanty of our aflentments. 
In Vorality, Rbetonck,lawandHiOor)'. rhere is I confelk a freqaent and 

t allowable ul'c of tHhmony ; and yet bertfin I perceive , it is not tinlimiiable, 
hucadfTiitEcth nuiny rriUi(tioni. 'Ihui in Law bothCivtII and Divine : ihuis 
9i)ly erteemcd x kgat teftimony , which recover comprobiDon frofii the 
inouthci of a: leaft two wicneffcs ; and that not only for prevention of ralumny , 
bncalTiiruicc igainll miliake-, wberess no(wiihlUndtngcticf7>lidrcai')nof one 
man, 15 asfufficient as ihecttmorofawhoic Nation -, andifc-ith imprcjudiratc ap- 
prebailioiBhcgasasrirfnabcliefaFtl»e authority or aggregated rcPJmooy of 
many hundred*., loi- reafoo being the very root of our naturo. and the pr inciplcj 
lli^rcof common nntoall, whatisagamlUhe Laws oftruereafbn,or the Unerring 
E z under- 



Enquirits into ynlgdr 

Boo K I. 

underflanding of any one, if rigficly apprehended ^ muft be difdaimed by all Nati- 
ons, and re jeded even by mankind. 

Again . A ceftimony is of iinall validicy if deduced from men out of their 
own profelfion ^ fo iSLaSamiHs affirm the figure of the earth is plain, or Amftin 
himfclf deny there are Antipodes •, though venerable Fathers of the Church ,' 
and ever to be honoured , yet will not their Authorities prove fufficienc to 
ground a belief thereon. Whereas notwithftanding the folid rcafon or confirmed 
experience of any man, is very approvable in wl^t profelBon foever. So Ejij* 
mtmdStbuHd^ a Phyiitian of Tiw^ivt^. befides his learned Diolagues di nature 
hnmana , hath written a natural Thcologie ; demonllrating therein the Attri- 
butes of God , and attempting the like in moft points of Religion. So Hmi^ 
Grociui a Civilian, did write an excellent Trad ot the verity of Chriftian Reli* 
gion . Wherein moft rationally delivering themfelves , their works will be 
emlnraced by moft that uoderftand them , and their reafons enforce belief even 
from prejudicate Readers. Neither indo!d have the Authorities of men been 
ever fo awfull ^ but that by ibme they have been re je Aed , even in their own 
profeilions. Thus Arifi^tU affirming the birth of the Infant or time of its gefta- 
tion> extendeth fometimes unto the eleventh Moneth , but Hippecrates , aver- 
in| that it exceedeth not the truth ; Adrian the Emperour in a folemn pro- 
ceis , determined for Ariftatie ^ but fntftimdm many years after , took in with 
Hippocrates and reverft^i the Decree of the other. Thus have Councils ^ 
not only condemned private men , but the Decrees and Afts of one another. 
So Gaien after all his veneration of Hippocrates ^ in fome things hath fallen 
from him. Avicen in many from Galen ; and others fucceding from him. 
And although the finguUrity of Faraeelfus be intolerable , who fparing on-^ 
ly Hippocrates^ hath reviled not only the Authors , but ahnoft all the 
learning that went b^rc him ; yet is it not much lefs injurious unto knowledge 
obftinately and inconvincibly to fide with any one. Which humour unhappily 
pofTei&ng many, they have oy prejudice withdrawn themfelves into parties, and 
contemning the foveraignty of truths feditioufly abetted the private diviiions 
of error. 

Moreover a teflimony in points Hiftorical, and where it is of unavoidable 
ufe , is of no illation in the n^ative > nor is it of coniequence that Heror 
dotus writing nothing of Rome , there was therefore no fuch Gty in his time •, 
or becaufe Diofcmdies hath made no mention of Unicorns- horn , there is 1 
therefore no fiich thing in Nature. Indeed , intending an acurate enumera- 
tion of Medical mataials, the omi/fion hereof affords fome probability , it 
was not ufed by the Ancients ^ but will not conclude the nonexilience 
thereof. For fo may we annihilate many fimples unknown to his enquiries , 
as Senna ^ Raiarbe ^ BeKjoar ^ ^i»^rf{rii and divers others. Whereas indeed 
thereafonof manhathnot fuch refbaint^ concluding not only affirmatively 
but negatively ^ not only affirming there is no magnitude beyond the laft heavens, 
but alfo denying there is any vacuity within them. Although it be confefTed, the 
affirmative hath the prerogative illation, and Barbara engrofTeth the powerful! 

Laftly, The ftrange relations made by Authors , may fufficiently difcourage 
our adnerence unto Authority , and wnich if we believe we muft be apt to 
fwallow any thing. Thus Sajil will tell us , the Serpent went ereft like man, 
and that that Beaft could fpeak before the fall. Tojlatns would make us be- 
lieve that Nilns encreafeth every new Moon. Leonardo Fioravanti an Italian 
Phyfitian , befide many other lecrets, affumeth unto himfelf the difcovery of 
one concerning Pellitory of the wall; that is « that it never groweth in the 
fight of the Nortb ftar. Done fi poffa vedere la fieUa Tramontana , wherein 
how wide be is from trutb^ is cafily difcoveraUe unto every one , who hath 


Book i, d»d CftHtnM E»iH'iv. , 

I Hill Aflrooomy enough to know thst (l^r F'-gMtfriu StmQi*ti in i litufabfr j 
Commwitupon y/Vcuj/Ein'.! ' ' ^'i'^' r'-.sndihflrfiomcsrrrt-^-r, - *■ t, 
6ng»!e hatti no tongue. i tin^ua r-jPT-e f- 

iwj^iw, m/ me nnii fjl'n ; mid f'or whtlcllr ' 

|li» cxpchcisie. Iwiiiny n'. in- .■-.-i..-.. .,.i..t u I'y ht'i o-^" ^'. . ,..<„..[■. 

■Would bcticvc , a( Inii , wkir wiJc timn v^wiS relic : ■ :.- lit-li- ' 

IVertfil by Pirnt< in hti Hicrogiyphu ki againli the l' ^ that | 

Bw, to (jtii[wn m Aff wiili ones ftcc lovs-ard bisnul, : i-ucih 

"'iciiun, ajiJin/TcthintycticBplV. liwcrcmc thinis but .m 
cit lor a Qinrtap.c Anuc (and yet a«good pcrbar^ as inm 
R} have foc'jurfe nnto die Ri'fipe ot SjfHMumrnt ; tnatls, fii 1 ; i. 

booVot" Wijwcr/lliads tinder una head, according to ihcpi«C[(t oi' da: I'liy- 1 
littiin;)nd P<Kt, .1/tf»ii« Utaii} tjnAnnrnfHff-jnttrrmttti. Ibercarcfnrely ftw 
t'lat hiv«! belief to fwallfiw, or hope rr,ougli [oeKperinicm the CoIIyriuni "*' jtnrvjnajc. 
Alhertm , wrbich promifcrfi a Itnuigt effc^ , and fof h *•. Thicvts wouM couni c\at'. 
iitfllimabtc. tbatu, tu moke one fee in the d.irk : y»thiiimii(Ti, according unio i 
hisrecctr, willtiw righi eye i>f an Hfdge-hog boylpdinoyi , and prcfrrv<d in a 
bf«cnv(rfli:Ue((e<T. Aillrangeiris nndunrovicioujirKlmation^ Htrc wortha 
nights lodging with ZjmV, whacis delivered ynKir-fiiii^s; that thclcftftoncofn ' Ten ibnufmd 
VV'ivl'cll, wrapt upintlicikiiiofaflic Mule, babkrorccore incontinency from in'Maai. 

Tbrfc with fwamis of others have men dtlivered in ibeTr writingi, whoft 
vericieKareonlyfuppD'tcd bydicir Aiitboriti»: But being ixilhcr confooant 
nntorcafon, nor torrcfpondcm untoMperiment , their affirmaiions are unco us 
no Asionwi: We cl>ccm thereof as tilings unfiid, and account them but m the 
Kit of noihinC. I with herein the Chymfii liad been ntorc fpanng : whoovcr- 
maEmtjing tlictr prcpamtions , inveigle the curioficy of many , and delude the 
fccucity ofmoft. lor if cupcrimcnts woald anfwer their enDimiom* , the (lone 
Mid quartanc Agues, were ngtopptobrious unto F'hyfitians, wc might wnccmn 
ihatHrll, and nioft uncomfortable Apborifmof Htfftcrdtrj ., forfurcly that Art 
were foun attained, that bath lb general nmcdics j and lifi: raatd not m finn 
were there faeh to prolong it. 



CitAt. VIII. 
A britftHtlmtratmtft^Hthri. 

NOw forasmuthaswc have difcourfed of Authority, and there is fcarrt' 
any tradition or popular error but^ds alfo ddivcrt^l by fotne good Au- 
thor ; we ftuU endeavour a fliortdifco^'^- of fmh, as fonbc major pan have 

rfvcniutlHwityliereio = who though cxcellcntand ufcfiill Authors, yet bang 
Schcr iranfcnptivc, or ibllowing common relation^, iheir accounts are not to 
trfwallowed at large, or entertained wiiliout a prudent artuinfpeAion. In 
Arhom the if ft dixit , aldiougb tr be no powerftill argument in any , is ya 
le& auihcnticJt then in many other, bcauTe they deliver not tlieir owaexpe- 
I'lficQccs , but otbert affimuciom, and write firom others , as lacci' pens from 

1 . The firfl in order, as alfo in time ftuU be Utrrdcm of Ud!uMrf<iff»s. An 
Sccllem and very elegant Hitlorian -, whofeboolisof HiRory were foivdlrc- 
tivcd in his own diies , tiuc at their rehearCtl in the OlyinpicJc gimcs , they 
ibumedilic names of the nine Mnfei-, and continued in wich oltceui umo de- 
eding Ages, that CicfTtf tertqcd him, Hifimiritm pM-mj. And DkmfiKi 
jfis Counirrman , in an EpHUe to Pompty, after an exprcfe comparifon , affords 


The AoLksn 
jaJjCBUnt, or 

|lvcn of faoni 
toiiocDt Ali- 


- n_^ ■ I - -> 

knquiries into Vulgdr 


him the becccr oi Th$$cjMdes \ all which notwithftanding , he hach received 
fromfome, the KAtoi McndaciorHm vater. His authority was much infringed 
by Plnurch:^ who being offended witti him, as /'(^/^^in/ had been vfithPhUar^ 
CHS, for fpeaking too coldly of his Countre)'-men^ hath left a particular Trad, 
De mMlignitatc Herodoti. But in this later Century, CAmerarius and Stefhanus 
have ftepped in , and by their witty Apologies , cffeftually endeavoured to 
fruftratc the Arguments of Plutarch , or any other. Now in this Author , a^ 
may be obferved in our enfuing difcourfe, and is better difcernable in the per- 
ufall of himfelf , theie are many things fabuloufly delivered ^ and not to be 
accepted as truths : whereby nevertheleis if aity man be deceived, the Author 
is not fo culpable as the believer. For he indeed imitating the father Poet , 
whofe life he hath alfo written , and as ThucyMdes obferveth , as welt intend- 
ing the delight as benefit of his Reader , hath befprinkled hi$ work with many 
fabulofities^ whereby if any man be led into error, he mift^eth the intention 
of the Author ^ who plainly confefTeth he writeth many things by hear-fay , 
and forgetteth a very confiderable caution of his, il)at is, £^o qua fando cog-- : 
f^vi, ex f oner e narratione me a debeo omnia : credere out em ejfevcra omnia ^ non debeo. \ 
2. In the fecond place is Ctejias the Cnidian, Phylitian unto Art oxer xe a 
King of Persia : His books are often cited by ancient Writers : and by the in- . 
duftry of Stephanus and Rodiomanm , there are extant fome fragments thereof, 
in our dales ^ he wrote the Hiftory of Per(%a , and many narrations of India. • 
In the firft , as having a fair opportunity to know the truth , and as I^odorm \ 
affirmeth theperufal of Per pan Records, his teflimony is acceptable. In his 
InSan relations, wherein are contained Urange and incredible accounts , he is 
furely to be read with fufpenfion. Thefe were they which weakened his autho- 
rity with former ages J for as we may obferve, heisfeldom mentioned, witli- 
out a derogatory Parenthefis in any Author. Ariftotle hc[\Az% the frequent 
undervaluing of his authority, in his books of Animals gives him the lie nolefr 
then twice, concerning the feed of Elephants. Strabo in his eleventh book hath 
left a harder cenfure oi him. EqniJem^acitiki Hefiodo cr Homero^ aUqnufidem 
adhibnerit , item if Tragkis Poetis , qnam Ctefia, Herodoto^ Hellanico cr corum 
fimiUbns. But Lhcim hath fpoken more plainly than any. Serif fit Ctefias de 
Jndornm regione^ deque its qua apud illos fnnt^ ea qua nee ipfe viJlt^ neque ex uU \ 

\ Uhs jermoite audivit. Yet were his relations taken up by fome fucceeding Wri- 
ters, andmanythereofrevivedbyourCountriman, Sir John Mandevi/i, Knight^ 
andDoftor inPhyfick ^ who after thirty years peregrination died at Leige^ and 

1 was there honourably interred. He left a book df his Travels, which hath been 
honoured with the tranflation of many languifhes, and now continued above 
three hundred years ^ herein be often attefteth the fabulous relations of Ctefius^ 
andfeems, to confirm the refuted accounts of Antiquity. All which may ftill be 
received in fome deceptions of moralilj^, and to a pregnant invention, may afford 
commendable mythologie ^ but in a natural and proj^er expofition, it coataineth 
impoflibilities, and things incondftent with truth. 

There is a Book De mirandU anditirniibm y a(cribed unto Ariftotle ^ another 
De mirabilibus narrationibns ^ written long after by Antigonus ^ another alfo 
of the fame title by Plegon TraHianus , tranflated by Xilander , and with the 
Annotations of Menrfins'^ all whereof make good thepromife of their titles , 

j and may be read with caution. Which if any man (hall likwife obferve in the 
Lefture of PAi7o/r4^iij,concerning the life oi Apolkmus^ and even in fome paffa- 
ges of the fober and learned Plutarchus ^ or not only in ancient Wricers,but ihall 
carry a wary ej'e, on Paulus VenetnSj fovins^ Olaus Magnus , Nierembergius^ 
and many other : I think his circumfpeftion is laudable, and he may thereby 
decline occadon of Error. 
4. Diofcorides Anautrbens^ be wrote many books in phyfick , but fix there- i 



and C»pimw E it ft t> « s 

fCoos I. 

JfJt^rittrid Mejtic*^ Uve fi>i)nd the gCMWft eftiwrn-. be U an Anrfusr of 
Antwjiiity and ufe^ prcl'trrcd by lia!ta before CtMi^rM, P^mfhtm, 
ltd itil tlai attnnpKd tlie liKe deftripcron befbfc him -, yet ill he dclivn- ' 
Ii ih<ertr,a n noc to be Cimceivrd Oraculou*. l-'or bdidr, thv. tollowtog tbc 
Iff und:3' Anthfnj , tbc ctiune Iff hii life would not pemiic a punctual i 
.r^MtrM in all i fbcre are many ttringi conci^rmng the mturc of lli4pi», tra- ' 
itiomllyddiveri^j^ indio \vh\ih I bdieve fie gave ao affent himfelr. It had 
bcCD iin cxcdirat llKcir, and rn htt utrA when Sadl« vien fcarce in f>i(hioa of 
very great ufe , if that were true, which he dfliveri, that Vtux , or Apai ; 
C*//<« heU only in the hind , prdm-eth the ndcr from gallng. It tvtfc a Al.k.oiwn(» 
((r,inge cffed , and whore* wonld fbriike the experiment iif S^avim, if tbat ilwxduawof * " 
wereairuth which he ildivcr«h of Brake or frmalcVcarn, that only titading , ^'''''* 
over ir, iciaurciba fuddcn abortion. It were to bewilhcd true, ar.d women 
would Idoliie liim, couM thai be made out which he recordech of NijSen, vlfir- 
titrj. andorhrr vegeciWw, that the juice of the Malic plant drimlt, orthcleaves 
but applied umo the genitali, detetminn their concepinm unco males, tn thcTe 
relatione altboagh he be more fparinc , his prcdccdfors were very numerous -, 
and GaUn hereof moll fharply accufeth Pamfkitus. Many of the like nature 
vlKmtrt(iMm:\me%'\nQribi»fi»r^'<.'^nns^Tr4iHiaMUt^Ser4fun,Ev*.\i<nA Alitrttl- 
tmt ■ whereof fomc containing rw colour of vcrirj', we may at lirft fight rcjcA 
ibem -, (ithen: which fccm to earn- fonif ftce of tmth, wc may reduce unto expe- 
riment. And heron wc (hall rather perform good oifices unto truth , then any 
diffeivtccuncothnr relators, who have well oefcrved of fuctecding Ag«^ from 
whom having received the conccpiions of former times, wchavethc readierhini 
of their conl'onnity with wrs , and may accordingly explore and fift their 

5. Pli»iii/ SectmcLit of ftnnM ; a man of great Eloquence, and inJuftry io- 
defetigible, as may appear by bis writingi, cfpccijiWy thole now extant, and which 
arc never like to penlb. But even with Icitiimg it (elf-, t)at » , his natural 
Hillory. He wtn the grcatell CoUeftor or RhapMifl of the Latioc?, and 
uSMnemut obfcrveth, he eoUeiSed this piece out of two ihoufand Latine 
and Greek Autborj. Now, what is verj' i'trangc, there it fcarcc a popular 
error paflant in our daiei, which is not cither diredly cxprcfled, or diduaive- il^^^< 

■ ly contained in (his work i, wtiich being in the handt of mtrfl men . hath . looo u^ 
I proved a i>owcriuU occafion of their propc^ation. Whcrdn notwithftanding J Auih«». 
I the credulity of the Reader , is more condemnable then the curiofity of the I 

Author, for commonly be namcdi the Authors , from wHcmh be received tbofc 
accounts -, and writes but as he reads, as in his Preface to- VtffM^m he at- | 


6. Ciattdim <^f.iianiij 1 who flooriftcd not long after in the reigp of TrjJMn 
unto whom be dedicated his TaiAicks- an elegant and mifcdlaneoui Audior-, l 
he ha:h Icfttwo books which arc inihc bands of everyone, huHifl'Jfj' of Am- 
malSjand his/VWj hi^orU. W herein are contained many things fufpiciou*, not ' 
a fcw&L'e, fomeimpolfible ^ be is much beholding unto Ctt^A/ftad in many 
uocertainties writes more confidently then PUhj. 

7. ftJitti So/inuj ^ whu lived alfoabout his time : He left a work enrirulcd 
PtlyhJIer, ctmtsiuii^ great variety of matter , and is with moil in good re- 
ijueU at this day. But tu fpeak freely wtui cannot be concealed, it » but 
Plinj varied, or a tranlbipbon of his naturall Htftory-, nor is ii without all 
wonder it hath continued fo lon^, but is not? likely , and defcrvcs indeed { 
to live far ever j not oncly for the elegancy of the Text, but the esc ellcncy of die , 
comment , btdy performed by Sjimdfms , under the name of PlmMt Eiterci- 

8. Aihaumt, a delcftaMe Author, TB^nrtoot^and jultty Ailed by C^/m- 

24 I 

Enquiries into Fulgar 

Book I* 


That wtlce 
01- long vcrfcs. 

ionej Grdcorum PTiniHs. There is extant of his , a famous piece under the 
name of Deipnofophifid , or easna fkpiemum , containing the dilcourfe of many . 
learned men , at a teaft provided oy Laurentius. It is a laborious collection 
out of many Authors , and fome whereof arc mentioned no where clfe. It 
containeth Itrange and fmgular relations , not without fome fpice or fprink- \ 
ling of ^^1 learning. The Author was probably abetter Grammarian thenPhi- 
lofopber', dealing but hardly Wuh ArifiotU and Plato, and betray eth himfeif 
much in his Chapter de cnriofttate Ariftotelis. In brief, he is an Author of 
excellent ufe , and may with difaetion be read unto great advantage .^ and 
hath therefore well deferved the Comments of Cafaubon and DaUcampius. 
But being mifcellancous in many things, he is to be received with fufpition • for 
fuch as amafs all relations^ muft err in fome , and may without offence be un- ; 
believed in many. i 

p. We will not omit the works of Nicander , a Poet of good Antiquity : that \ 
is, his TherUca, and Alexipharmaca^ tranllated and commented by GorrAus : j 
for therein are contained feveral traditions, and popular conceits, of venemous \ 
beafts ^ which only dedufted, the work is to be embraced , as containing the | 
firll defcription of poyfons and their Antidotes , whereof Diofcoridcsy PUhj, \ 
and Galeny have made efpecial ufe in elder times ^ and AydBjnnsy Grevinus^ 
and others , in times more neer our own. Wc might perhaps let pais Op- 
fianns , that famous Cilician Poet. There are extant of his in Greek, 
four books of Cynegeticks or Venation, five of Halieuticks or Pifcation, 
commented and publi(hed by Rinerhufius •, wherein defcribing beads of vene- ! 
ry and fifties , he iiath indeed but fparii^ly inferted the vulgar conceptions j 
thereof. So that abating the annual mutation of Sexes in the Hjaxa , the ; 
fingle Sex of the Rhinoceros, the Antipathy between two Drums , of a Lamb 1 
and a Wolfes skin , the informity of Cubs , the venation of Centanres^ the | 
copulation of the Murena and the Viper , with fome few others , he may ( 
be read with great delight and profit. It is not without fome wonder his ! 
Elegant lines are fo neglefted. Surely hereby we rejeft one of the beft Epick 
Poets, arid much condemn, the judgement of Antoninus , whofe apprebenfions 
fo honoured his Poems, that as fome report, for every verfe, he afligned him ; 
a Stater of Gold. 

lo. More warily are wc to receive the relations of PhiUs^ who in Greek 
lambicks delivered the proprieties of Animals , for herein he bath amafied the 
vulgaraccounts recorded by the Ancients, and hath therein efpecially followed . 
tA,lian. And likcwifc Johannes Tz^et^cts^ a Grammarian, who befides a Comment ' 
j upon HefiodzTiA Homer ^ hath left us Chiliads de Varia Hifioria ^ wherein deliver- j 
■ ing the accounts of Ctejias, Herodotus, and moft of the Ancients, he is to be j 
1 embraced with caution, and as a tranfcriptive relator. i 

! II. We cannot without partiality omit all caution even of holy Writers, . 
I and fuch whofe names are venerable unto all pofterity : not to meddle at all with ! 
miraculous Authors, or any Legendary relators, we are not without cir cum* ' 
fpedion to i^eceive fome books even of Authentick and renowned Fathers. So are j 
we to read the leaves of Safil and Ambrofe^ in their books , entituled Hexar \ 
meron, or The defcription of the Creation-^ Wherein delivering particular accounts \ 
j of all the Creatures, they have left us relations futable to thofe of ty£lian,Plinie | 
and other natural Writers^ whofe authorities herein they followed, and from ! 
whom moft probably they defumed their Narrations. And the like hath been 
committed by Epipbanlus, in his Phyfiologie : that is, a book he hath deft con- j 
cerning the nature of Animals. With no kis caution muft we look on JfiJor, 
Biftiopof Sevil', who having left in twenty books, anacurate work de Origin i 
nibus, hath to the* Etymologic of words , fuperadded their received natures ; : 
wherein moft generally be coofents with common opinions and Authors which \ 
have delivered them. 12. Alhtr^ ' 

Aftd Ctmm»n B a r a n ^ 

2. Alhirtia Bldiup of RMtihut., titr lili great learning and Uttcude of 
J)aiDwtaigc(iriMni«l M^^nnt. llciidcs Di<riniCY, liehach wnE*cn many '\sti(^<ti 
^ Pliilufophy i what wc arc chiefly w receive witli caunor, arc (us ratuul 
^paddid. nwT« cfpccially diofc or MineriU, V^^cablcs and Animsli, which are 
D lodccdtlwcflyOjlltrtSiomoutof ^rijiottf,%yC/iMi, aniPlimj .sni tcfiKAi«!y 
contain m.tny of our [lopular Errors. A man wImi luth much advaniod tlidc opt- 
niofis by the iiuilwniyul'tiis Name, and dc&vcrcd moll conceits, witl) iVid en- 
qiiir>' mtofcw. In thcfamc CV^^/, may well be placed f'iwexiiut, StSfjtctiif/; 
(If raUicr he from whom be colleftej his Spccmtiim im/it j/f, that ts, CtlUlmtttb 
CiOfbu; iod alio H^rtm SdiKMiti -^ .uvi BartMinmtu Glax'jiS, liriUQlcd /(wfU-,vhawntcJffrfpriiediihnsrirtim. Hither alfo may be referred Kit-timiet-, 
which b 1 iollenion uuc of Harpocntioa the Grce)> , and (titidcy Arahk)^ 
Writer! ; delivering not oiily the Namral but MagicJl propriety oftttin^f; 
iworii at full of vanity I'l variety^ cootaining many tcljitiuiu , whuli: in- 
vention nm difFcuIc as lUcir bcliel^ andtheircLpcrimenuromcttmcailiardas 

1 3. We had almuft forgot Jtrmmus C^r^ui thatfiiinou*Ph\f>cianof A/»- 
/i«,a great enquirer of truth, but toogreedy a receiver of ii. He hmh Icti ma- 
ny excellent difcuurii:;, htcdital, Natural, and AUrologtcal-, the tiioRfurpj- 
tiou^arethofe two be wrote by admomtiouin a dream, that is, /> fahiibtMt 
0- v-tritmti rtTum- Afliiredly this teamed nioi) bath taken many dungs apon 
crull, and although examined Tome, hath let Dtp many others. He is oflio- 
galar oCr unto a prudent Reader ^ but unto him iImii oncly defirctli Holies, 
or to rcplenifti his head with vantie* -, like many othas befure related , 
cither in the Original or conKrnution , be may become no liuatl txczTion 
of Error. 

14. Laftly, Amliort arcallb furpicious. noc greedily to befwallowcd, who 
pretend CO write of fecrets, to deUvcr Antipatlnes, .Sympaihiei , and the oc- 
cult ob(truJitiesoflhingi-, initic hl> whereof may be accouiKcd, Altxu Pt- 
SmoitUHtu^ Aratn'mi Mii^UM, Trimtm Mdgicum , and many otliers. Not 

lominingilutfainousPliilofopherof iV4^/f/, Jt^pti^* PsriM ; in who(c works, 
althougnthcrcbetoniiiiJK'dniany eucilcni things, and vcrilicd upon hit own 
! expcricjice i yet are tliBtcinany alio retcptary , and fuch as will nut endure the 
Itdl. Who althouchbe hacli delivered many Itrange relations in Ins Phytog- 
inomia, and his Viflai yet faaih he more rciiiiukably eiprcfled himl'df in Ks 
Natural Magick, and tlie miraculous effeds of Nature, Which containing va- 
riousand delegable fubjedSjWitfiallpromiring wondioutandealice^edf, they 
areentcrtainedby RadcrsatalUiands; whereof the loajor part lit down in htf 
|authority, and thereby omit not only tbcccrtainty of truth, but ibcpkafurcof 

Thus havcwe madea brief enumeration of thcfe learned men; not willing' 
any to decline their Works (without which it is not eoliij 10 attain any men- 

I Cure of general Knowledge,) but to apply ihcnifflves wttfi caution thereunto. 
And feeing the lapfcsoi ibcfc worthy pens, to tafta wary t-yc on thoii.* dimi- 
' autive, and pamphlet Treaties daily nuUiflied amongit us. Pieces mamtaining 
father Typography then verity ■, Autiiori. prefumably wniing by common (Ha- 
ees, wlwrein fortnany ycarsproioifcuouny amalling all that makts for their 
/ubjeA,thcybreak,forthatlalt incrite and frmtlcfs Khapftidiet , doing thereby 
not only open injur\' unto lcaming,hui cummicuiig a tecret treachery up^n tniih. 
lor their relacion.s telling upon credulous Readers, ibcy meet with prepared 
belief-, whofcfupiniiics had rather alTcnl untu ail, then adventure the triall 
of any. 

Thuf, I (ay, muft itiefe Authors be read, and tlius muft we be read our 

felVcti lor dUcourfing uf matters dubious, and many cuntroycrtible truths-, 

f we 


Enquiries into Vnlgdr 

Book u 

wc cannot without arrogancy entreat a credulity' , of unpior e any farther 
affent , then the probabihty of our Rcafons , and verity of experiments in- 


C H Af • IX. 

of the Jdme. 



Cxpreffions of 
holj Scripture 
fitted many 
times nther 
CO popular 
and common 
apprclicniion , 
then to the 
csid nature 
of things. 

In his Cyclo- 

T Here are befide thefe Authors and fuch as bare poiitively promoted errors, 
divers other which are in fomeway acceflbry-, whofe verities although 
they do not direftly alTert , yecdo they obliquely concur unto their beliefs. 
In which account are many tioly Writers, Preachers, Moralifts, Rhetoricians, 
Orators and Poets • for they depending upon invention, deduce their medi- 
ums from all things whatfoevcr -, and pbying mudi upon the fimile, or illu- 
ftrative argumentation : to induce their EnthyDMcmes unto the people, they 
take up popular conceits , and from tradidons uojuftiiiable or really falfe, il- 
lulb:ate matters of undeniable truth. Wherein although their intention be fin- 
cere, and that courfe not muchcondemnabley ^Tt doth it notorioufly ftreng- 
then common errors, and authorife opinions injurious unto truth. 

Thus have fome Divines drawn into argument the Fable of the Pbctnix^ made 
ufe of that of the SaUnumJigr^ Pelican^ Ssfiiisk^ and divers relations of PHnj •, 
deducing from thence moft worthy morals, and even upon our Saviour. Now 
although this be not prejudicial unto wifer judgqnents , who are but weakly 
moved with fuch arguments, yet it is oft times occafion of Error unto vul- 
gar heads, who exped in the Fable as equal a truth as in the Moral , and con- 
ceive that in&llible Philofbphy, which is in any fenle delivered by Divinity. 
But wifer difcerners do well underftand , chat every Art hath its own circle • 
that the efltds of things are bed examined , by fdences wherein are delivered 
their caules ^ that ftria and definitive expreflions, are alway required in Phi- 
lofophy , but a loofe and popular delivery will ferve oftentimes in Divinity. 
As may be obferved even in holy Scripture^ which often omittech theexad ac- 
coimt of things • defcribing them rather to our apprehenfions, then leaving 
doubts in vulgar minds , upon their unknown and Philofopbical defcriptions. 
Thus it termeth the Sun and the Moon, the two great lights of Heaven. Now 
if any ihall from hence conclude , the Moon is fecond in magnitude unto 
the Sun , he muft excufe my belief^ and I think it cannot be taken for he- 
refie, if herein I rather adhere unto the demonflration of PtoUmj^ then the 
popular defcription of iMiyr/. Thus is it faid, Chrcn.z.^ That Solomon made 
a molten Sea of ten Cubits, from brim to brim round in compafs , and five 
Cubits the height thereof, and aline of thirty Cubits did compafs it round 
about. Now in this defcription , the circumference is made jufl treble un- | 
to the Diameter : that is, as lo. to 30. or 7. to 21. But Arcbimeits de- | 
monftrates » that the proportion of the Diameter , unto the circumference , 
is as 7. unto almoft 22. which will occafion a fenfible difference , that is al- 
moftaCubtt. Now if herein I adhere unto Arehimedis who fpeaketh exaftly^ 
rather then thb £icred Text which fpeaketh largely •, I hope I fhall not oEfena 
Divinity: I am fure I (haU have rcsifon and experience of^^ery circle to fup- 
port roe. 
Thus Moral Writers, Rhetoricians and Orators make ufe of fe verall relati- 
j ons which will not confid with verity. Ariftotle in his Ethicks ukes up the coticeic 
! of the Sever, and the divulfion of his Teftides. The tradition of the Bear , the 
. Viper, and divers others are frequent amongft Orators. All which although unto 
the illiterate and ondifceming heEu^rs may feem a confirmation of their r^ides ^ 




dud Cfuimifl k f. H i> A - 


ycctfthifaaKifoniUec(btili(fainca£unii)<)!ficrrs wbn will om dqieadberwa i 
oihn-wifcrhffn common ApokigUtti whitbbcngof imjvilbble fi)(nie», dpouc- ' 
wicbfhniiing incluik wboltbinc moriiliuei, and TulIi as npiito the (I'erpoJi ol*! 
[heir abfurJincs. | 

T^e HierogU'plix«l»I(N3rinc of thctgyprl-""' ui... ?> -n tii'-.^ t>,iirf|„ndrcd 
yean cotubiuiiun loiTicconjcfturr they ;•-■"• ' iiltmiiirb I 

advanced many ixi['«lir cortars. Voru: :' inoiut"( 

words, cfi'ougli il.c Image and piAiorc^ tl ; ■, . ;^^ . , . iikv.i. i 

their brtJcnctnccit^ in tirclntcr* in<i laiigLiigc u!" luturc. 1. 
alihouKhiQnunyilunjji, they exceeded not ilicir cruc and iv 
yetinlooicotlicrtbcyotliprfiamingibcflorv', orukinguinii.. ' 
duixahleuntetticir^iteiimins. uhli'jucly innfirnttd many t'alj.tio , v.ti:!..'! .ii iu- 
tliendtlw and DJotttkd truths did alter ("lU ummhu dcci'i , Irt'in ilicm omo 
oihsr Natioro, arc itill retaiiwd liy fviubuIaaJ WriLcrs, l-'mblcmaiilb, Hcralil?s, 
aiidothrr*. Wbcrwf ftmHjarcilfiitlj' iiijiiit.iincdi'or truilis, as njturaUynnkc- 
ing fjond tbcir aniticial re[ircrcncatiom ; oiScri rymboltii-ally intuAdni. artli- 
Tcraliy rcccivwl, and fwallowed inihi/irnfenfc. witfionr i!!r,ii)' r-l' tticfwond. 
'»y wcpervat ibc proibiind and myilvrspiiv f.H' v . ,. j^..^,. 

tlvc Arcana'iof Gr«Jt AntiquUics , the Kc\ . ■■ , ,^,1,1 

BW learning fi^tanf. Tatnous Iwrcin int'ormo' ..l^. , l>'.'i- 

mm, £;»•/, efpcciallyOnJ! .^/>.»«« NUUchi : 'WW,:i',^-^^u^t>:i^,^^>->'ii-7i.!~ 
ti/iyiw/, aod injEgj'ptian Unguagelcittwobookiiot HieroglypIiicKii, cranilaicil 
into Greek by r'nJippur, arid a large colIcAiun of ill nude alter by FleriMi. 
But nonianis liltcly topufonod ibeoccan of that Dodriiie, beyond that emi- 
nent cxamjiIcoF induftriou* Learning, KirclnrMt. 

I*aifitCTs who are thevifiMc rcprdcnicrs of (hiu^, aod Tuch as by the learned 
foiTcof [be eye endeavour to iiiform tbe umlcrlluvding, are not inculpable bert- 
in, who either <ld"cribing naturals as iliey ate, or aftions a* they have been, have 
ofieotimc* erred "in their delineations. Which being the books iliai all can read, 
BrclruttfuU Advancers dI' tbefc cofutptioiis. efpccialty in common and popular 
apprdicnliona : who being unable for farther coqmrj-, miiA red in the text, and 
letter or ibetrdcfaiptitins. 

LaRly , Poets aim rocdcal Writers have in this point dttoded othen , trimly 
advancinij the £gi'ptian notion* of HArfiei, Phxmx, GrjfbiMi, and many morc- 
Kow however lo make uie of itt^m, AptJugues, and tiiblesbenutunwarran- 
ubIc,aQd the intent of thefe inventions mignt puini at laudiblcendi : Vet do they 
aSordour junior capaciuna frequent actaiion of error, fedin* impreillnns in 
our tender momonc* which our advanced judgerncni* gcn-.T3lly n^eft to 
expunge. Thiiwn'inc vain and idlctiftiomof iheGencucidid hrft infiniiate 
into the heads of ClinUians ; and thus arc they continued even unto our daie^. 
Our Krft and bterary ipprelienlions being commonly inllrui^ed in Aaihori 
which tiandle ootbii^drei wbcrcwitb ourmemuriHbcingllutfcd, ourinven- 
tioni become pedamicJt, and cannot avoid titcir allufiom^ driving atthcft . mat 
the higiiert deganric^, wbitb arc but the frigidiiics of wii , and become not 
the genius of manly ingeDuiiies. It were therefore no lof* liie Cllat of Cdleni 
Ihidy, if thefe bad found tbc famefaiC) and would m I'otiie wny rcqnite the 
I ncglcCtof folid Auiixirs, if ihcy were (e6 putlucd. Jorwereapregoinrwit 
' educated m ignorance ba-cof, retdving only imprcfCons fiam realiues , upon 
fucb folid fimiidationt . it mull furdy taifemurc fubllantiiil foperlh-udionf , 
and (all upon very many excdleat ftniiif, which lave been juned off by thai 

Cm A V. 

Tbe devils 
method of 
error in che 

Enquiries int$ Vulvar 

Book I* 

Chap. X. 

of the Ufi and common f remoter of falfe Ofiniom^ thcendci- 

vours of S At an. 

BUt befide the infirmities of humane nature , the feed of error within our 
felves, and thcfeveral waiesof dehifion from each other, there is an invi- 
fiblc Agent, and fecret promoter without us, whofeaftivity isundifcerneJ, and 
plaies in the dark upon us i and that is the firlt contriver of Error, and profeffcd 
oppofer of Truth, the devil. For though permitted unto his proper principles, 
Adam perhaps would have finned without the fuggedion of Satan : and from the 
tranfgreffive infirmities of himfelf might have erred alone, as well as the Angels 
before him: And although alfo there were no devil at all, yet is there now in 
our natures a confeflcd fufficiency unto corruption , and the frailty of our own 
Oeconomie, were able to betray us out of truth , yet wants there oot another 
Agent, who taking advantage hereof procecdeth to obfcurc the diviner part, 
and efface all trad of its tradudion. To attempt a parti(lilar of all his wiles, is 
too bold an Arithmctick for man : what moft coniiderably concerneth his popular 
and pradtifed waies of delufion, he firft deceiveth mankind in tive main points 
concerning God and himfelf. % 

And firft his endeavours have ever been , and tbey ceafe not yet to inftiJl a 
belief in the mind of man. There is no God at all. And this he principally endea- 
vours to eftablifh in adired and literal apprehenfion ^ that is, that there is no 
fuch reality exiftent, that the neceffity of his entity dependeth upon ours, and is 
but a Political Chymcra ^ That the natural truth of God is an artificial creftion 
of man , and the Creator himfelf but a fubtile invention of the Creature. 
Wbere he fucceeds not thus high , he labours to introduce a fecondary and 
deduftive Athei&n ^ that although , men concede there is a God, yet (hould 
they deny his providence. And therefore affertions have flown about, that he 
intendeth only che care of fpecies or common natures, but letteth loofe the 
guard of individuals , and fingle exiftencies therein : That he looks not be- 
. low the Moon, but hath defigned the regiment of fublunary affairs unto in- 
! feriour deputations. To promote which apprehenfions, or empuzzel their due 
conceptions, he cafteth in the notions of fate , deftiny , fortune , chance , and 
\ neceffity j terms commonly mifconceived by vulgar neads, and their proprie- 
. ty fometime perverted by the wifeft. Whereby extinguifhing in minds the 
; compcnfationofvertue and vice, the hope and fear of heaven or hell •, theycom- 
: ply in their adions unto the drift of his delufions, and live like creatures without 
' the capacity of either. 

Now hereby he not only undermineth theBafe of religion, anddeftroyeth 
the principle preambulous unto all belief • but puts upon us the remocelr error 
I from truth, tor Atheifm is the greateft falfity, and to affirm there is no God, 
I the higheft lie in Nature. And therefore ftriftly taken, fome men will fty his 
: labour is in vain ^ For many there are, who cannot conceive there was ever 
I any abfolute Atheiji ^ or fuch as could determine there was no God, without 
i all check from himfelf, or contradiftion from his other opinions. And there- 
fore thofe few fo called by elder times, might be the bcft of Pagans ^ fuffering 
that name rather, in relation to the gods of the Gentiles , then the true Crea- 
tour of all. A conceit that cannot befall his greateft enemy, or him thnt would 
induce the fame in us ^ who hath a fenfible apprehenfion hereof, for hebdeivcth 
with trembling. To fpeak yet more flriftly and conformably onto fome 
opinions, no creature can wifti thus much ^ nor can tlie will which hath a power 
to run into velleities, and wifhes of impoilibilities , have zny ktinam of this. 



4nJ Cemrnci F. ii « o R i . 

ffat to ddiceiberc were no Cckl. 

iwiflj tbeir own l^ingi 

i.:r;rr-,v.'Ii,(Iifrjb%..i- j 


I iJlilL I] 

ii'ipiiiatuc cii'-- 

, whidi oinoOt <!■:-■■' ■'" i' 

■■.l:cvc. ihac i» nn;-' 

--^"--- Jv.w ',,..1 vv;i.ji»ll Iteatti, ilutt U «.;■.:. .V- ^ 

idici U»Kitwalltiic\*i)rlkiot N«urc. 

Now in ihii latter atrernp:, tlic rubtiIc>'orhrt circutnvmuon, Imhindirtfdly 
obuini-d ilic former. Tor altlmiigh to opinion there be many g"Kl% ini\'li;';iii 
nn acrcft in KcJinion, anj Jiith as tannot at all njnlift wiih Athnfin j \ ■■' 
tiiduciivdy and upon intcrcnce induce the feme, fiir unity is the iri-, 
rdcffcniial fltml>u:c ot Deity i And if there be niwc iben one Gcfi, ■ 
Athcifmtofiiy tbcceis noCodjia!!. And lierdn ilmugli SitrMn on])' lurtL-r- 
cd, y« were PUit and ArifirtU guilty of the Ume iruih ^ wthi denionlira- 
tivdy onderdiinding cbc fimpbciiy of [)crrc5:on^ and tiic indiviCiblc condition 
of die firft csufitor, it was cot in ibc (wwcr of Hart]) , or Arcopagy of Hell to 
work i^ from ii. For holding «n • ApodiiSica! ixowicdgc, and aflltwil 
fcicnceof it* vcilty, to perfwadc their apj^fchcniioos unto a pturality ol'gods 
in the world, were to m»kc t^cB^ bdicvc th*:re were n»rv tbtn one Center 
a Grde , or one ricbt Angle in ii 1 mnglc ^ wliith weremdecd « friiiile& 
jcropt, and infcnctli abfutdiiic* beyond the c»anon of btrll. tor tliough 
JMethanicli and vulgar licads iftcnd not unto fucb cmnprchcnfion! , who live 
not commonly unto tolf the advonugc of then- priDojiW ■, yet did diey not 
cfcape the eye of wifa- j1/wrt:*f, and fuch i* made good the gewalogic of 7«- 
finri brains; who although they hiid diver* Uylc* lor C»id, i« undcrmany 
BppeiUtionsacknowlcd^ one divinity : ruber conceiving thereby thcevidence 
otaAtofhii power in In'cralwaics and places, thenaoinlupliciiionof Eflcnct, 
orrtaldiAraAionof unityinanyone. . , 

Again, To render our erron more mohllroui (' and what unto miracie fcb 
fnrth tlie panciKc of God,) lie haih endeavoured to make [L<.> world hclitivc, 
dm he was God himfelf i and tailing of his tirilattcrrtpccobebutlikc the high- 
ell in heaven, he hfttli ODtained with mt-'ucobcLhelame on «artb. And hath 
fctordingly alTumed the annexes ofilivinity, and the prerogativciof liic Oe- 
Uior , drawing into praAice the opention uf niinclo , aiid the prdcience of 
(liingstocoinc. Thu» hath he ina Q>edous way wrought cures iiponilielicV : 
[played over Uiewoodroui ads of I'rophcts, and toumcrfaicd many mijatlcs 
of Chnll and bisApoIUes. Thut hath he openly contended with God , andio 
'ihi( etfcft hit infolci'.cy v:ki not alhamcd tn pUy a folcmn pri« with M.fci,, 
wimein although hii pcrfifrmante were very fpcciuus , ana beyond ihc cotn- 
[Ron app/ehenfion of any power bdow a Deity , y« was it not fuch a* could 
nrnXcgood Im Omniporcncy. For Itewat whcilly confounded iniheconverljon 
nf dull niiolicc- AnaAl'bylorophy can rcarccdeny lo be above the p»wcrul 
Nature, nor up<in a re^uifite predifyoiltton beyond the cffiuy of tiic Sun, 
Whacin nonviUillanding the hcadot the old Serpen; wof contefledly too weak 
for Mvffi band , and the arm of hi^ Magicians too (hurt for the linger of 

Thus bath be alfo made am believe that beomiaifc the dead^ that hcbuh 
the key of liG; inddcath . andaprcrogiiive above that pruKipIc whidi nukes 

AtrTptJUI die 
Umc Cnon 



Enquiries into Vulgar 

B OO K !• I 


The Authors 
couching Nc" 
cronnncy and 
apparitions of 
the fpixics of 

I' irncn departed. 
* Divination 
by the dead. 

How the de- 
til works his 
pretended re 
velaticns or 


Hebrosj In 
Greek, a 

no regrcflion from privations. The Stoicks that opinioned the fouls of wife 
men dwelt about the Moon , and thofc of fools wandred about the earth, ad- 
vantaged the conceit of thii effeft ; wherein the Epicureans , wj^.o held that 
death was nothing, nor nothing after death, muft cor.tradift their principles to 
be deceived. Nor could the Pythagorian or fuch as mantaincd the tranfmigra- 
tion of fouls give eafie admittance hereto : for holding that feparated fouls, luc- 
ccflively fupplied other bodies ^ they could hardly allow the railing' of fouls 
from other worlds, which at the fame time, they conceived conjoyned unto 
bodies in this* More inconfiftent with thefe opinions, is the error of Chriftians, 
who holding the dead do reft in the Lord , do yet believe they are at the 
lure of the Devil ^ that he who is in bonds himfelfcommandeth tne fetters oi 
the dead, and dwelling in the bottomlefs lake, the bleffed from Abralidms bo- 
fome , that can believe the real refurredion of Sumucl : or that there is any 
thing but deluiion, in the praftife of * Necromancy and popular conception of 

He bath moreover endeavoured the opinion of Deity , by the delufion of 
Dreams , and the difcovery of things to come in fleep, above the prefcience of 
our waked fenfes. In this espedation he perfwaded the credulity of elder times 
to take up their lodging before his temple, in skins of their own facrihces: till 
his refervedneis had contrived anfwers , whofe accomplifhments were in hts 
power, or not beyond his preiagement. Which way, although it hath pleafed 
Almighty God, fometimes to reveal himfeU; yet was the proceeding vtty difie-^ 
rent, lor the revelations of heaven are conveied by new impreflions, and the 
immediate illumination of the foul, whereas the deceiving fpirit, by concita- 
tion of humours , produceth his conceited phantafms , or by compounding 
the fpecies already reHding, doth make up words which mentally fpeak liis in- 

But above all he moft advanced his Deity in the folemn praftife of Oracles, 
wherein in feveral parts of the world, he publikely profefled his divinity^ 
but how (horc they flew of that (pint , whofe omnifcience they would refem- 
ble , thoir weaknefs fufficiently declared. What jugling there was therein , 
the Orator plainly confeffed , w6o being ^ood at the fame game himfelf ^ 
could fay that PjthU Philippifed. Who can but laugh at the carriage of Am- 
mon unto Alexunder , who addrefling unto him as God , was made to be^ 
lieve, he was a god himfelf ? How openly did he betray his Indivinity unco 
Crafia , who being ruined by his Amphibology , and expoftulating with him 
tor fo ungratefiill a deceit^ received no higher anfwer, then theexcufe of his 
impotency upon the contradiftion of fate , and the fetled law of powers be- 
yond his power to controle 1 What more then fublunary direftions, or fuch 
as might proceed from the oracle of humane reafon , was in his advice unto 
the Spartans in the time of a great plague ^ when for the ceffation thereof^ he 
wiiht them to ha ve recourfe unto a Fawn, that is in open terms, unto one iVir- 
trus^ a good Phyfitian of thofe daies ? From no diviner a fpirit came his reply 
unto CaracdHa, who renuiring a remedy for his gout, received no other coun- 
fell then to refrain cold drink ; which was but a dietetical caution , and fuch as 
without a journey unto tAEfcuidpim^ culinary prefcription and kitchin Apho- 
rifins might haveaffi>rded at home. Nor furely if any truth there were there- 
in, of more then natural aftivity was his coumell unto Dtmecnuus ^ when for 
the falling ficknefs he commended the Maggot in a Goats bead. For many 
things fecret are true ; fymp^hics and antipathies are fafely authentick unto us, 
who ignorant of their caufesmay yet acknowledge their effeAs. Beiide being 
a natural Magician be may perform many aftsin waies above our knowledge. 

though not tranfcending our natural power, when our knowledge fliali direa it. 

ndiicovered by himfelf, and fome by hamane indagation : 


Part hereof hath been 

tBoOL I. 
'birb ibough n 
brdlv belim 

*nd Ctmtpn £ a r o x s . 

^birb ibough nixgniffRliutteniinvcniiom unto uf. areftalcunto liif cognitioai 
Ihardly believe he h«h from elUcrtimc* unknown me vcrtinty ot' rfw loatlflone \ 
/ijrdylmferfpicacirydirfcrnedit tori-'lpcrttlK: NorJi, when ours Wield ic in- 
dcurDiimu-ly- Many letrcis there arcm Nacureofditficult dUcovwy unco man, 
of eaJic (cno.plnige unto Saian , wljcrciit' fomc lus \■^m ^ory cannot tonceaJ, 
otficrt till cnvv will not diftovtr. 

■ Again, fiitliuthcmyllcrlcot hiidrfulion, that although lie labour to niaie 
mbcTievctbat heikGod, and rup"cmctt iwiur<: wlattbercr, ytt would lie alfo« oirrbelicff , that he i^ icis tlicnA.nge(i or men >, and liii condition 
not only fubjoSed iimoratiofwl powers, but dieaftions of things whith have 
oocilicacy on our felvci. Thus hatti he inveigled no imall part of the world 
into i credulityofartififial Magick: That ihcrcBanArt, which witlwut tom- 
Ittft comm»r.ue[h tho powers of Hell-, wttcnte loaie have dclivetcd the polity 
of fpirit«, and left an account even to their Provincial Dominjons : that diey 
lUnd m avroof dttrnts, fpd<!. ind ConjurutonVi that he u aifraid of letters 
and charjiScrs, of norct and daflie*, which let togechcr do fignitic nothingj 
and not only in the didionnry of man , but tlic fuDCilei- voabulary ft^ Satart 
That ihcrcis anypowcrin Siimnf, piichorbriniftone, topurificiiieayr from 
hisuncloinncffi that any vcrtuc there is in Hi^rtcen to inaJtc good the mdn: 
of/*5< Ddwaias; any fuch Magidtas is afcribeduntochc RootBaanisby '/«- 
ftfimi ; or CjmffA^ MS oy v^/ IB not csfic to believe ; norit it naturally 
madcout whar is delivered of Twfa-w , timby thcfnnK of a fiflio liver, hie 
pmco flight .Sf'minifiii. That they arc afraid of the pcDcanglc of i'f/fwcM, though 
fo fee tijttn wiih the body of [n5Ui,.-u to touch and point oat the rive places where- 
in oui Saviour was wounded.I Know not how t^alTent. If perhaps he bath fled 
from holy water, if he cares not ro liear the found of" T(tTA^»m»uaitn^ if his eye 
dchghi not in the fign of the Crof« ^ and that Ibtnetimo he wHI feeni to be 
tlonncd with words of holy Scrijiiure, and to flyc from the letter iod dead 
verhality, who mufl only ftarcat the hfcapij animatcdintcriorsibcreof: It may 
be ford they arc but P^nhlsH fliglns, Amtrnfcads retreats, and elufory tcrgi- 
verfatirms ; Whereby to confirm our tfcdulitics, he will comply with the opinion 
of fuch powers, which in (beoifelvcf have no a^ivitJcf. Whercof havingonte 
begot in uui-irindtan afTured dependence, he makes as rc^uo powers which he 
buc prccarioull y obdes ^ ondio ddert ibofc cruc lod only chiums which Hell 
cannot wiiMand. 

Laltly , To load us farther into darknefs,and cjuttetolofeusiDthisniazc of 

Error, hewouldmaKemcnbdieveihorctsnofuchcrcatureas himftlf: andtbu 

hci« DOC only fubjed unto inferiour creatures, but in the rank of nothings Infi- 

I nuaung into nrcns minds there is no Devil at all, and coatrivab aaordingly, 

many waics to conceal or indubitate his exiReocy. Wltercin bcfidc that he 

annibiUf es the blcfTed Angels and fpiritt in the rank of his creation ^ he begets a 

f«ciirit)' of himfdf, andjtcatde&eyeiuito the tail -rcmuoerations. And tJierc- 

fore ihereto he inveigl-ih, not only SaiUmccs and futh as retain unto the Church 

of God : but isalfo comcnttliat Jlptc/trM, Dtm^eritMfifiny Hcathan fliould 

hoW the fame. And to this effcft he makcth men believe that apparuiom, uid 

fuchaiLurfirmhrt cxifienceare ciihcr deceptions of fight, of jnclanthoUy dc- 

pravcoicDts of phancy. Thus when he had Dot only apfcarcd hut f[akc unto 

Brutm , c'jjjriff the Epiciirian was ready at handtopcrfwadchim.ii wasbuta 

millakc in lui vvcary imagination . and thac indeed there were no futb ralltie* 

I in nature, ThiHhc endeavours to pro[agatc tlicunbeliefof wicchcs.wholccon- 

1 cciIioninS:T«hisco-c,xil!eTKy., by thismeansalfoheadvanceihthcupmionof to- 

I n\ death, and ilnggcryth the uninortxtity of [be fouU for, fuch as deny there 

arc ipuiti fubfifteoc without bodies, will with otore dii^qiltj' aSrm the fiEfMrucii 

cUltcocc of their own, 

J . ^^»" 


So ciiicd i 



uude of I 


' (at|ilytnf D 

ia HcbreWl 
conlillnb a 
roufJcRcts. I 


Enquiries int$ Vulgar 

Book i« 

Now CO induce and bring about chcfe faUicics, he hath laboured to dedroy 
the evidence of Truth, that is the revealed verity and written Word of Goo. 
To which intent he hath obtained with fome to repudiate the books of M<^- 
fes^ others thofe of the Prophets, and fome both : to deny the Gofpel and 
authentick Hiftoriesof Chrift -, to rejeft that of John^ and receive that of Jh-- 
das •, todifallowali,and ereft another of Thomas. And when neither their cor- 
ruption by Valentinus and ArrinSy their mutilation by Marcion^MoMes and Ekion 
could fatisfie his defign, he attempted the ruin ana total deftrudion thereof^ 
as he feduloudy endeavoured, by the power and fubtilty of Julian^ Maximinm 
and Dioclefiaft. 

But thclongcvicy of that piece, which hath fo longefcaped the common face, 
, and the providence of that Spirit which ever waketh over it , may at laft difcou- 
rage fuch attempts ^ and if not make doubtful its Mortality, at leaft indubitably 
declare •, this is a done coo big for Sat urns mouth , and a bit indeed Oblivion can- 
not fwallo\y. 

AndthushowftrangelyhepofTefleth us with Errors may clearly be obferved^ 
deluding us into contradiftory and inconfiftenc faUities ; whileft he would make 
us believe. That there is no God. Thac there are many. That be himfelf is God. 
That he is lefs then Angels or Men, That he is nothing at all. 

Nor hath he only by thefe wiles depraved the conception of the Creator, buc 
with fuch Riddles hath alfo entangled the Nature of our Redeemer. Some de- 
nying his Humanity, and that he was one of the Angels, as EInon ^ chat the 
1 ather and Son were but one perfon, as SahelUus. That his body was phan- 
taflical, as Mams^ Bafilides, PrifciUioH, fovimoMUus ; that he onely paflbd 
through Mary, as Vtjches abd Valetmnus. Some denying his Divinity ^ ch^ic 
he was begoccen of humane principles , and the feminal Son of Jofefh ^ as 
Carpocroj^ Sjmmachus, PhotinHs- That he was Seth the fon of Adam, a$ the 
Sethians. Thac he was lefs chen Angels as Cherinthns. That he was inferiour 
unto Melchifcdcch^zs TheodotHs. That he was not God, but God dwelt in him, 
zsNicolam* And fome embroiling them both. So did they which converted the 
Trinity into a quacernicy , and affirmed cwo perfons in Chrift, as Panlns Samo- 
fatcKHS'^ that held he wasman without afoul, and that the word performed that 
office in him, as AfoainarU. That he was both Son and Father,as Momanm, Thac 
Jefns fuffered, but Chrift remained impatlble, as Cherinthns. Thus he endeavours 
to entangle Truths : And when he cannot polfibly deftroy its fubftance, he cun- 
ningly confounds its apprehenfions ^ thac from the inconfiftenc and contrary de- 
terminations thereof, confeAary impieties, and hopeful condufions may arife, 
there's no fuch thing at all. 


Chap. XL 
A further Illuflration. 

1^ Ow although thefe waies of delufions, moft Chriftians have efcaped, yet 
XNare there many other whereunto we are daily betrayed, and chefe we 
meec with in obvious occurrents of the world , wherein he inducecb us , co 
afcribeeflfeftsunto cauiesof no cognation ^ and diftorting the order and the- 
ory of caufes perpendicular to their eflfefts, he draws chem afide unco chings 
whereio chey run parallel, and in their proper mocioas would never meec co* 

I Thus doth he fometime delude us in the conceits of Surs and Meteors, 
befide their allowable adions afcribing effeds thereunco of independenc caufa- 
tions. Thus hach he alfo made che ignorant fore believe chac nacurai effeAs 


O O K I. 

tad Coit- 

' ^ ». 

.! powerc; and ihefc be 

i I'licll 

n- - ' ■ iiRcn- 

) (■ . ■',■'■■;_:■.'■ 'i ■ I , ::;'-icioa 

dicy lu^£ I'LXh M>c!kl liuvciijc lijigctly oi ^' ic fm u,ii tut Ac iit\\mMy cmm^ 

True ic is uij wc will mc deny , Uiae al[boug]) theCe being nicunl prtv 
dudtoni fruni kconii and fctkd caulei , wc fi«cd iiac alway lr>ok upon luctn 
as lt« miinediatc Hind nt (jud , or of his niimllntii; Sprits - yn do 
ibcy lomcumG idouc s rcfpct Utcrcin -, and ev«i m their naniraU', the in- 
diderciKy ot (bcJ extdcnucb coDtcmpoafed tirno oat a&uiu , odoucs a fkr- 
ibrr confi'icrauiiii' 

That cwo in threcSuns or Moonsapf>carinAny tnnroUfenr nSgn, ii it doc 
worUi tlic wiiadcr. But tbat thr fame (hould 6itl out at n rnnarkabic time , or 
puinc of fotne diMfivcactitm , iltac the conti/^cnEy ol tbc appcarantc fhould 
be riinti(icdunt'.< diai time; that ibdfc wlio (hould nialie bur oae lioc ia the 
p." ' : I J Itutd togecJrtx in tbc great tphoncridcs of Cjod -, bdlde 

di iiijjnmciiLnt' the caufc, it may admit a Cbntlun apprehea- 

1,^. ..u-', ^licvcivcibm, wh«n wc ifinbetht; cfffftsof things uaio evi- 
dent and Iccining C3u(iiliiict,ivhKbanrefroiii thefn-rct and iindiftTrncd actioa 
ol' liiuifelf. Thus batb he deluded nuny Naiionsmhis AugunalUndFxtitpicious 
'cntion* -, from cafual and uncttntttved connrgencicvdiviuing events fuccecding. 
' icb TMfijp ia^tiXiiKfo reafrng opon RmiK, hitb Tistf pofTcfTcd all Eurvpe. 
vnAniffiui tnundtwo gaU m hi» facrificc, thecrcdubty nf the City con- 
|pd a hope of peace With Anih^mj , and iltc enniuDcnon of pcrlbm in choler 
each other. Becaufe ffrw/wand Oy/rMttneia Gtarkmore, and P»m^j had 
a dart or fad coloared gamicnt at Ph^falm^ ibele were prdago c<i their 
poThiow- Wbjth notwiibHanding arc farce Rlvctoriial fciiuds^ concluding 
'-'nphorslroni realities, and tiom conceptions mctapbuciall inferring realities 
j_ I. 

Now tbcli divinations concerning events^eing in his power to force, contrive, 
prevent or furiba.tbejr inuli generally (iill oat c<mfortnably unto hit prcduiiom. 
Whcii GrjufMt was lliin, tberameday theChickaiirefnfcd to cocncoOtof the 
coop : and CUmiiHt PMUher tinderwcnt the bkc fucccfv , when he concctnncd 
the Tripudiary Augurations : Tbey died not becau(c tbc I'ullris woald not it;d : 
buibftaufcthedoiTfiircliwibciriMath, be comrivcd that ablUncncc in tbetn. 
So wa5 there no natural de^dcoce of the event upon the (ign, but an arciH- 
' contrivance of tbc (ign unto the event. An iincspcctcJ way of ddulion, 
whereby he morecalUy led away tbc innrcumfpeccion of that bdicf. Which 
icy he might excellently luve acted before tbc death of S-ahI -, for that bc- 
withinhi* power 10 tyretcU, was notbcj-ottd hii ability to forcfliew : and 
bt have contrived ficnsiJicieoftbrongb all the aeaturcs, which vifibly con- 
iedb)'the cTent, Itad proved auttienttckanioibofeiitnn, and advincnl die 
cveraftcr. — 

I' ddudcihusairo by Philters, Ligatures, Chornu , nt^cmindcd Amulcti, 
inaers, and many fupcrlticiuus waioin thecure of common dilcalet - k- 
_ bcrcin theexpectauon of ir.eii with events of li; own conit iving. Which 
iilclomeunwillmgio fiOldiretdy uponMagick, impute unto the power of 
nagination, or the efficacy of btdden caul'ci, be obtann a blc-oJy adratuoge ; 


tha: ii in uif ti 
by Ckiini 
g>iu<ci, Cha- 
fji£i'.i), tH. 


Bnqi^ries into ^ttlgJir 


Book i« 

for thereby he begets not only a felfc opinion, but fuch as leadeth the open way 
of dellruaion. In maladies admitting natural reiiefe, making men rely on re- 
medies, neither of real operation in themfelves, nor more then fi:eming efficacy 
in his concurrence. Which whcnfocver he pleafcth to withdraw, they. Hand na- 
ked unto the mifchief of their difeafes ; and revenge the contempt of the me- 
dicines of the Earth which God hath created for ttiem. And therefore when | 
neither miracle is expefted, nor connexion of caufe unto effeft from natural 
grounds concluded ^ however it be fbmetime fuccefsfiill , it cannot be (afe to 
rely on fuch praftifes, anddefert the known and authentick proviiions of God. 
In which rank of remcJiies , if nothing in our knowledge or their proper power 
be able to relieve us , we muft with patience fubmit unto that refbaint, and ex- 
peft the will of the Reftramer. 

Now in thefe e£fe As although he feem oft times to imitate , yet doth he con- 
cur uaco their productions in a different way from that fpirit which fometime 
in natural means produceth e&ds above Nature. For whether he workethby 
caufes which have relation or none unto the effe A, he maketh it out by fecrec 
and undifcemed waies of Nature. So when Caiw the blind , in the reign of 
Anumnus^ was commanded to pafs firom the right fide of the Altar unto the 
left , to lay five fingers of one hand thereon, and five of the other upon his 
e^'es ^ although the cure fucceeded and all the people wondered, there was not 
any tiling in the aftion which did produce it,nor any thing in his power ilbat could 
enable it thereunto. So for the fame infirmity, whoi Aftr was counfelled by him 
to make a coUyrium or ocular medicine with the blood of a white Cpck,and nony, 
and apply it- to his eyes for three daies : When jHHsmUxlAs fpitting of blood, 
was curtd by honey and pine Nuts tak^ from his Altar : When Lucitis for the 
pain in his fide, applied thereto the allies firom his Altar with wine ^ although the' 
remedies werefomewhat rational, and net without a natural vertue unto fuch 
intentions , yet need we not believe tbat by their {MToper fiicuities they produced 
thefe efSeds. 

But the eflfeds of powers Divine flow from another operation -, who either 

Proceeding by vifible means or not, unto vifibleeffeAs, is able to conjoin them 
y his co-oporation. And therefore thofefenfiblewaieswhichfeemof indiflferent 
\ natures, are not idle ceremonies , but may be caufes by his command, and arife 
unto produdions beyond their regular adtivities. If Nahaman the Syrian had 
wafhedin fordan without the command of the Prophet, I believe he had been 
deanfed by them no more then by the waters of 2XiffM/r«y. Idoubtifanybcfidc 
Elijha had caft in lalt , the waters of fericho had not been made wholefome. I 
know thatadecodionof wild gourd or G>locynthis f though fomewhat qua* 
lified ) will not fix>m every hand be dulcified unto aliment by an addition of 
flower or meal. There was fome natural vertue in the Pbifter of figs applied 
unto Ezjtchids ) we find that gall is very mundificative, and was a proper medi- 
cine to clear the eyes of Tohip : which carrying in themfdves fome aftion of their 
own, they were additionally promoted by that power, which can extend their 
natures unto the prodaftion of effects beyond their created eflidencies. And 
thus may he operate alio from caufes of no power unto their vifible effects •, for 
he that nath determined tbdr actions onto certain efiects, hath not fo emptied his 
own, but that he can make them effectual unto any other. 

Ag^n, Although his delufions run highell in points of practice, whofe errors 
draw on oflfenfive or penall enormides, yet doth he alfo deal in points of fpecula- 
tion, and things whofe knowledge terminates in themfdves. Whofe cognition 
although it icois indifierent , ai^ therefore its aberratibn directly to condemn 
no man ^ yet doth he hereby pitparadvdy difpofe us onto errors, and deduaively 
deject us into deftrucdve condufions. 
That the Sun, Moon and Stars are living creatures, endued with foul and life^ 


*inl Ctmmsn £ « a u i' 

ferns it) innocent Error , ^ni an harmlcD digirilion h'om tracb - y«t tKrcby 1 
' " ' t!iL-.V IJ.iIiirrv <>fKl made It inwc plaufifaty coibraired. For 

:.- rpiriii would never firmly be toft in 1 
. And in ihe loweR hirn) uf NKiure^ 
. - i.vingcrtituf«s and conlJnot dctsy f«r 

1'li»t I'liiriuare^rorporeal ,ieetni ai Krll vicjr a conceit dcrAgsiive luttu himfelf, 
d fucli u\w ftir>nld fAther labour ro ovenhi-ow ^ y«t berety he ciUbhihctJi 
Ithd Dotltrinc of Luliratioii> , Amulccs und Charou , lu we tuve declared 

Thar rfwTnrciwnprmfifleiof all thing*, one good, and another evil- from 

xh: -.----■--■'. --- , ' , I - - -■-' --.vcv , from rheotliw divilioii, dif- 

i : !i<fn ot' fjrlupjr^i, EmftJiKtri, 

■"crbcn Orvtm/tirjiai Aritfuwiiii 

'.■i.u.r..i 11,1. ■■^wiiinge oi' AdorAtion, aad u die 

I 'ft Ureadtiiil iben hi< Maker; and thereiure not 

[!-ed the toocfiLin luctecding Age, uidraifeUihe 

I MCI have no genei'itiveemifnutt^atrordingno femiQal Prie- 
c, I. wu Arifiat/et opinion of old , nnmiaioed lltlf hv lone, 

31" ' j_[(.incedbyhiin fiirevw. For hereby he difparagob tnc fruit 

Dt' the Virg>i>, rrui\ratethihefuQduiient3l Frophdic, oor can cite feed of tbe 
wonun then bresls ihe head of the Serpent. 

Not doth he only fj>ort in fpev:iil.iiive Error*, which are of confcqami Imjiie- 

tiet-, but rtK umiuiccncfs ot' his malice bnnii aircr runpic Upfrt, and luch 

whofe talline* do onely condemn our uFuterllindingt. Ihui; if I'mufb^m 

ivill fjiy there tf another world in tbe Moon^ l( Htrtclhmj with hii Adberencs 

Will bold (lie Sun i« no bigger then ic appcareilti If jlm^xMj^Ai affirm that 

Snow is blwki It* any other opinion thiTe arc no AmiftAtj , or tbu Start 

dotiti . he thai! iiot want herein the anplanfe or advocacy ofViun. For tna- 

"gwngilietraniiuility of truth, he delightcth to trouble its ftreains ^ andbcing 

ptotefleJ enemy unto God (' who is truth it Ictf ) l>c prumoteth any Etror as dc- 

gwory to hif Nature ■. anJ rcvcngcth himlelf m every diffonnicy I'rom troth. 

tlieretbrc at any tunc tie fpeak or praftifc truth, it is upon ddign.anda fubtilc 

invcrlioii of the precept of Ood, w do good that evil may come of it. And I 

therefore fomcttmc* we meet witli wholfomc dodnncs from Helt ^ Nofit te- 

iffum. the Motto of Dtlfhii, was a good precept in morahty : T( a juU roan 

» btldved of the god*, an uncnntroulablc verity. *Twas a good deed, though 

IKK well done, >vmch he wrouglu by Yeffufttn , when by the touch of his foot 

n:.ioredaUmcrnjn, iiid by the Ih-ook of Inj hand another that was blind, 

X the jaccnrina hereof dnvcj at his own advantage-, ftff hereby t(c not only 

in/inncdiheopin![inoi his power with tire people, buthisinscgniy with Pnn- 

^ , in whofc power he knew it lay to ovenhrowiiis Oracles, and filencc the pra* 

c i>i hii deluhons. 

But of fudi a diffufed nature , and fo large it the Empire of Truth , that 
hath piicc within the walU of Hdl , am the deviU thcmfelves ore daily 
ibrcediopraftifciti notonlya*beingirucibcnilclif« in a Metapbyiital verity, 
that is, as liaWng their cltcnceconforniahkunto the Imrllcft of their Maker, 
butmAingufcot Moral and Logical verities-, ibuit, whether in the confbr- 
mitj' of words umo tilings, or tilings unto thrir own coiKepoaof, they praftifi: 
I truth in cimimon among dicmlelvet. Tor although wiilwut fpeech tncy iatui- 
i lively rooccivc each othct, yet da thor apprebefilions proceri through rea- 
' litiei i and tlicy conceive each other by fp^rics, which carry the mic aod pro- 
Ipe: nuboot of thingt conceived. And fo alfo in Moral veritie>, although 
i^ G 2 tbey 


How the ^ 


Enquiries into Vulgdr 


K !• 

the)' deceive us , they lie unto each other •, as well underftanding that all 
community is continued by Truth , and that of Hell cannot conlift with- 
out it. 

To come yet nearer the point, and draw into a (harper angle ^ They do not 
only fpeak and praftife truth, but may be faid well-wilhers hereunto , and in 
fome fenfe do really defire its enlargement. For many things which in them- 
fel ves are falfe, they do defire were true ^ He cannot but wifli he were as he 
profeflcch., that he had the knowledge of future events^ were it in his power, 
the Jews fhouldbein the right, and the MeJfiMy^tto come. Could hisdeiires 
cfFeft it , the opinion ofArifiotU (hould be true, the world Ihould have no end, 
but be as immortal as himlelf. For thereby be might evade the accomplifh- 
ment of thofe affliAions, he now but gradually endureth; for comparative- 
ly unto thofe flames, he is but yet in Balneo^ then begins his JgnU RoUy and 
terrible Hre, which will determine his difputed fubtilty , and hazard his immor- 

Buttofpeak flriftly, he is in thefe wiihes no promoter of verity , but if con- 
fidered fome waies injurious unto truth , for (befides that if things were true, 
which now are falfe, it were but an exchange of their natures, and things mufb 
then be falfe , which now are true ) the fetled and determined order of the 
world would be perverted, and that courfe of things diflurbed, which feemed 
beft unto the immutable contriver. For whileft they murmur againfl the pre- 
fent difpofure of things , regulating determined realities unto their private 
optations, they reft not in their eftab&fhed natures •, but unwiihng their un- 
alterable verities , do cacitely defire in them a difformity frgm the primitive 
Rule, and the Idea of that mmd that formed all things beft. And thus he oflfend- 
cd truth even in his firft attempt i For not content with bis created nature, 
and thinking it too low , to be the higbeft creature of God, he offended the 
Ordainer , not onely in the attempt » but in the wifh and Ample volition 




tm m m. • t • 

lEreoftbccommofi opmion bath bca, iad fbll rcnaincrli 
I atDiingftui, thatCIiryflalisnoUiiiigdfe, bntlceor^now 
I concrcffil toi by durauoD of dmc, LongtMled beyonij 
j liqiwrion. Ofwh'ch affcrtion , if prdci'ipiion of time, 
md numcrority of AlTcrror* , wia-c a fuffit ient dcmofr 
Itratiori, wcmig'ii lltdo^t-n herein, at ununqijcitionabte 
Truibj nor fliouldtiicre need «/ffrJ;r dili|uiiition. For 
k frwtjpiniomiba'care, which have found fo many friend*, 
orbeen To popularly received, through all profc/Iiotis and Ages- P/inj ii poU- 
dvein this opinion : Ci-jjUSut fit ^lU tnhrmriaiiu cftxriu ■ titc fame is fijl- 
lowcd by StnfCA, Elegantly dcff nhed by CUnJi^n, not denied by Sc^ligtr^ fomc 
way affinm-d by Mhmiu. BrAfAvnItu^ and diredly by many otbcri The vcnc- 
ible failKT* of tiw Qiurcli bavc aJfo afTcutcd ha-eto ; A» BajH m bis Hex4mt- 
iH./ffJtff/ in his Bfi'niologie*,and not only ,^n/?i(f4LatiDe father .buiOVf^Br^ (he 
gteat.and 7{»vmaponoaTi)Icinof that term cxpriflcd intlicfiritof £?^tj(/. 

All wliicl! fi«wulillanding,unon a llrift etKjuin'.welind ilie mattH tontrover- 
tiblr, and w-uhraucIiciorrrealondcnicdthenHai yet affirmed. Vorihough ma-_ 
fly lave pafTcd jc over with cai;c atfirmativw ; ^ct are tliercalfo many Athon that 
dcnyit.andihc cxacteftMiOwalogillshavc rej'cfted It. DimkrHsm hiteieventb 
Bonk dcnieib it, fif Chryilal be there taken in iii proper aacption,-M HhvJi^i- 
^idiaih uffd it, andDocforaDian)ODd,af .V>(/flM/iwihatf)Cxpoii»dniit) fiic in 
^nt pUcc Ik afiirmeth -, Cry^A^mn eft Ufidrm rx aijma bufa cMcntHm . nm 
fAtneH (rifvrr ftd divini tAttnivi. Stlinnj who iranr^ribca Plif) , and thcre- 
fbrein'almoll all fub(cnbedun[otHtn,[i«diinihii [mint dincnicdirom liini- fa- 
jam ijiitiAm vjAtittn crin, or in Crjfi.iSum tinrftrAri, [ti frttfifA. Mm^tlm 
inhiiComnwntupon TAtfcmiti ^ hatfi with confidence rejededit. Tlw fiune 
haiJi been pcrfuniied by AirkaU it HAtwA fifpUtm -, by CArdan^ Satiut dr 
Sfet^ C<tfiMi BfmArjMtySfnMeTiMt,arA many more. 

Nowbclide^Autburity ugainlttt, there may be in*nyrealbtii deduced B'om 
llieir fevcral diffidences which fcem to overthrow a. And firlt , a diifercncc 
U probable in their contrttion. for if Chryilal be a ftor.c ( as in ibc num- 
Wrtbcrwf it is tonfcffedly receival,^ it « not miiiiediatly concreted by the 
efficacy of cold, but tadicr by u Mineral fpiht, nnd lapidifical prin<ipks of 
jtsoirn . and therctbce while it Uy in fitMu ^nripiii, and remained in « flu- 
id body, it was & fub]c£t very unapt ftn- proper conglaciaiion ^ for Mineral 
__^^ fpirits. 



Bnqmrits into Vulgar 

Book 2. 

How to make 
Ice icany 
tisie of tbc 

fpirits do generally refill and fcarce fubmic thereto. So we obfcrvc tliat ma- 
i ny waters and fprings will never freez , and many parts in Rivers and Lakes , 
where there are Mineral eruptions , will ftill perlift without congelations . 
aswealfo obfervcin Aqudfonis^ or any Mineral folution, either ot Vitrioll, 
Alum, Salt-peter, Ammoniac or Tartar ^ which although to fome degree ex- i 
haled , and placed in cold confervatories, will Chryftallize and Ihoot into white ' 
and glacious bodies • yet is not this a congelation primarily effeded by cold, 
but an intrinfecal induration from thcmfelves ^ and a retreat into their pro- 
per foliditics , which were abforbed by the liquor , and loft in a full imbibi- 
tion thereof before. And fo alfo when wood and many other bodies do pe- 
trifie, either by the fea, other wareis, ot earths abounding in fuch fpirits -, we 
do not ufually afcribe their induration to cold, but rather unto falinous fpirits, 
concretive juices, and caufes circumjacent, which do affimilate all bodies not 
indifpofed for their impreflions. 

But Ice is water congealed by the frigidity of the ayr-, whereby it acqui- 
rethnonewform, but rather a confiftenccor determination of its diffluency, 
and amitteth not its efTence, but condition of fluidity. Neither doth there 
any thing properly conglaciate but water, or watery humidity ^ for the deter- 
mination of quick-filver is properly fixation, that of milk coagulation , and 
that of oyl and undious bodies, only incralTation • And therefore AriftotU 
makes a trial of the fertility of humane feed, from the experiment of conge- 
lation ^ for That, faith he, which is not watery and improlificaU will not con- 
glaciate •, which perhaps muft not be taken (bridly, but in the germ and fpi- 
rited particles : for Eggs I obfervewiil freez, in the albuginoos part thereof. 
And upon this ground Paracelfiis in his Archidoxis, extradeth the magiflery 
of wine ^ after four months digeftion in horfe-dung, expofing ic unto the extre- 
mity of cold ^ whereby the aqueous parts will freez, but the Spirit retire and be 
I' found uncongealed in the Center. 
But whether this congelation befiraply made by cold, or alfo by co-operation 
of any nitrous coagulum , or fpirit of fait the principle of concretion • where- 
by we obferve that Ice may be made with Sale and Snow by the Hre fide ; as 
I is alfo obfervable from Ice made by Salt-peter and water , duly mixed and 
(Wrongly agitated at any time of the year ^ were a very confiderable enquiry. 
For thereby we miglit cleer tne generation of Snow , hail and hoary troUs, 
the piercing qualities of fome winds, the coldnefs of caverns and fume Cells. 
We might more fenfibly conceive how Salt-peter fixetli the flying fpirits of 
Minerals in chymical preparations ^ and how by this congealing quality it be- 
comes an ufefiil n^edicine in Fevers. 

Again , The difference of their concretion is coUedible from their diffo- 
lution*, which being many waies performable in Ice, is few waics effeded in 
Crhyftat. Now the caufes of liquation are contrary to thofe of concretion •, 
and as the Atoms and indivifible parcels are united, fo are they in an oppofite 
I way disjoined. That which is concreted by exficcation or expreflion of humi- 
dity , will he refblved by humedation, as earth, dirt and day^ that which 
is coagulated by a fiery ficdty, will fuflfer colliquation from an aqueous hu- 
midity, as fait and fugar, which are eafily diffoluble in water, but not with- 
out difficulty in oyl ^ and well redified fpirits of wine. That which is cort- 
creted by cold , will diffolve by a moifl heat, if it confift of watery parts, 
as Gums , Arabick, Tragacanth, Ammoniac and others •, in an ayrie heat or 
oyl , as all refinous bodies , Turpentine , Pitch and Frankincenfe •, in both, as 
gummy refinous bodies , Maftick , Canphire and Storax ; in neither , as neu- 
^ trals and bodies anomalous hereto, as Bdellium, Myrrhe and others. Some 
' by a violent dry heat , as Mettals •, which although corrodible by waters , 
I yet will they not fufier a liquation from the powerfulleft heat, communicable 


caltinaciuii ur ft 
v^trc■^ui tnainiixniri', V' 
duddi grouinlibr Attiiix. 
itcootniofl iiA> unio (n>tti. 

ButlcewtU ililTulvc ininyw«v of heat ; lorir i. 
coUiouirc in wactn-, or warm oyl \ nor Ut^tliitorl 

butiiui ..;.'- :'-- -:!-:ti[U ciliJlty of many waters, ict 1! I 

iolvcn; ip. of Vitnoil, Salt, orT.irrar , rv 

[inueii- - of wino, af inay be obicrveil inUc n 

Ag>ii':. ■'■ iLewilluotendureadryAciTiDonwiilivu. t.>j..<u-'N,.tir 

if it be I .'. i.'l(xb,ic mclKcb.BucCarj'fLaj will oilciSc unioe4cana- 

ly ■ tliL'[ ■•.i€l fVawi orliglu bQ<l[cs,aail convert the n«(ilcfi-cety 

^ctfi- \'- icuLcnt of vcr^r difierenc putf .- wtiercinwcfliall not to- 
large, gtsluvinj^^ilikuurtcJcurHYrning lucti bodia in the Ctup. ot' Ele^icKf. 

Ibry M'C diA;rcnc«l by lufiernacatton oc fioacing upon wuer ^ iot CbrylW 
Will link in n'aicr, ai carrjingin ittownbulka grtstec poniieroliiy , ctwn tlM 
ipoce in sny water it dotlt occupy ■, tad will therefore only fnrim in tnolieu 
mcttal and QuicUilvo-. But Ice wiU fwim iu water of ivhu cbinnelt Jb- 
evcr ; and ihongh it dtik in oyl , will fltw in fpinu of wine or yffav vit4. 
And ihcrcfore It ntay fwim in wat«, not only « being water it&lf, andinits 
proper plarc, but perhaps at wdghing foinovhac \tfi then the wwer ic pofrdfetli. 
AIM ttierefurc as it will not fmk uoio the bonam, fb will it ocither jlou 
ftbovc like lifter bodice , Uic being near ui weigbc, lie fupcrliditlly or al- 
niu{t liorifonrally unto it. And tberetoie alfo in Ice or roagdaiion of ^le 
or Sogar , although it dcfccod not unto the bottom , ytt wdl it abau , juul 
dcdiae bdow the fuilacc in thin water, but rory leDTiliIy in fpirtu of u-inc 
For Ice although it fcctncdi at tranTpoientud cgmpaA ai Cfaryilil , yet is it 
fliortin either^ for its aitomes ire not coocreced into continuity, which 
<loth diminilli its trinHuccocy ■ it is alio full oij fpumcs and bufahW , wimb 
may abate iit gravity. And tiierefere waten frozen in pint, and open gbf- 
Jev, aSier dieir difToIuiion do conunonly leave a froch and fpume uponthetn ^ 
which arc caufed by the airy parts diSiiCed ixi the tongeieaUe mixture: 
which uniting ihemfdves and tindiag no paflage ac the (iir&ce, do devite 
the mafs, and make the liquor talie up 4 greater place thtn betore: unity 
be ohfo-ved in gbOei liUcd ivith water , wbicb bciog Iroxen, will leom to 
fwrllab-jvo the brim. So that If it) this condcidacion any one afiirmccb there 
U alfo iome rarcia^ion, eKperienceniay adcrt it. 

Tticy are diftin^uOied infublUixe of pans and tiie acctdenu liirreof, that 
it, in colour andftgure', forkeu a rimUary body, andboinogeoeoutconcreti 
on , whofe materol it properly water , and but avddcutjlly exceeding the 
Ihnptkity <ii chat element . But the body of ClirylHl i» mixed ^ its ing^edienti 
many, and fenlibly concainetb thofc principles inco which miat bodies are 
reduced, r-or bdide the I'pint and mercurial principle it containeth a ful- 
phur or ioAatnable part, and that in no ftnill quanuty ; lor befidei i>: tileAirick 
•ttradion, whkh i^ made by a I'ulphureout e^oviiim, it will l>rike tire upon 
{icrculTionUke many tiiher Uone<; ajid upon coUifiun with Ueel afticdylead 
tbrth Its fpark», not luuch infcnourly unco a fliut. Now fticb bodice aa 
jbike (ire have fulpbureous or ignitible para within them , and chafe fthke 
beC, wbichaboundtnoltintbem. tor thtia fcioullatiom arcnoithc acccnlion 



mdclng oF 
> MntaU, t^e. 

Bnqmriei imt f^lgir 

Book 2. 

of ctie ayr , upon the colliTton of two hard bodies , but racher the inflamable 
elBuencies difcnarged frora the bodies collided. For Diamonds, Marbles, He- 
liotropes and Agaths , though hard bodies , will no: readily ftrike iirc witli 
a fted, much lelswith one another; Nora fliiit fo readily with a ftecl, if 
they both be very wet, for then the fparks are fometimes quenched in theic' 

It containeth alfo a fait, and that in fome plenty, which may occalion its 
fragility, as is alfo obfervable in Corall. This by the arc of Chymillry isfe- 
parable , unto the operations whereof it is liable, with other concretions , as 
^tcination, reverberation, fublimation , didillation : And in the preparation 
of Chryftal, ParMtlfiu hath made arule for ihatof Gcmms, Briefiy.itcon- 
lilleth of parts fo far jrom an Icie diHolution, that powerfiill menftruutns are made 
for its emollition-, whereby it may receive the tincture of minerals, and fore- ■ 
femble Gemms , as Bottim hath declared in the diftillacion of Urine, Ipirits of 
wine and turpentine ; and is not only tri curable, and reduceable into powder, by 
contrition, but will fubfiit in a violent fire, and endure a vitrification. Whereby ,' 
arc teftified its earthly and fixed parts. Tor vitrification is the lait work of rixe, ! 
andafufionofche fait and earth ^ which are the fixed elements of the compoli-' 
tion^ wherein thefolible falc draws the earth and infufible pare into one conci-t 
nuuiit i and therefore afhes will not run from whence die laic is drawn , as ' 
bone afhes prepared for the Tc{l of Metals. Common fulion in Mecals is ' 
alfo made by a violent heat , a<^ing upon the volatile and fixed , the dry and ; 
humid parts of thofe bodies ^ which notwithltanding are fo united, that up- 
on attenuation from heat, the humid parts will not fly away, but draw cne 
fixed ones into fluor with them. Ordinary liquation in wax and oily bodies 
is made by a gentler heat , where the oyl and fait , the fixed and fluid prln. 
cipleswill noteafily feparate. All which, whether by vitrification, fuiion or 
liquation, being forced into fluent confiftcncies, do naturally regrefs into their 

i former folidities. Whereas the melting of Ice is afimpic refolution, or return 

i from folid to Ruid parts, wherein it naturally refteth. 

I As tor colour, although Chrydal in his pellucid bodyfeems to have none ac 

' all, yet in its rcduAion into powder , it hath a vail and fliadow of blew ^ and 
in its courfer peeces, is of a ladder hue then the powder of Venice glafs ; and 
this complexion it will mantain although it long endure the fire. Which not- 
withftanding needs not move us unto wonder ^ for vitrified and pellucid bo- 
dies, are of a clearer complexion in their continuities , then in their powdera 
and Acomical divifions. So StibtHm or glali of AntinKuj , appears fomen'hac 
red in glafs, but in its powder yellow ^ lo painted glafs of a fanguine red will 
notafcendin powder abovea murrey. 

1 As for the figure of Qu^ftal ( which is very Grange, and forced Plimt to de_ 
fpair of refolution ) it is for the moll part hexagonal or fix cornered ; being 
built upon a confufed mactcr , from whence as it were from a root ancjular 
figures arifc, even as in the Amcchyft andUafeltes. Which regular figuracion 

: hath made fome opinion, it hach not its determination fi-om circumHripEton 
or as contbrming unto contiguities, but rather from afcminal root, and fbr- 

I madvc principle of its own, even as we obfcrve in fcveral other concretion?. 
So the llones which are fomctime found in the gall oi' a man , are moft trian- 
gular , and pyramidal , although the figure of that part Items not to co- 
operate thereto. So the jifieria or lapu JieSartj, hath on it the figure of a 
Star, fo Lapu JudaicHs hath circular lines in length all down its body 
and equididant , as though they had been turned by Art. 5o that we call a 
VajTie ftone , and is often found in rravtU fits amongH us, being ol an he^ 
mifphericai figure, hath five double Tines arifing from the center of its balis 
which'if no accretion diftraft them, do commonly concur, and meet in the 
,„ , pole 

Boot. 3. 

,4nd CmimM E k 


1 pok thereof. The figures are rfgulat in many othei- ftoocs, lu in thf Bdem' Wkidi fran- 
rdccs. t^ipu Mi^HMM, Cbmw Amr^Mui, and many iimrc; aiby tbofe wWtli "'""b^r^c'-i- 

vc not the rsMTrcntc iiereof may be obftrvcd m dieir iigurwcsprctfevl by ^^'' 

incrslogift*. put Ucnxcivcil* its ijgurc according unto tlic furtiicc wfitrc- 'y.„ 
ink concrcttfh, or the cirajmambirncy which confoniiedi it. So it it (ilnio '.. 
Dpon tlic furfacc ijf \vater, hut hjund in Hoyi ( wludi is alfo a glaciatioo,) i'=-- ^ t. 
and figured inits gonnlous defnuit fmoi die ayr, and fo growing greater or ^:''"-' ' '"' 
tcffer according umo ilic atcreiion or pluvioii* iiggdation iiboot ttic mother j, , , '|',' ' ' 
and fundamenHi Atorac» tbcrcol'- which feon* to be fomc (eathery particle ■ ,: 
otSnow-, akhough Snow it felf be fexanguUr, or iitleaftof afUrryandna- •■ 
ny-poJnted JigurC- 

They are'oUb differetitTd in the place* of theu- generation-, for ihotigli '"' 
ClirylHI be found in told coantrio , and where ice nmiaincth long , And the 
ayr excecdeth in told, yet il it alfo found in regiom, wlici'e Ice is feldwn 
I'een or loon dilFohed^ as PHiit and .^irWroit relate of Cjfrtj, CMfAmMniA 
'.indanlflandtntbc Red fra , It hath been alfo found in the vons of Minerall, ' 

I'Miietimci aggfaqnatoJ unro lead, ftniMimes m Kodis, opatoto Oooe*, and J^'''"«'B[t« 
iIk marble race of oiUvim Unke of I'un*"*. It hath alfo connanc veins ^ 'J^„^ j_^ 
a belide others , that nt" mount Sutviw about the Territory of Btrgmn - from ' of purt t^iity- 
whenceif part betaken, innoloi^traAoi' time (mtoftliff (iuncplnce, *sfh»Bl tt>l. 
itJ mineral matriJ, other* anf oblbrYcd loarife. WhithmadethelearncdCn'**- j „ Ciiitt^ 
f*/ to conclude, t''ideAnJ hi m/ii e/Miet ^m vtncerfm faffiU. It is alfofoumlin , [„"*' 
ihcvciiisof Mincnib,in rocKi,and1onierime tntommoa curb. Butasfijrke, it 
will not rca.llly conreiebuiin tlicapproachmcntof the ayr, as we hove made 
trial in glalTcs of wuicr, covered an inch withoyl , wliich will nor eallly freez 
inbard frolts of erne dmwte. For water commonly concrctetli firft initsfiir- 
&ce, and fo conglaciatcs downward >, and fo will it do elthougbitbeeKpored 
indw: coldeft metralof lad , which well accordcth witJifhatexpreHiono^ %b^ 
The wfltcri arc hid at with a Ilunc , and the ftcc of the deep is frozen. Bur 
whether waKTwhich hath been boiled ur heated dodifootier receive Uiis congela- 
doa,a» commonly is delivered, we reitinthcexpcrimeni of C^eM/,, whonath 
rejcdedthcfameinlii* cicclknt difcourl'c of Meteors. 

They have contrar)- qualitie? elemental , and ufcs mediciral ■ for Ice is 
cold and moid, of the quality of water : batCliryftaliscold andJry, aetord- 
ingto thecondirionof canh. The nfeof Itci* condemned by jnoft Phyficrtro 5 
thai of ("hryllal commended by many, tor although Ditfcvri^la una Cn/cm, 
have left no mention thereof; yet hath M-uhh/tu , ^iirict/a and maoy com- 
mended it in dyfcnccries and flnies ; all for the incrcal't of milk j molt Oty- 
miiUfor the ftonc, andfome, ssJirajfMvslMjuni Baiini, a*an antidote againfi 
ptfifon Which occult and fpeciiical operations, are not e»[<Aiblc from Ice 
lor being bur water congealed, it can never make good fuch qualities-, norwill 
itrcafonably admit of fccrct proprieties, which arctheaBeAionst>f forms, and 
tompoCtion«atdiftancefrom their elementf. 

Having thus declared what ChryHal is not, it may afford f»mc fatisftdion 
to manilSl what tc is- To deliver iltcrcfore what with the judgement of ap- 
proved Authors, ardbcfl rcafon confitletb. It ii a mineral body in the difle- 
renccof Hones, and reduced by fomc unto that fubdivifion, which cOmprc- 
licndeth gcmms , tranfparent and rdemblmg gUfsorlcc, made of a lentous 
percolation of earth, drawn from the moft pure and hmpid Joyce thereof, 
owing unto tl>e coldncft of the cartli fomc concurrence or coadjuvaiKy . but 
noc iramediaie determiiisnon and efficieacy , which arc wrought by the band 
of iisconcrctiverpirit, thcfeedsof petrification and Gcrfonol itfclJF. Ajfeo- 
liblc PhylofopbcTf coneciveof ihcgcneration of Diamonds, lrij,BeriIs, Not 
making tlicin of frozen icecle, or truin mcer aqueous and glaciablefubtlancei, 
H con- 

Chiy. jl. 



Enquiries into VulgAr 

Book 2. 

condenfing them by frofts into foliditics , vainly to be expedcd even from Po- 
lary congelations : from thin and fineft earths , fo well contempered and 
refolved, that tranfparency is not hindred-, and continuing lapidifical fpiritsj 
able to make good their folidities, againft the oppplition and adivity of out- 
ward contraries J and fo leave a fenfible difference between the bonds of gla- 
ciation, which if the mountains of Ice, about the Northren Seas , are eafiiy 
diffolved by an ordinary heat of the Sun ^ and the finer legaturcsof petrification, 
whereby not only the harder concretions of Diamonds and Saphirs ^ but the foo- 
ter veins of Chryflal remain indifTolvable in fcorching territories, and the Negro 
land of Congor. 

And therefore I fear we commonly confider fubterranities, not in contempla- 
tions iufficiently refpcftivc unto the creation, for though Mofes have left no 
mention of minerals, nor made any other difcription then futes unto the appa-* 
rent and vifible creation , yet is there unqueftionably , a very large Qaffis of 
creatures in the earth, far above the condition of elementarity. And aldhougb j 
not in a diftipft and indifpuatble way of vivency, or anfwering in all points 

the properties or affeftions of plants, yet in inferiour and dcfccnding con- 
ftitutions , they do like thefe contain fpecifical dillinftions , and are determi- 
ned by feminalities , that is , created and defined feeds committed unto the 
earth from the beginning. Wherein although they atttain uot the indubitable 
rcquifites of Animation, yet have they a neer affinity thereto. And though we 
want a proper name and expreffive appellation, yet are they not to be dofed 
up in the general name of concretions •, or lightly paffed over as only Elemen- 
tary and Subterraneous mixtions. 

The principle and moft gemmary affeAionis its Traluccncy : as for irra-' 
diancy or fparkling which is found in maiiy gemms , it is not difcoverable in 
this • for it cpmcth (hort of their compacftnefs and durity : and therefore 
requireth not the Emery , as the Saphir, Granate and Topaz, but will receive 
impeffion from fteel , in a manner like the Turchois. As for its diaphanity or 
prefpicuity , it enjoyeth that moft eminently- and the reafon thereof is its 
continuity -, as having its earthy and falinous parts fo exaAly refolved , that 
its body is left imporous and not difcreted by atomical terminations. For , 
that continuity of parts is the caufeof prefpicuity, it is made prefpicuous by 
two waies of experiment. That is, either in effcfting tranlparency in thofe 
In things} and bodies which were not fo before , or at leaft far (hort of the additional dc- 
^ ^' I gree : So Snow becomes tranfparent upon liquation ; fo horns and bodies re- 

folvcablc into continued parts or gelly. The like is obfcrvablc in oyled paper, 

' wherein the interftitial divifions being continuated by the accellion of oyl , 

' it becometh more tranfparent , and admits the vifiblc raies with lefs umbro- 
fity. Or elfe the fame is cffefted by rendering thofe bodies opacous , which 

: were before pellucid and perfpicuous So glafs which was before diapha- 
nous , being by powder reduced into multiplicity of fuperficies , becomes an 
opacous body , and will not tranfmit the light. So it is inChryftal powdered 
and fo it is alfo before •, for if it be made hot in a crufiblc , and prefently pro- 

i jeftcd upon water, it will grow dim , and abate its diaphanity ^ for the water 
entering the body , begets a divifion of parts , and a termination of Atomes 
united before unto continuity. 

The ground of this opinion might be, firft the conduGons offome men from 
experience ^ for as much as Chryftal is found fometimes in rocks, and in fome 
places not much unlike the ilirrious or ftillicidious dependencies of Ice. Which 
notwithftanding may happen either in places which have been for&ken or left 
bare by the earth •, or may be petrifications , or Mineral indurations , like 
other gemms , proceeding from percolations oi the earth difpofed unto fuch 

i _.. ._ The 

Exad comL 
nulty of 

^F } 

1>0 0C 3. 

- M/nl CtrniHM £ K R u n I . 


Thi.* ficonJaiKimoftconVrr.oi 
in Greek, bixlt Ire and CI 
dermg . luvo Irom tiwir . ■ . 
(ure , antt ntut Wat iK:.^ 
other. But tttit IS a lallriiy •- 

fjronnd mfrom Khcram: Ch^jfiitffHf, wberdty 

■ : ; ■■ '^ ' v.'v.';:- ~- ■,■ -'■■ .'■ Iv COTlfi- 

■, of na. 
imt* iIjc 

an Identity III nature. By this iJilUty wbs lie deceived :Uitt innk yt^tu fortu 
tbrflrnns vvatcr : By thi»arc tliey ddttded, who conceive fhrrni* Can wliicd 
isfotiiidiiKniitlielicid, lo be tlte fpawn of tbrWbaJci On^kc p»^Mu Ji-a- 
C9Ku( whli:^ i( the gutnmc of a cm, ) tobc tlic blood ut a Dragon. Uy ttic 
famcLogi^k we may infer, the Clirjlbillinc bumour of the eye, or rather the 
CryrtalltM heaven above, tobcoftltcfuWianccot'f-hryrtallKrcbcIoW; Ordnt 
God lendedidown ChrjibO, bcraufc it u delivered in ibc vulgJii tranllation, Kal. 
47. Aittiit ChrjfldSitm fitrnm f'iMt SMciSji, WFuchttanllflCionaiibougluilice- 
ntlly cxprcfi ihc Scpcu-tgini -, yet it diere no more mcAnt ihcretty, llien wliai our 
tria[UtKmin plain Engbfti efprefrctiii thuU, Iiccan«li furth btt Ice like mor- 
feb, or what 7 rtmt&iiu and ffniia itt clearly deliver , /*fiV<r gtltt fiimm fcnt 
fn^M , eoTAm fri£vt tjui t/nu tM/iftet f wra'ch inopcr and latine esprclitoru, 
baa diey been obferved in ancient tr.inflation<, elder cxpolUori lud not been 
nufguidedbyihe Syoononiy; nor bad they afibrded ocmiion amo y«^tj«, the 
GI0&, LjrMtm and many ottten, to fiavc takm upthc common cORCeic, and 
l^lte of tbu tcxc conformably unco ibc opimon reicdcd. 

Chap. II. 

Cwiitmng the Ludfitiu. 

of things pdrticttUrly fp*ken theruf cvidtntly or fr^hMj true. Of things 
gentraliy heUtve4, 6t farticuldrlj dtlhcreA^mdniftfllj $r prahMhjfdlft, 
In the frfi of the M*gntliiall -vtrtut ffthe tjrlh^ ef the four nttthm 
efihe (iene, thst it^ itt Fcriidij or Dire^iot^ its AtiraSim *r Coition, 
itsDalinaiion, its P^aridtion, *nddl(s tf its Amiqmij. inthe [tctnd 
a reje^fitn cffundry efinions and ttUtiom thtrtef, NdturdU, MeMctdl, 
yijloricillj MdgiiAlt. 

ANd Sx^ we conceive the earth to bea Magnctical body. AMagnetical 
body, we tcrtn not only that which huh a power aKra^ive^ but choc 
which fcatcJ in a convenient mediuai , naturally difpofcth it felf to one inva- 
riable and fised lituation. Aiid fueh a Magnctical vcrtue we conceive ro be 
in the Globe of the earth ^ whereby as unto its natural points and proper 
I teniw, it difpofcth it Idf untu the poles ^ bcir^ fo iVamed, conftmited and 
ordered aototbcre points, diat ihofe parts wliith are now at the poles, would 
not naturally abide under the .^cpiatori nor Green-Und remain in the plate 
of Ma^lanica. And if the wlu^le ctnh were violemly removed, yet would 
it not largo \t> pirrairivc points , nor pitch in tlie Ettll or Wdl , but return 
unto lis poUrj' poGtion agim. tor though by conipaAnefs or (jravityttmay 
acquire the lowell place, and become the ceniccot the umvrrfe, yec thai it 
makes good that ^int, oot varj'in^ at all by tlic accefiion of bodies upon , or 
JccdCon dicreot, from ii^ furtace, pcnurbiog the eqiiilibrition of either 
H 2 Hemif. 

Hew (lit t] 



Enquiries int$ Vulgdr 

B GO K !• 

The foundsh 
lion of the 
carihs ftabili- 


lob 3 a. 

The magnech 
cal vercue of 
the earth AH- 
fufed extra fe 
an4 commiH 
nicatedto bo. 
dies adjacent. 


The dodrioe 
of effluxions 
by the Author. 


Point to (he 
Point to the 

Hemifphere ( whereby the altitude of the ftars might vary ) or that ic 
ftridly mantains the north and fouthren points ^ that neither upon the mo- 
tions of the heavens., ayr and windes without, large eruptions and divifi-. 
on of parts within , its polary parts ftiould never incline or veer unto the " 
Ecuator ( whereby the latitude of places fliould alfo vary ) it cannot fo .. 
well be falved from gravity as a Magnetical verticity. This is probably that j 
foundation the wifdomc of the Creator hath laid unto the earth •, in this fenfe 
we may more nearly apprehend, and fenfibly make out the expreilions 
of holy Scripture, as Firmnvit erbem terr£ qtd mn commovebitur , he, 
hath made the round world fo fure that it cannot be moved : as when it is [ 
faid by Job , Extendit Aquiloncm fufer vacuo , &c. He ftretcheth forth the \ 
North upon the empty place, and hangeth the earth upon nothing. And this ; 
is the moft probable anfwer unto that great queftion. Whereupon are the ' 
foundations of the earth fattened , or who laid the corner ftone thereof? i 
Had they been aquainted with this principle , Anaxagoras , Socram , and Z>f- 
mecritwt had better made out the ground of this liability : Xenofhanes liad \ 
not been fain to fay the earth had no bottome^ and Thales MUefitu to make ic; 
fwim in water. 

Nor is the vigour of this great body included only in its felf , or circumfc- 
renced by its mrfacc , but diffufed at indeterminate didances through the 
ayr , water and all bodies circumjacent. Exciting and impregnating Magne- ' 
tical bodies within its furface or without it ; and performing in a fecret and j 
invifible way what we evidently behold effeftcd by the Loadftone. For thefe 1 
effluxions penetrate all bodies , and like the fpecies of vifible objeAs are ever j 
ready in the medium , and lay hold on all bodies proportionate or capable of' 
their adion^ thofe bodies likewife being of a congenerous nature, do readily I 
receive the impreffions of their motor ; and if not fettered by their gravity , | 
conform themfelves to fituations , wherein they beft unite unto their Anima- 
tor. And this will fufficiently appear from the obfervations that are to fol- 
low , which can no better way be made out then by this wefpeakof^ the Mag- 
netical vigour of the earth. Now whether thefe effluviums doflye byllnated 
Atomes and winding partiflcs as RenAtm ^s Cartes conceiveth-, or glide 
by ftreams attrafted from either Pole and Hemifphere of the earth unto 
the Equator, as Sir Kenelm Bigbj excellently declareth , it takes not away 
this vcrtuc of the earth ^ but more diftinftly fets down the gefts and progrels 
thereof -, and are conceits of eminent ufe to falve Magnetical phenomena's. 
And as in Aftronomy thofe hypothefes though never fo ftrange are beft 
elleemed which beft do falve apparencies-, fofurely in Phylofophy thofe prin- 
ciples ( though feeming monftrous) may with advantage be embraced, which 
beft confirm experiment, and afford the readieft reafon of obfervation. And 
truly the doftrine of effluxions, their penetrating natures , their invifible paths , 
and infufpefted eflfefts, are very confidcrable^ for befides this Magnetical 
one of the earth , feveral effufions there may be from divers other bodies , 
which invifibly aft their parts at any time, and perhaps tliroughany medium ^ 
a part of Phylofophy bjutyetin difcovery , and will I fear prove the laft leaf- 
to be turned over in tnc book of Nature. 

Firit, Therefore true it is, and confirmablc by tvery experiment , that Steel 
and good Iron never excited by the Loadftone , difcover in themfelves a ver- 
ticity i that is , a direftivc or polary faculty •, whereby, conveniently place^^ 
they do feptentrionate at one extream , and Auftralize at another. This \s 
manifcftible in long and thin plates of Steel perforated in the middle and 
equiliberated ^ or by an eafier way in long wires equiponderate with untwiftcd 
Silk and foft wax ^ for in this manner pendulous, they will conform them- 
felves Meridionally , dircfting one extream unto the Norths another to the 


9o DC 1. 

mA Cfmmtn E ft it o ft i 



Suucb. The fame u slfti mani:ell in Steel wire* ihrud tlirough linl? Tpdeirs 
■rfllobttof Cork nnd floated im the water ^ tvr in nskctl Necdln «cnt)y let fill 
' xcnti ) for fo Jifpofcd chcv will not red, tmttll tht^y have tuond (mc the 
iniljiin- snd lu necr as iImv rui Ivt- parallel umn the Axis of rb; Fntthi 
metiiMi ihc eye, fometime* the point Northnird la Jivcr^ Mc-.^V;, imr 
fbc Tame p-tmt altvaici in moll J ContiirmmgcIteaiWfe* uutu i 
in ilic fame manner u tlicy do unto every Lojdli*.iie. Fi.t ; 
khkSc be lungcJ above a Loadllone, it will convcn itito '. [ ■ 

Itbe.'cco ; fiir m tins (icuaiion it can belt receive it* \ertiiity .v-A iic [-TLnci 
jini(*ircKjnably at both estream" Now rh:s dlredi^oti pr(i<e<^is nut pnmi- 
bvely frimi (hciirclvef, but is denvaiivc and co^tT3d:I^d (rom tbe Mdgncti- 
alt c'iMiiCtions of the E^rtli -, which they have winded in their hammering and 
Armatlon y oi: cKe by lung conunuonce in one pftt'ion, as wc (hall dcdare 
U is liJiewifc true what is driirered of Iron* heated in the fire , that they 
fwitraiT a vcrriciiy jn ilieir rdrigcration -, tVir heated reif hot and cooled m 
the Meridian from North to South, rhey prefemly (wntravt a poUry power, 
aiMl being poyfcd in ayr vt waccr tonvcri ilut pan unto the Sortli which 
relpftSetfihit point m iis reirigeiaiion , To that if they had no fcnTiblc ver' 
ricity Ixforc, it may be aotmrcJ by tha way ^ or if they bad any, ic miglit 
be exchanged by contrary [wlition in (he cooling- I or by the fire idey omit 
not oikIv many dtoltie aivl rrononv parts , but wlutfocvcr iliey hnci rerei- 
Tcd either tiom the f:arth or LoaJftonc-, and lb being naked and defpoiledof 
all veriiciiy, clw Magocticall Atonies invade their bodiei with more cRcft ind 

Ncirhcr is it ondy true what Ctlhrtta fitii ob(erved , that Irons rririge- 
rared North and Somh aojiiire a DircitiTc faailty j bat if rbcy ht cooled 
iipngbt and perpendicularly, they will alfn obtain the fame. Tbai pan which 
is cot)l«l toward the Nonli on this fide the F.(^uator, converting it felf on- 
to ibeNttrth, and attracting the Sonih point ot the Needle i thr other and 
Ihighcft cxtrcani rcfpccting the <otith, and attracting the Nonhern, accord- 
j tng nnia laws ).(agr.etirjll : Tor fwlwi mult be obfcrved; contrary Poles or 
6cps attract eacbother, fis the North theSoiith , and tlie bhe decline each 
allKhtr. a« the North tlie North Now onthit fide of the E<]iWtor, that ex- 
Eam which is next ilic tiJrth is animated unto the Nortli, and tbe tontntry 
Knntii tlie South V fothai in Coition it applies it felf quite oppolitelv. theCoitV-. 
Otior attraction bang toimary to the Verticity or nirctiior. Contrarj- , if 
nr rpeak according unto common tifc; yet alike, if we conieive ibevertuc 
f (be NonbPoletadi^reitfcif and 6pen atdic^aib, andihe SsucIiEit (he 
Noi'th Jt^ain. 

Thi« poljiniy from refrigeration upon cstremity and in deftcf of a toad- 
lone mighr li;rve to invigorate and totifb a Needle an^- where , ani this, ab 
bwing Tiriation, i$ alio tlw teadiclt way at any feaftn to diftuvercbe Nunli 
t Sotiib; and furcly far more certain then wlmt w aftirnicd nt ttic gr^ifrt 
id circles in trees, tw the ligure in the Koot of fern. l»irif weefma red 
(twire untillitcool, then lang it up with wax and untwiOed Silk, ^v^l,■^(.• 
..e lower end and tfui which cooled^pext the cartb d«>;h reSl , that is tbt- 
Nonhern point ; and this we aifirm will ftilV be true , wbetber it be cooled 
^<]q tli; ayr or extinguirticd in water , oyl of N'itriol, Aiihm Urtit^ Or Quicii. 
jilver. And thitis alio evidenced in calinar>' oteoiils ami Irons ibac often feel 
be force of fire, a» tonRs, lirc-ftiovcis , prongs and Andirons- all which ac- 
ptre a Magnetical and p«)tary condition, and being fufpendcd, convert their 
ami unto the North •, with the £unc attracting the Southern ptiim 
die. for calier experiincnc, i*we place a Nccare touched « the foot , 


ante In il 




Bfujuirus int$ Vulgar 

Book ^. 


of tongs or andirons , it will obvcrt or turn afidc its liUie or North point , 
and conform its cufpis or South extream unto the andiron. The Jike vercicity 
though more obfcurely is aUb contraded by bricks and tiles, as we have made 
I triallin fome taken out of the backs of chimneys. Now to contraft this Di- 
redion, there needs not a total ignition, nor is it neceffary the Irons (hould 
be r«d hot all over. For if a wire fc heated only at one end , according as that | 
end is cooled upward or downward , it refpcftively acquires a vcrticity -, as 
we have declared in wires totally candent. Nor is it abfolutely requifite they 
(hould be cooled perpendicularly, or ftridly lye in the meridian ^ for wliether 
they be refrigerated inclinatorily or fome what iEquinoxially , that is toward 
cheEafternor Weftcrn points •, though in a leflfer degree, they difcovcrfome 


Nor is this only true in Irons, but in the Loadflone it felf. For if a Lozdr 
{lone be made red hot , it lofeththe magneticall vigour it had before in it felf, 
and acquires another from the Farth in its refrigeration ^ for tliat part which 
cooleth toward the Earth will acquire the refped of the North , and attrad 
the Southern point or cufpis of tfc Needle. The experiment hereof we made 
in a Loadfioneof a parallelogram or long fquare figure •, wherein only inverting 
the extreams, as it came out of the fire, we altered the poles or faces there- 
of at pleafure. 

It is alfo true what is delivered of the Diredion and coition of Irons, thsit 
they contrad a verticity by long and continued pofttion : that \s\ not on- 
ly being placed from North to South, and lying in the Meridian, but refpe- 
ding the Zenith and perpendicular unto the Center of the Earth ^ as is moll 
manifeft in bars of windows , cafements , hinges and the like. For if we 
prefent the Needle u^to their lower extreams, it wheels about and turns its 
Southern point unto them. The fame condition in long time do bricks con- 
trad which are placed in walls , and therefore it may be a fallible way to 
finde out the Meridian by placing the Needle on a wall-, for fome bricks therein 
by a long and continued poiition, are often magnetically enabled todiftrad the 
polarity of the Needle. And therefore thofe Irons, which are faid to have 
been converted into Loadftones ^ whether they were real converfions, or on- 
ly attradive augmentations, might be much promoted by this pofition : as 
tne Iron crofsof an hundred weight upon the Church of St. John in Arimi- 
num^ or that Loadflon'd Iron of dtfiir Mod^rdtus , fet down by AJdro- 

' Laftly, Irons do manifeft a verticity not only upon refrigeration and con- 
fiant fituation, but ( what is wonderfiill and advancetb tbe magneticall Hy- 
pothelis ) they evidence the fame by meer pofition according as they are in* 
verted, and tneir extreams difpofed refpedively unto the Earth. For if an 
Iron or Steel not firmly excited , be held perpendicularly or inclinatorily un- 
to the Needle ^ the lower end thereof will attrad the cufpis or Southern i 
point ^ but if the fame extream be inverted and held under the Needle , it ) 
will then attrad the lilly or Northern point ^ for by inverfion itchangeth its 
diredion acquired before, and receiveth a new and Southern polarity from the 
Earth, as being the upper extream. Now if an Iron be touched before ,^it 
varieth not in this manner • for then it admits not this magneticall impreflion, 
as being already informed ny the Loadftone , and polarily determined by its 

And from thefe grounds may we beft determine why the Northern Pole 
of the Loadflone attradeth a greater weight then the Southern on this fide 
tbe iEquator ^ why the flone is befl prefer ved in a natural and polary fituation ^ 
and why as (?i/^^Mr obferveth, it refpedeth that Pole out of the Earth, which 
ic regarded in its mineral bed and fubterraneous pofition. 


4ai CmimM £ & n o r s . 

lit is liktfwife true md wonderiiilt whxc u ddivercd of tbr Inclinatioii ar 
_ fdinatiua tif die Loadilonc ^ tfasi is, tfie de&ent of the Nctdlc beiow Ok 
pltin of tbc Horizon. Tor long Nccdtn wtiicli Oood bcfbrcu[n), 
f^dJ^r/ unco die K^nzon, being vigoroully exciied, incline and bend down- 
ward ; dtrfrcJliog die North cxcrcarn bdow die Horizon. That a the Nonh 
tlii* , UK South on thcodier lldc of die Ecjiiaior ; and ac the very Line or 
idle circle (land widwut deflexion. And mis n evidenced not oiiely frotn 
.aboiii of [he Needle in feveral parts of the cartli , but fondry expert- 
; in »ny part thereof^ as in a long .St«l wire , c«iuilibiatcd or evenly 
iced in che ayt ^ for cxciicd by x vi^rous Loidfionv it will fomowhat 
leprcGi its animated cxtream , and inicrkA die Iionxoncai ciraimhiTcnoc. 
^ ih tilfo manifclt in a Needle ptcf ted dirough a (jlobe of Cork fo cut away 
id paicdby degrees, tliat it will fwim imocr waxcr , yet fink not unto the 
ittom , wliicii may be wcJl crfc^Scd-, for if the Cors be a thought too 
jhi to fink under thcfuffaic, ihe bcidy of die wateroiay beaxtcnuaiedwith 
iritsof wine ■ if too bcavj', itmay be incraflaicd with lak i and if by ttuDte 
mcclibc Auded, it may again be diinncd by a ptoponionablc addition of 
Jefli water, if tlicn the Needle be taXen out , adivdy tout bed ind put in 
■gain, it will dcprcfe and bow down its Northern head toward the botrom, 
and advance it* Southern extremity toward the bnm. This way uivemed by 
Giti-rrttu may fecm of difficulty •, the fame with left labour may be obfcrwcd 
in a needled (phercofGjrk equally contiguous unto the furfaccof the water-, 
foe if the Needle be not cxaflly equiponderant, tliat end which is a thought 
too light . if touched bccometh even ^ (hai Needle altb which will but juil 
iWim under water , if forcibly touched v/iti link deeper , and fomchme onto 
the bottom. If likewifc that inclinatory vertuc Ik delkuvcd by a touch 
from the contrary Pole, tiut end whicti betbrc was elevated will thendetlioc, 
■nd this pcrbaps might be obfcrved in Tome fcalcs cxadly batlanced , and in 
fDchNcedleswhicb for their bulk an hardly be fupporied by the water. Fer 
if diey be powerfully excited and equally let fall, ibey commonly (ink down 
and break ilic wat<r at tiw extrcam whereat ilwy were fcptcmrionally exci- 
ted: and by this way it is lontcivcddicremay befomc IHud inthetveigliing 
of precious comniodi[i«,and fuch as carry a value in quarter-grains ^ by pla- 
cing a powerful Loadilonc above orbdow, aciorchng as we intend to deprel's 
or elevate onccxircani. 

Now if thcfe Magnctical cmifiions be only qualities, and the gravity of 
bodies incline them only onto the earth ; furely that whiclt alone moveth other 
b(>dLes to dcfctnt, carrieth not the llroak m this , but rather die Magneda) 
I allicituty of tbc Earth ^ unto which with alacrity it applycth it fell", ana in the 
Very fame way umo die whole it doth unto a finglc Loadllone. For 
if an untouched Needle be at a dillance fufpended over a LoadAone, it will 
not hitng parallel, but dcdincst the North extrram, and at that part will ftrft 
Cilute its Dircdor, Again , what is alfo wonderful , this inclination is not 
invariable i far juft under tbc line the Needle lycth parallel with the Horizon, 
but (ailing North or South it bcginncdiio itKlinc, and encreslicth according 
as it approatheth unto ciUier Pole -, and would at Iftft endeavour to crcA it 
lelf. And iliis it no more then what it doth upon tbc Loadllone , and that 
ninre plainly upon iheTcrrellaor fpbciical magnet Coiinograpliitally fet oat 
With cirdesof the Globe. For at the Equator thereof, the Needle will (land 
rectangularly ^ but approaching Northward toward the tropick it will regard 
the lloncobhquelyi and when it atiaujcdi the I'olc, dircdly; ami if iti bulk 
be no impcdimenc, creft it (elf and Itand pcrpendiculadv thereon. And there- 
tore upon llnd obfcrvationof thisincliniiiion in Icvcral Utitudcs and due re- 
tordi prefcrvd, inftnimcnts arc made whcretv without the help of Stin or 
1 ^Star, 


48 1 

Enquiries into VulgAr 

Book %• 

What the vari- 
ation of the 
compars is. 

Thc'cMfc of 
the variation 
of the com* 

Star, the latitude of the place may be difcovered, and yet it appeal^ the ob- 
fervationsofiaen have not as yet been fo juft and equal as is dedrabie; for of 
thofeTd)lesof declination which I have perufed, there are not any two that 
pundaally agree ^ though fome hiave been thought exaftly calculated , cfpe- 
cially that, which iJiW/^ received from Mr. Brigs ^ in our time Geometry Pro- 
fcfTor in Oxford. 

It is alfo probable what is delivered concerning the variation of the com- 
pa(sthat is the caufe and ground thereof, for the manner as being confirmed 
by obfervation we fhaU not at all difpute. The variation of the compa& is 
an Arch of the Horizon intercepted between the true and Magnetical Meri- 
dian ^ or more plainly, a deflexion and (iding Baft and Weft from the true 
Meridian. The true Meridian is a major Circle paffing through the Poles of 
the world, and the Zenith or Vertex of any place, exadly dividing the Eaft 
from the Weft. Now on this line the Needle exa Aly lyeth not, but diverts and 
varieth its point, that is, the North point on this fide the Equator , the South 
I on the ottier • fomecimes unto the Eaft ^ fometime toward the Weft , and in 
Ibme few places varieth not at all. Firft, therefore it is obfervtd that betwixt 
the (hore oiheldndy France , Sfain^ Guinj , and the Azores y the North point 
varieth toward the Eaft, and that in fome variety • at London it varietb ele- 
ven degrees, at Antwerp nine, at Rome but five ; at fome parts of the Azares 
it defledeth nos, but lieth in the true Meridian, on the other fide of the A- 
zoresj and this fide of the Equator, the North point of the Needle wheelcth 
to the Weft; fo that in the latitude of 36. near the (hore^ the variation is 
about eleven degrees ^ biu on the other fide the Equator , it is quite other- 
wife : for about Capo Frio in Brafilia^ the South point varieth twelve degrees 
unto the Weft, and about the mouth of the Straits of ^4£^iK€/y fire or fix ^ but 
elongating from the coaft of Braftlia toward the fliore rf Africa, it varieth 
Eaft ward, and arriving at Cnfo de las Agullas, itrefteth in the Meridian, and 
looketb neither way. 

Now the caufe of this variation may be the inequality of the Earth, vari- 
oufly difpofcd , and differently intermixed with the Sea : withall the different 
difpofure of its Magnetical vigor in the eminencies and fironger parts there- 
of. For the Needle naturally endeavours to conform unto the Meridian, hot 
being diflraded , driveth that way where the greater and powerfniler part of 
the Earth is placed. Which may be illuftratcd from what hath been deliver- 
ed and may be conceived by any , that underftands the generalities of Geo- 
graphy. For whereas on this fide the Meridian , or the Ifles of A^/n^es , 
where the iirft Meridian is placed, the Needle varieth Eaftward ^ it may be 
occafioned by that vaft Tract of Earth, that is, of Enrofe, Afia and Africa^ 
feated toward the Eaft, and difpofing the Needle that way. For arriving at 
fome part of the Azores^ or Iflandsot Saint ^/VA^r/, which have a middle 5tu- 
ation between thefe continents , and that vaft and almoft anfwerable Tract of 
America , it feemeth equally dillracted by both • and diverting unto neither, 
doth parallel and place it felf upon the true Meridian. But iayling farther it 
veers its Lilly to the Weft, and regardeth that quarter wherein the Land is 
nearer or greater y and in the fame latitude as it approacheth the ihore aug. 
menteth its variation. And therefore as fome obferve , if Columbus or who- 
foever rirft difcovercd America, had apprehended the caufe of this variation •, 
havmg pafTed more then half the way , he might have been confirmed in the 
difcovery - and affuredly foretold there lay a vaft and mighty continent to- 
ward the Weft. The reafon I confefs and inference is goo57 but the intoocc 
i perhaps not fo. For Columbus knew not the variation of the compafs, where- 
I of Sebajiian Cabot firft took notice , who after made difcovery in the Nor- 
j thcrn parts of that continent. And it happened indeed that part of Am^^ 


Bo o I 1. 

Mjid CtmmM Ekxori. 

m Al-a. 

wasiirfldiicovatd, whidi was on this fide 6rthcftdtftam, tliatii, f*mMitM» 
CMbA, and ibe Ulisin ihcBayot" Afrxiet. Aod fn>ai this vanarion dolbtac 
new diftuvrtcrs deduce i probability . io ibc artcmpo of ihc Nortlicrn paffjgc 
towud ihc IfMif. 

Now bcciure where the gitaicr cnQunentt an;>f(jy[icd , tl»c aAion sndef- 
fiiwnte liilfo grcJicr ^ ihcrrtbre thofc Mtdlc* do fuifo- rbcgreaidl variation 
wliitb arc in tuuouies wbicl) mod do feci fhst iflwn And tticrcrforc Jiaih 
Rome ht Id* vorianon dicii London ■, l^or on die Wc\\ Ildc of Rome , are 
felted ttiL- (^rc-at coanncnw of fraotc . fipaio, Gtrmany , whicb take off the 
eJiupffaotc, and infomcway ballnncc tlie vigor of iIjc feaitcrn pirti. But un- 
to EnglatKi tborc a almoft no earth Weil , put the whole cstcntofhuropc and 
Alia, licthtallwirdi aivd therefore si London it varietb eleven degrees, tltac 

almoll one RfnmSr. Tbos alfo by realbn of llic great timtintnt of Braljlit, 
_^jru and Chtli , ih*c needle deflcftcth toward the land twelve degrees-, but 
at the OraiLfof Magellan where the land a narrowed , and i!ie fcaon the other 
fide, It vaheth but rive orfix. And fo bkcwife , becaurethcCapeat-/^y/^a/- 
/^hathfia on Iwth fiUef near it, and other land remote, anda^ it wcreirmii- 
diAaot from it , thcrcibrc at tluit point ttie needle confortni unio the true 
Meritiiin , and is not diAradted by ibe vicinity of Ad/itcemics. 7 hie is the ge> 
neral and great cau(c of variation. But if m certain creeks and valleys the 
needle fifovc irregular, and vary beyond cxpctftstion ■, it nHybeimputciluDto 
fotne vigorous part of the earth , or Magneliral eminence not nr diilanr. 
And ibis wx« ihe invention of D, GiUrrrt, not many years pali, a Phyfitian in 
London. And therefore although fooic aiTume the invention of its diredion, 
ai»d others have had the glory ot the Card; yet in the experiments, grouBds , 
and caulcs thereof , England produced the lather fbilofoplicr , and difcovcr- 
ed more in it , then CtJumtM or AimritMi did ever by it. 

Unto litis in great part true the reafon of KirelMrm may be added : That 
iliie variation proecedeth not only from icrrertrious emtnenctcs , and niagne- 
tical veins of earth , laterally rcfpcding tlie needle , hot the diffiatut to- 
agmcntanon of the earth difpofcd unto ihe poles , lyrng under the Sea and 
watcTi , which affciS ihc needle with great or Icffcr variation , according to 
the vigour or imbccilliiy of tijcfe fubterraneoui liiKs: or the iotire or hro- 
ken compaginatioQ of tl>e magnetical fabric^ under it. As n oblervahlefrom 
feveral Loaddone?. plared at thcbottome of any water: for a Loadllooc or 
needle upon the fur&fc, will varioully tonfonu it felt", according tothc vigour, 
or faimoeri ul'thc Loadiloncs under it- 

I'hus alfo a reafon may be allcdged for tiK variation of the variation , and 
why , according [o obfcrvatton , the vanation of the needle itaih after fome 
, years been found to varv in fome places. Tor this may proceed firom mutati- 
ons of the earth , by fubterraocous fires , fumes , mineral fpiriti , or otber- 
ynSic ; which altering the conDinition of the magnetkal parts, in procefe of 
dmc, doth vary tbcvariationovcTtheplace. 

It ii alfb probable what is conceived of its Antiquity , that the knowledge 
of iu polary power and dirc^ion mtto the Nonh wai unknown unto the An* 
tiems j and though Ltvims Ltmniiu , and C^tms C4lc**ninks , are of ant^• 
tbcr bchef, i« juftly [flaicd with new inventions by PmcinHmj. For their 
AtiaSis and UroQgeft argument it an etpreHjon in PUmmj, a very annerit 
Autbor , and contemporary unto Enmiu. Hie vvttMs jmu ftctmini tjt , t^upt 
mcMverfuriiim. Now this i«r/erii«»» they contlroe to be the comp*f»i which 
notwithttanding according unto Pimda^ who hath difcuffcd the point , Tur- 
mhuff Cabtiu and divers others , is better interpreted the rope that twipsto 
turn tl»c fliip , or as we &y , doth make it uck about -, the Compofededir- 
ing railier U>e flitpis turned , then conl"crringimtoitscoavcrlJon. Asfttrtbe 
I I _i?"S 

Enquiries mo Vulg^ 

-B O O K 2* 

long expeditions and fundry voyages' of elder times , which might confinn the 
Antiquity of this invention , it is not improbable they were performed by 
the help ot ftars •, and fo might the Phoenicean navigators , and alfo Vljffcs 
fail about the Mediterranean. By the flight ofbirds, or keeping near the-fliore ^ 
and fo might Hanno coaft about- Africa;, or hy the help of oars, as is^xprcflcd 
in the voyage of Jortal^ And ^whereas it is coitcendcd that this vcriicity was 
not unknown unto Salomon , in whom is prcfumed an univerfality of know- 
le^c •, it will as forceably follow , he knew the Ait of Typography , pow- 
der and guns , or had the Philofopfcers ftone , yet fent unto Ofhir for gold. 
It is not to be denied , that bcfidc his P4)litical wifdom ^ bis knowledge in 
Philofophy was very large-, and perhaps from his works therein , the ancient 
Philofophcrs, efpecially.urfW/?»r/f , who had the affiflance i^ Ahxanders ac- 
quirements,' coJleded great obfervables. Yet if he knew the wit of the com- 
pafs , his (hips were furely very flow , that made a three years vovj^ froin 
Exi^ngebtr in the red Sea unto Ofhir -^ which is fuppofed to be Tapro- 
hdM or Malaca in the Ifuiies , noi many Moneths fayl ^ and (ince in the 
feme or Idflfer time, Drdki and CanSlb performed tlieir voyage about the 


And as the knowledge of its venicity is not fo old as fome conceive , fo 
is it more ancient then mod believe ^ nor had its difcovery with guns , print- 
ing, or as many think, fome years before the difeovery oi America^ For it 
was not unknown unto Petrus Peregrinus a French-man , who two hundred 
years. fince left a Traft of the Magnet, and a perpetual motion to be made 
thereby , preferved by Gdjferta. Pamtus VenetHs , and about five hundred 
years paft Alhtnus Mdguus make mention hereof, and ouote for it a book of 
AriftotU it Ufidi-^ which book although we find in the Catalogue of Ld^ 
ertius , yet with Cabeus do rather judge it to be the work of fome ArMncl^ 
Writer , not many years before the daies of Albert us. 
\ Laftly , It is likewife true What fome have delivered of Crocus Mortis , 
I that is , fteel corroded with vineger , fulphur or otiierwife , and after rever- 
berated by fire. For the Loadftone will not at all attrad: it , nor will it adhere , 
but lie therein like land. This to be underftood of Crocus Martis well rever- 
berated , and into a violet colour : for common chalybs frduoratus , or cor- 
roded and powdered fteel , the Loadftone attraAs like ordinary filings of 
iron ^ and many times moft of that which paffeth for Crocus Martis, So that 
this . way may ferve as a teft of its preparation ;, after which it becometh a 
very good medicine in fluxes. The like may be aflSrmed of Flakes of iron 
that are ruft^' and begin to tend unto earth ^ for their cognation then expireth , 
and the Loadftone will not regard them. 

And therefore this may ferve as a tryal of good fteel. The Loadftone tak- 
ing up agi^eater mafs of that which is moft pure^ it may alfo decide the con- 
verfion of wood into Iron , as is pretended ftom fome waters : and the com- 
I mon converfion of Iron into Copper by the mediation of blew G>perofe ^ 
' for the Loadllone will not attrad it. Although it may be queftioned , whether 
in this operation , the Iron or Coperofe be tranfmuted *, as may be doubted 
from the cognation of Coperofe with Copper •, and the quantity of Iron, re- 
maining after the converfion. And the fame may be ufefuil to fome difcovery 
concerning Vitriol or Coperofe of Mars, by fome called Salt of Sted, nudie 
by thefpirits of Vitriol or Sulphur. For the corroded powder of Steel, will 
after ablution beadively attraded by the Loadftone ^ and alfo remaineth in lit* 
tie diminiihed quantity. And therefore whether thofe (hooting Salts partake 
but little of fteel, and be not rather the vitriolous fpirits fixed mto Salt by the 
effluvium or odor of Steely is not without good queftion. 

C U A F. 


Chap. III. 

<^Ctae€rmtig the LMJfimt , tbereiHBf jttfuity^^mto tftMiUt Mdre- 
(tived ret4li»fti : NMtur4y HijImcJy MetUcW^K 



ANd hVft not oudy a (implc HetaoJo^, but .1 «ry lurd Pnradox , it will 
leeiii , ;ui(t of great Ablurdity unto ottlUtia^c rin , if wc Ihy, iiitnCiH]ii 
uunjulUy ap|Kupii«ccd onto ibc Loaii(>oi«: , i»d thai pcrba^s wc (peak mc 
[ffoperly , wlicn wc fiiy vulgarly aiidapproprbtly the LoJtUlonc dtAwetii Iron j 
and yet herda we flwulil not warn cipcruocot and grqa: Authofitw Th< 
woFUSoi" Rtwdtmj dtt Ctrui in luv Piinaplc* t'f I'Mofopfiy ate very pkdn. 
tr^ttft* m^ft trthriftrrHm , 71 w fstim m4;^mj C ftrrmvt mU invicn» *e- 
Unt , mgttc nam n&t Hi trsdi* tfi , The &ac is folcmiOy liacriniiicd by 
idtfu. Ntc mMgtta tr/tkit prafnt ftirMm , ntc ftrritm *J /<■ riM^iHttP' ' frv 
vkm , ftA tanit* pari ctiMtM mL mvUtvf ttnjlumMi. G^ncordaaL hereto ii iIm; 
a/Tcrtiao of DoAoc SiMtj , Phyfitian unro the Einperoiir vf HmfJiM ra hil 
Traft iif Magoetical bodies , dcAning Magacikal attroirtiun to be 4 nacu- 
t«l ioCiauian aa4 diipoiition conUinning aaco ctiadguiiy ^ an onion of one 
litagnecicat body wito aootiur . and no violent haling txl' iIk wok unto iIiq 
QtongcT. And this b alfn x\ic Do^rinc of (lUbtrttu -, by wb<)in ihi$ inoiioa 
(s termed Coition, and liiai nut made by any tamlcy aitrddivcot'' one, but 
a Cyndronie and coxicourfe of ndi ^ a Coiiioti alway of ilicir vicoius , and 
alii) of (Jieir bodies , if bulJt or impcditnenc prevent ooc. And iberdbrc 
xhaic comrtiry acciotu uhtdi flow from oppoiiie Poles or Kaccs. arc not fb 
property ^sp'jluon and uirattion , uSe^jtuia and ft/g^. a mutual flight and 
tbllowing. Confoaant wliucto an; alio tbc ddertoitiatioos of HtimimiiMi, 
Kirckfruf, and JJctm/. 

"nicfime IS alio tonlirmcd by experiment ^ for tf apiewof Ironbcfanencd 
tti the lldeof a bowl or IxUbn of water, a Loadllonc fwimniing freely in a 
boat of Cork, will prefcntly ojakeunto it. bo if aSted or knilc uniouthed 
be offered toward the Needle that is tCHiched, th« Needle nimbly movetJi to- 

• ward it; and coiifonncih unto union with the Steel chat tnovcrh not Agiin, 
I If a Loadftoncbc liucly filed, the Atonies or durt tbefeof will adlicrc uoio 
I Iron that was never touched, even at tlte powder oflroo dodialfb untoilic 
I LoadJhmc. And lalily, if in two «kitfs of Cork, a Loadilone and Steel be 

placed Withm ti»c Orb of iIkit activities , tbe ooc dotb ooc move the other 
I Itanding UitI , bat both boifc fayl and Ilea- unto ncfa other. So diat tf the 
1 Luadftone attract, the Med bath alio its attraction ; for in this action the Al> 

licicncy i-i reciprocal ; wtuch joindy fdt , (bey mutually approach and run 
. into cad) others arin.v. 

I Aod cberefbre furdy inoce moderate ocpreflions become this actioa, then 
' what tlie Ancients ha^e tiled ■, wfridi fomc have d^-tivcied m dx moll violcni 

• tam\ of tlieir langoage ^ fo An^ia tals it, MlrahUm frrn rAftsrtm -. Hip- 
f6ir4Ui, M^^ J,T ♦ aVi^r w"^''. l^t <}ui ferrum rtifU. Galtn dtlpuDng 
agaioi^ F.fkMrm urcthUicterm,t>MJt> Uit this is alfo coo virtlcnt : among the 
Anticnti Ari^^ki^^Jt moll wacdy, «i4& ^^i «- nJhfMt^.^ifi'^iffrrMm 
7IMM1 : mi in fomc toUcniblc accepuOQ do run the cxprclltont ofj^mnA^, 
ScAli^tr and Cffiwiu. 

Muiy rcliuionsare nwdc, and grc'CeXpoctaciOiti are raif^ from the ^'t/^jwi 
' CjrmMs^ oc a LocuUlooc » due btth a faculty to anracc am. only ii^n but flefh ^ 
' bit this upon enquiry, and as C^m hath aJJb obferved , it nothing cUc biu a 
1 . 1 2 weak 

loi] Iton. 


Enquiries into Vulgar 

Boo K 1. 

weak , an inanimate kind of Loadltone, veined here and there with a few 
; Magnetical and fcrreous lines ^ but chiefly confifting of a boiary and damtny . 
fubllancc •, whereby it adheres like Hematites, or Terra LemnU , unto the 
Lips. And this is tha: l^o ne^' hich is to be underftood , when Phylitians joyn 
it with tyEutcs or the iBc ftone , and promife therein a rertne againfl 

: abortion i 

* There is fome:ime a mifiakc concerning the variation of the compals, ■ 
I and therein one point is taken for another . 1 or beyond the Equator fomc 
men account its variation by the diverilon of the Northern point , whereas . 
beyond that Circle the Southern point is Soveraign, and the North fub- ■ 
mits his prehemincnq-. Por in th. Southern coaft cither of AmericM or 
Africa • the Southern point deflcAs and varieth toward the land , as being 
di^fcd and fpiritcd that vt-ay by the meridional and proper Heariff^ere. ■ 
' And therefore on that fide of the Earth the varying pointisbeftaccouAtedby • 
' the South. And therefore alfo the writings of fome, and Maps of others, are 
to be enquired, that make the Needle decline unto the Eaft twelve d^rees at 
Cafo Frio , and iix at the ftraits of MaicHan •, accounting hereby one point ■ 
for another, and preferring the North in the Liberties and Province of the; 
South. I 

» Tha G -Ik ^"^ certainly falfe it is what is commonly affirmed and believed , that! 
i hir.deci Vor i Garlick doth hinder the attradion of the Loadttone ^ which is notwitmland. \ 
. (he attrsftfon . ing delivered by grave and worthy Writers ^ by Plinj , Solinw , Ptolomj , '• 
of the Load- Plutarch ^ Albert m , Mathiolns ^ lijtt^ ^' L.ifigiM ^ and maoy more. Anl 
' *^°^' . effeft as ftrange as that of Homers Moly^ and the Garlick that MercMrie be- j 

flowed upon Vljjfes. But that it is evidently falfe, many experiments declare. I 
For an Iron wire heated red hot and quenched in the juyce of Garlick , doth i 
' notvvithftanding contraft a vcrttcity from the Earth, and attradeth the Sou- 
I Ij thern point of the Needle. If alfo the tooth of a Loadftone be covered or ftuck 

i in Garlick , it will notwithftanding attra A • and Needles excited and fixed in 

! Garlick untill they begin to rjuft , do yet retain their attraftivc and polarj' 
i refpeAs. 
j j Of the fame (lamp is that which is obtruded upon us by Authors anci- 

ent and modern , that an Adamant or Diamond prevents or fufpends the 
attraftion of the Loaditone : as is in open terms delivered by Pliny. 
Adamas Jiijftdet ctim M.tgmtc lapide , ttt jjtxta pojtttfs ferrum non fatiarur 
ahfirahi , ant ft admotHs magnes apprchenderit , rapiut atque asiferat. For if 
a Diamond be placed between a ' Needle and a Loadllone, there will ne- 
vcrthelcfs cnfue a Coition even over the body of the Diamond. And an 
eafie matter it is to touch or excite a Needle tnrough a Diamond, by placing 
it at the tooth of a Loadftone •, and therefore the relation is falfe, or our efti- 
mation of thefe gems untrue-, nor are they Diamonds which carrj' that name 

I Nor yrc the 

I Adamant or 


DC genera:'; 
I rerum. 


amongft us. 

It is not fuddenly to be received what Par ace If ms affirmeth, that if a 
Loadftone be anointed with Mercurial oyl , or onely put into Quick-fil- 
ver , it omitteth its attraftion for ever. For we have found thzi Load- 
ftones and touched Needles which have laid long time in Quick-filver have 
not amitced their attradion. And we alfo find that red hot Needles or wires 
excinguiftied in Quick-filvcr , do yet acquire a verticity according to the 
Laws of pofition in extinftion. Of greater repugnancy unto reafon is that 
which he delivers concerning its graduation, that heated in fire and often cx- 
tinguiflied in oyl of Mars or Iron , it acquires an ability to extxaft or draw 
forth a nail faftcncd in a wall •, for, as we have declared before , the vigor of 
the Loadftone is deftroyed by fire, nor will it be rc-irapregnated by any other 
Magncte then the Eai th. 


W Cfmmtti E 1 K o n t. 

Noriiftc 10 be mcdeoat wtutc fcctncch 7cry pliufiW, and formerly lunh 
reived ui, that a Loadflijoc mil not anradmlronor Steel red I)or Tfce 
jlfit^' hcreot'dircovered Htll by Kirtbffm , we cnn eon/trni by itcrand 

rmcnt V ^cry feofibly in orninl LoatlAnaet , and obrcurcfy in any 
Irocit is, tbxt bditlis fire fume uthcr waics there arc ot lis delbiiftiMn, 
Du Age, RuRi and what ts \eaH. dicAmiL on, da unnamnil nt cnotrary firuo- 
JitinD- lor bctng [iLipi.>]iiril\' .I'lji'mui hum :i n>tirt- V'Ci il. Li.iirinri-. it will 
BjQiilbort lime CI < ' ..t'lit is, 

iDotlyiDgoitdw ;. : longer 

1 1imc impair inadi . . i.crl oy 

I pofitionitwnbyilic Jult.-.l" Mfcl. Jiuuhe iLj^Jvn jii..l r;:.",", v.,i;, .-. rii--, ilmrii, 
fire nor <>ncly liAual but poccniial ^ the one liircly m-A UnJdi-nly , ik- oilier 
Idawlyjnd impcrfrdly i the one clmngirt|;, if;f "t!:[:- dc^'rnyrrr^ lIic .'iginc, 
It-or ttdiflilW ViJJCtJir or jiqua jtrtu he [ .r l.o,id.' 

lilone, die iubiiding powder dryeii, rc:aii md will 

■tcaura^tcil by ibc Loadllune : biic il' eLl . L\.- cva- 

(iiott tonlilleiicc, ir-d aJierward Jixli iii'-"-'i icutN or».Jiryliatj, 
_ tflone hub no power upon ibeoi r, rpjI if in i loll diflblwion ot Steel 
ration of pans be mudc by jfccifiicjitfon or eihalarion , the esficearcd 
rhatb toft its ivmgi and ificmb not unto die Loaddooe. Arid though 
alfladftooe fired dodi prcknilv -jnit its proiw venmr, and gccordmc totSc 
pofiiion i» cf'oling (ontTJCtt anew lertiocy from rhetanh-, yet if toe fame 
be Uid a wbtlcin Aijua fonvi or other tyiroiivc water, and taken out bvtore 
acontidcrable cuiroliDn-, it ltil> tdcrvct iti atttadioii, and will convert the 
Needle ttcordingto former polaru^'. And that duly pitfcrved from violent 
torri'don, or iIk raiurnl dilcxfe of mil, n may long confervc its %'crtne, 
beiide the Magneiical vertuc of the Earth, which hath lafled finec ibe Crea- 
tiui) , a great example wc have from the ■ ohfervatton of our learned firicnd 
Mr. Gr^tvei, man jtgyptian Idol cue oot of Loadtlonc, and found among rn^J^l«mt^l 
tbe jUumffti, which UiU retsins its aitradion.tJtongb probably takcnoniiH -rj.j 
(be Miqciibouitwo dioufand years ago. /M4. 

It is impi'obable wIm( PBmj affirmeth coDceTni(i{< tbeobjeft ofiif) 3ttfa^i> 
On , ibai. it attract] not ondy ferrcous bodies, but nliri litjuvrtm virn - for 
" I the bodyof Glafi there is no fcrrcoui or Magnctlcal nature wliicb mi^r 
Ottafujnauraction. Tor of ificOfjifs wc ufc, die purelt k made of thefincft 
iacd divd die ailieiof Chali or Glaliwort , and the courier or green Ibrt of 
tbe alhesof Brake or other plants. True it is ihic in the making of Glafi, 
ii haib brtn an ancient practice to tail in pieces of I.oadrtooe : contcsving it 
carried away all fcrreoui and canhy part;, from the pure and running porti- 
on of (^laf^ whkh die LoadAooc would not tefpect -, and therefore if tint 
lUtracuon were not rttbcr Electricall then Magnctical , it KHf a won- 
idrguf cRi-cc what Htlmom dclivereth conccriung 1 Cilafs wherein die Magi- 
Aery of Loadlione was prepared-, which itfccT retained an aitraaivc qnt- 
lity. . 

But wlinlicrthe Magnctcattrattc^hmore then corrnwii Iron, imybctriedm 
4)diabodit<- ItfeemstoartcattthcSmynsOr Eincryiti powder , Itdrawabthe 
fluningor gltirie pwUcr brought from tbe laSfi, and afually implied in tvriting 
dud. There u alfo inSmiths cinders by fome adbcfion o( Iron whereby ibey 
appear as It were glazed , fometune to be found a Magnetital operation •, for 
(iiniciliereof applied have power to move the Needle. But whether theafties 
of vegcublc* wliicb grow over Iron Mines contracts Nhgnetical (juality, as 
J containing fome mincnU particles, which by fublimatioo alcend unto theit 
■ Roou, and ve iittactod together with their nouriduncnt ^ according ai fooie 
" affirm 

Entjuirhs m§ Vt^lg^r 

Boo K a 





affirm fto»ihe like obftrvations upon the Mines of Silver , Quick-filver and 
G6ki *, we n&uft refer unco further experiment. 

It is alfo improbable and fomething fmgular wliac fome conceive , and JE$f 
fetins, Nieremltrgirts ^ a learned Jefuit of SfAin delivers, that the body of 
man is Magneticat, and l*ing placed in a boat , the veffel will never reft un- 
tiU the head refpefteth the North. If this be true , the bodies of Chriftians 
do lye unnaturally in their graves. King Cheops in his Tomb , and the 
^iws in their beds have fallen upon the natural pofition : who reverentiidty 
deciining the fituation of their Temple, nor willing to lye as that flood ^ do 
place their beds from North to South , and delight to fleep KferidionaRy. 
This opinion confirmed would much advance the Microcofmic?al conceit , 
and commend the Geography of Fitracclfm ; who accordii^ to the Cardi- 
nal points of the world dividetli the body of man •, and therefore working 
upon humane ordure, and by long preparation renclringitodiferous^becerim 
it Ziktd OcciJemaih , Weftem Civet -, making the face the Eaft , but the 
pofteriors the Amtrica or Wcftcrn part of his Microcofin. The vewty 
hereof, might tafily be tryed in WmUs , where there vt portable boats, and 
made of Leather , which would convert upon the impuUion of any verticrty -, 
and feem to be the fame whereof in his defcription of Britdn Cafur bath left 
fome mention. 

Another kind of verticity , is that which Anielus doa mihi jm , ^/iW, 
Mkhtul Stmdevegie, in a Traft de fulfhure, difcovereth in VegetaUes , from 
fUcks let fall or depreffed under water ^ which equally framed and permit- 
ted unto themfelves, will afcend at the upper end, or that which was ver- 
tical in its vegetation ^ wherein notwithflandmg, as yet , we have not found I 
fatisfadion. Although perhaps too greedy of M^nalities , we are ape to 
make but favourable experiments concerning welcome truths^ and fuch deft* 
red verities. 

It is alTo wondrous ilrange what LdliMs Bifciola reporteth, that if unto ten 
ounces of Loadilone one of Iron be added, it encreafeth not unto eleven, but 
weig^ ten ounces fiill. A relation inexaifable in a work of leafurable 
hours : the examination being as ready as the relation , and the faUity tried 
as eafily as delivered. Nor is it to be omitted what is taken up by Cdfius 
BernardHs a lace Mineralogift , and originally confirmed by P0rta^ that Nee- 
dles touched with a DUmond contract a verticity, even as they do with a Load- 
ftone *, which will not confift with experiment. And therdbre , as GMertms 
obferveth , be might be deceived , in touching fuch Needles with DiMtmnds^ 
which had a verticity before , as we have declared moft Needles to have •, and 
fohadhe touched tliem with Gold or filver, he might have concluded a Magne- 
tical vertue therein. 

In the fame form may we place Fracdfiorius his attraftion of filver, Fhit^ I 
ftnum his Pnmarbes ^ ApoUodorns and Seda his relation of the LoadAone 
that attrafted onely in the night. But moft inexcorfiible is FrMncifem Ruems^ 
a man of our own profeflion • who in his difcourfe of Gtmms mentioned in 
the ApocjUjfs \ undertakes a Chapter of the Loadftone. Wherein fubfbntialiy 
and upon experiment he fcarce delivercth any thing ; making long enumera- 
tion of its traditional qualities , whereof he feemeth to believe many , and 
fome above convifted by experience, he is fain to falve as imooftnresof the 
devil. But Boctims de Boot Phyfxtian unto Rodulfh$is the fecond, hath recom- 
penced this defeft •, and in his Trad , de Lafidibus & Gemmis^ fpcaks very 
materially hereof; and his Difcourfe is confbnant unto exporienoe and 

As for relations Hiftorical, thou^ many there be qf lefs account* yet two 
alone deferVe confideradon ^ The hrft concemeth Magnetical Rocks^and atcra- 


dadcmmu* ER«oftt. 

Bo«K >; 

dive moufiQuni in frVoaU'paits of the Eaitb. Ibc uther tlitr tomb ni M4k^ 
tntt anil bodits rufpcoii«dtn ihc«)i. Of Rockf mugnuicaldirrc ,ire liLrwtfr 
two rdatHtiU;, Inr feme in delivered lo be in tiie Jndus -S- 

FSirnnity of die North, ond ibiiui the vl-f)' Pole, likr N. ,■: 1 

conmn-iiUyafcribcd unto O/ami Mafmu ArciuV.tllyr^i' -jf Z p' ,,t I 

Predeteffor ^Mnw/, A'aw and others, iuf' ■ -i, I 

Nfllionsi butthii afftfrtinti wehdVL- noi ! ;, 

lonmiiinly paftcthatnttngus^ and ibould li i < . ":\ 

-then ilui'in ihc firitlineol' Kubook ; wltcntic ittinncilt ilut //.,.>m,jr ;i\hiLli I 
K not Icvcnty drgreci in lititudc ) hzth ihc- Pule fur a« ZeaiiJ) , and Equibo- I 
dial for the Horiuin. 

nponihe foundation, bowuDfort'i'T , ; ■ ■ v ^ ' 

, almbif^ tberfltn the catife of i ! ,1 

eftluctiootlTun) tbcrrnwtinniins ;'.i . I 

Wbtd) tonteii thou|ih coancensr.L-.v ^, <..ii..i.i mi:.., i 
^nt cither by expcnencc or rcafon-, fw no imn hach yet ucouiea m pyat-t 
Jcnfiblc account oI'iIk Tote by thme ilcgrets. Ii i* .lifo obfcrvcd liu NosUc 
dotd very tnorli viry a a spfimfltbcth the Pole ; who-eis war ilwrs (vik 
tiircction trora rbc I'orks, upt»n a ncnrer nfprotchmcnt it wioild idori di*- 
-tealy rrfivcctlicin. Bcfidt*, wcrciliere I'ltch Magnccical (lockseodis- the Dok^ 
^'AbeiQ^ro far removed ilxy would produn- no liu^h cAttt. 1-or (Imv tint 
fail bylMlllcof JIim now tailed H/k* in tbe Thafk-an tea wfait^ ahuiuidi in 
"Veins of I-osdflonc, obfcrvc no varumoiior inclintQon of die Neollc , niiKh 
IditttiLV ilvcy citpcct idireuiontromKoc'^^ chccndofiheHjinii. Andlallty^ 
fnentliatafcribechusnwfth unco Rocks t>f the Nonh , nwA preiima: or difo*^ 
VCTchc like MagndKaU at ilie Soutli : lor in ttic ^«utJlcm leas oad ^ bf. 
■yondtbe Eqiwior, varwttons arc large, and decliaatitms « tooiUmnsinEhe 

Tbc other fctational' LotiddoncMinc* and Rocks, in the fboK of /mUM is 
l^divercd of old by PUn^ -, uberein faitii be, tiiey are (o [hctd bocb in ahan- 
Hsnceind vigor, that it prove* anadTmturc ftf (laiardio pafc ttiolecoaili jii 
; flap with Iron rmSd- AVvf^nxi the Motiff , art Aatbor of cuod cftcem tnd 
^tcalbnable Amiijuity , conHrmeth (be fame, uliofe Mpr«^ron in die word 
Va^mi it (hts. Tbc Mine of tb» (lode i*in die fca-fOaXk of Jiidhii, wbcrcto 
['■when Ship« approach, there is oo Iron inibcmwhiiHi fliecmii like ubird umo 
itlicfc nioumainsi and therefore their Ships arc faiicred not with Iron but 
'Wood, htr odicrwifc tbey woald be torn loptecn. But tbjis alTerbon, how 
Ifofitive focver, is "contradicted by all Navigatwis thai pa& thai way- «4iki) 
are now nmny, and of our own Nation, .indmiEht furely have been (ontroulcd 
%>'iVMrcWrlwAdnnial vi ^Irx/uiJtr -^ who not knowing tlie cotnpafB, 
^ nro toafltteu ftiore. 

tor the relarion conccnang Mihonut , it is generally bdicvcd fan Tomb 
"W M(dinM Tah»4i'i, in Ar4ii0 , wtthouc any viuble fupponcrs iiangedi in 
the iiyr between two Loadtionu artilTctally cuntrived both above and be 
low •, which conceit is fabutou<i and evidently falfc from die te(iiniony of 
Ocular Tellttor»i who affirm his Tomb is made of (lone, and lyeth Hp-j'=«=l' «"><»«, 
on die ground ; us belidcs odicrs the learned »V^«» obfervflth from C*^ ^i''.^"* ^ 
frhti SmitM , and fttoaiei Hefrimu , two M^rcmn in dietr relacioos beie- 
oft Of fucfa niiencions and attempt by Mdi^^mrtMu we read in fome ile- 
Ifemt^ ^ and that nti^t be the ocotlion of che fable -, wliidi by traduion of 
ainic and iilbuxT ^ place enlarged into the ftmy of being accompKflicd. 
^^nd ibjs liath been pr«noii-d by anempti of dw like nature ; for we read 
Pfn^ that one Dimcratts began to Arch die Temple <*1' Arftntr in Mne- 
irid widi I-oadftunc, rfiat Jo ha Statue migbcbe fufpended in die ayr to 



on ibc 


Bnquirics into VulgAr 

Book 2. 

the amazement of the beholders. And to lead on our credulity herein , con- 
firmation may he drawn from Hiftoryand Writers of good authority. So is it; 
reported by Ruffinus , that in the Temple of Serapis there was an Iron Giariot ' 
fulpended by Loadftones in the ayr ^ which flones removed , the Chariot fcU j 
anddalhed into pieces. The like doth Beda report of BtllerofhoHs horfe , ■ 
which framed of Iron , was placed between two Loadftones , with wing^ ex- 
panfed, pendulous in the ayr. 

The verity of thefe ftories wc (hall not further difpute , their poilibilicy we ■ 
may in fome way determine -^ if we conceive , what no man will deny , that \ 
bo(ues fufpended in the ayr have this fufpetuion from one or many Load- ; 
ftones placed both above and below it •, or elfe bv one or many placed only ! 
above it. Likewife the body to be fufpended in refpeft of the Loadilone above, 
is either placed firft at a pendulous di^ance in the medium , or elfe atcradt- 
ed unto that (ite by the vigor of the Loadftone. And fo we firft aflSrm that 
poflible it is a body may be fufpended between two Loadftones^ that is, it 
being fo equally attraded unto both, that it determineth it felf unto neither. 
But lurely this pofition will be of no duration; for if the ayr be agitated or 
the body waved either way ^ it omits the equilibration » and difpoieth it feif i 
unto the neareft attrador. Again , it is not impofTible ( though hardly feifi-1 
ble ) by a (ingle Loadftone to fufpend an Iron in the ayr , the Iron being] 
artificially placed and at a diftance guided toward the ftone , untiU it find i 
the neutral point , wherein its gravity juft equals the magnetical Quality ; 
the one exaaly extolling as much as the other depreffeth. And laftly , im- 
poiQble it is that if an Iron reft upon the ground , and a Loadftone be placed 
over it , it (hould ever fo arife as to hang in the way or medium ^ for that 
vigor which at a diftance is able to overcome the reiiiUnce of its gravity and 
to lift up it from the earth, will as it approacheth nearer be ftili more able to 
attradit-, never remaining in the middle that could not abide in the extreams. 
Now the way of Baptifta porta that by a thrcd fafteneth a Needle to a 
table , and then fo guides and orders the fame , that by the attradtion of the 
Loadftone it abideth in the ayr , infringeth not this reafon •, for this is a vi- 
olent retention ^ and if the thrcd beloofencd , the Needle afcends and adheres 
unto the Attractor. 

The third coniideration concernith Medical relations* wherein what ever 
effects are delivered , they are either derived from its mineral and ferreous 
{ condition , or elfe magnetical operation. Unto the ferreous and mineral 
quality pertaineth what Diofcorides an ancient Writer and Souldier under 
j Anthony and Cleopatra , affirmeih , that half a dram of Loadftone given with 
; honey and water , proves a purgative medicine , and evacuateth grofs hu- 
mors. But this is a quality of great incertainty ; for omitting the vehicle of 
water and honey , which is of a laxative power it felf, the powder of fome 
^hit* o^erad I-O^^fto^cs in this dofe doth rather conftipate and binde , then purge and 
on. ^^ ^" loofen the belly. And if fometimes it caufe any laxity, it is probably in the 
: &me way with Iron and Steel unprepared ^ which will difturb fome bodies^ 
, and work by purge and vomit. And therefore , whereas it is delivered in a 
- book afcribed unto Galen^ that it is a good medicine in dropfies , and evaciiates 
' the waters of perfons fo aflfected : It may I confefe by ficcity and aftriction 
afford a confirmation unto parts relaxed , and fuch as be hyclropically difpof^ 
ed ^ and by thefe qualities it may be ufefull in Hermas or Ruptures^ and for 
thefe it is commended py t/Etiw , ty£gineta and Oribatitu •, who only affirm 
that it contains the vectue of Hamatites^ and being burnt was fometimes vend- 
ed for it. Wherein notwithftanding there is an higher vertue : and in the 
fame prepared , or in rich veins thereof , though crude, we have obferved the 
effects of Chaiybeat medicines ^ and the benefits of Iron and Steel in ftrong 


Powder of 


snd Ctmmtn E k n a k ; 

i^flrudioni. And therefore cbdt wa* protiably a differenc vcinnf Lnailflnnei 
or infeftcJ witli oiUct minecnl mistiife, whkh tlie aticicn?* commcfuleii for 
1 purgarivc ineiiiciifc , and ijnKcd tfac lame wirfi the violcjicell kinds thei*- 
(if: witii hiff*fhdt , Civi»«», and TfiymrU-, w we tindc ti 'inliif^fMts^ 
and tntgtic be fomcwliudoabtliill, whalicr by the uagfidUmioDc, be un- 
derftotid the t.aadUc«ic ; did not tirki/la St^hm iklHoc ihc Ikmc, cbe ftofic 

To llut tninctal cuodicion bclongeth what is delivered by Cime, cbic 
wounds wliii'b are inadc wich weapons CKiitcd by ifie Undltonc, comnft 4 
malignity, and bewitic of more diffitulr riirc^ wliicb ocverrljctds h not to 
be loiini] in the iocitioii of Chyrurgioni Wiili kniVcs and lancets touthed^ 
wlutli leave no fiith tStti bctuiuJc thmi. Hitber ivc alk< rcftr thai afiit- 
mative. wbich fine) i be Loadltone « poifon-, and thercfofc in the liAs of 
puiluns we linde ii in many Auihori. Buc rliifaurexpcneacecaciHttconlirm, 
and tttc practice of the King of 2rt/4« cle-irly coniradiAciii , who ivCurtidt 
4l> Horte, Pbylitian unto i!»e Sfititip, Vucroy dellvereth , tiaih all hb meat 
iirrvcd up in di0t» of Lotdlionc, and conceivcitfieicby bcprcferveihllic vi- 
gourof yiulb. 

But lurcly frum amagnecical aAivity muHbe made out wfaar is let falljiy 
tA,nui, ilutaLoadllonc held in the hand of oRctbatiipodagrinl, dotb either 
cure or give great cafe in the Gout. Orwkai Mtnt&m F-mfrricuiUf^ttsieiU, 
thai; as as amulet, it alio cureth ibe head-aib -, which are but additions unto 
its proper nature, and hopefull cnlargemems of it« allowed attra<ftion. 1 or 
perceiving its fccret power to draw niagnetital bodie* , mm have invented a 
new sttraCtioii , lodraw out the dolour and pain of any part. And from fucb 
grounds it furcly bctainc a pliilier, and was conceived a medinnc of fooie 
venereal atiraAkm -, and thereliwe upon this ftone ihcy graved the Image of 
VrtiM , according unto ilut of CUi*^i*>* , f'tmrtm mi^ntticM ^tmrn* pgitrnt. 
HiilHrr niud we alfo reJer wliai is dcLvered conccmiog ill poWcr to draw 
iout of the body buUns and heads of arrows, and fur die tike intention is 
inised up in plailler;;. Wbicli courfe, alrhaugh at vain and inclTci'iual ir be 
re je^ed by many good Auihurs, yet is it not n>c thinb fu read ly tu be denied , 
loor the pradice of many Phytkians winch have ibus compounded plail)er«. 
I thus (iiddcnly to be condemned, as may be oblerved in the EmpLifimm Mvi' 
\ MMm Niceldi , tbe LmfU^mm nifrmn of Augfpurg , the Opv/^fdith and At- 
trailiMm of PgrMtlfm , With fcveral more in i\\c Difpsnfatory of IVrc^r , 
I and pradjceof Sintm-txt, Ihc cure allij of HrrtK/u, or RitftHrts in Pmrtitj : 
, and tlie method alfo of curaboo lately dchvered by Dtimd Bttk^rrtii . and 
approved by tlie prolcflbrs of Ltjitn. that is , of a young man of Spruei- 
(mm that cafually fwallowed a kmfe about ten inches long, which was cut 
out of bis Itomacb , and the wound Itealed up. In which cure to atiraA the 
knife to a convenient iituation , there wav applied a pUiller made up wilb 
Uie ppwder of Loadtiooc. Now eIus kinde of praftice Lihaviut . (jil^fus, 
and lately Svickfi'^^i condemn, as vain, and aliogetbcr unufdull^ be- 
eaufe a Loadflonc in powder liath no attractive (xiwcr ; tor in that fiwm 
it omits bis poLiry rctpocts , and lofctb thofc parts which arc the rule of 

Wherein to fpeak compcndioully, if cipenmenchath not deceived ns , we 
firft affit.n , that a Loadltone in powder omit* not all attraction. For it tbe 
powder of a hi b vein be u\ arcafonabic quantity prcfeiited toward the Needle 
bvtly pbccd , It Will not appeat to bo void of all activity , but will be ablnu . 
ftirit. Norbath it only apowcr ibmove tbe Needle in powder and by iiftft^ ( 
boc ibis will It alfo do , if incorporated and mixed with plsillers -, as we have 
Bnde trial in the J-mfUjirMm it jifinU ^ with half an ounce of the mats , ' 
K mixing 




Enquirtts into Vulgar 

Book ^. 


mixing a dram of Loadftone. For applying the magdalcon or roal unco the 
Needle ic would both (Ur and attract it •, not equally in all parts , but more 
vigoroufly in fomc , according unto the mine of the ftone more plentifully dif- 
perfed in the mafs. And laftly y in the Loadftone powdered , the polary re- 
fpects are not wholly deftroyed. For thofe diminutive particles are not ato- 
mical or mcerly indivifible, but confiftof dimenfions fufficient for their ope- ' 
ra^tions, though in obfcurer effects. Thus if unto the powder of Loadftone or | 
Iron we admovc the North Pole of the Loadftone , the powders or fmall di- ! 
viHons will erect and conform tbemfelves thereto : but if the South pole ap- | 
proach , they will fubfide , and inverting tbeif bodies , refpect the Loadftone 
with the otner extream. And this will happen not only in a body of powder 
together , but in any particle or duft divided from it. 

Now the.u2h we diiavow not chefe plaifters , yet (hall we not omit two 
cautions in their ufe ^ that therein the ftone be not too fubtilly powdered • 
for vt will better manifeft i£s attraction in a more feniible dimenlion. That 
wliere is defired a fpeedy effect , it may be confidered whether it were not 
better to relinquifh the powdered plaifters, and to apply an entire Loaditooe un- 
to the part : And thougli the other be not wholly ineffectuall, whether this 
way be not more powerful! , and fo might have been in the cure of the young 
man delivered by Becl^rus. 

The laft confideration , concerneth Magical relations •, in which account 
we comprehend efiects derived and fathered upon hidden qualities . fpecifi- 
cal forms , Antipathies and Sympatheis , whereof from rc;i:eived grounds of 
Art , no reaibn; are derived. Herein relations are ftrange and numerous ^ 
men being apt in all ages to multiply wonders , and Philofopfaers deal- 1 
ing with admirable bodies , as Hiftorians have done with excellent men \ 
upon the ftrength of their great atcheivements, afcribing acts unto them not 
only falfe, but impoffible^ and exceeding truth as much irftheir relations, 
as they have others in their actions. Hereof we (hall briefly mention fonne 
delivered by Authors of good efteem : whereby we may difcover the fa- 
bulous invenfions of fome, the credulous fupinity of others , and the great 
I differvice unto truth by both: multiplying obfcurities in nature, and au- 
choriling hidden qualities that aie falfe ; whereas wife men are afhamed 
I there are fo many true. 

And firft , Diofcorides puts a Ihrewd quality upon it , and fuch as men arc 
apt enough to experiment, who therewith difcovers the incontinency of a 
wife , by placing the Loadftone under iier pillow : whereupon (he will not be 
able to remain in bed with her husband. The fame he alfo makes a help unto 
theevery. lor theeves faith he, having a defign upon a houfc, do make a 
fire at tlie four corners thereof, and call therein the fragments of Loadftone : 
whence arifeth a fume that fo difturbech the inliabicants , that they fbrfake 
the boufe and leave it to the fpoil of the robbers. This relation, how ridi- 
culous fbever, hath Albert hs taken up above a thoufand years after , and Alar-^ 
kodsHs the Frenchman hath continued it the fame in latineverfe : which with 
the notes of Piilorius is currant unto our daiesi As ftrange muft be tlic 
Lithomancy or divination from this ftone , whereby, as 7 ^ut^s delivers , Hr- 
IcnHs the Prophet foretold the deftruAion of Troj : and the Magick thereof 
not fafely to be believed, which was delivered by Orpheus^ that fprinkled 
with water it will upon a queftion emit a voice not much unlike an Infant. 
But furely the Loadftone of LoHreatius CuafcHs tfce Phyfitian is never to be 
; matched •, wherewith, as Cardan delivereth, whatfocver needles or bodies 
• I were touched, the wounds and punctures made thereby , were never felt at all. 
: And' vet as ftrange is that which is delivered by fome , that a Loadftone prc- 
• ferved in the fait of a Rem^ra , acquires a power to attract gold out of the 

^_ deepcft 

^Too» a. 

W Ctwm0/r £ ft H o u I. 

dcepcfi wclk Certainly a (Indird ab&rildy, not nUimJly caftouc, bocplofc- 
cd tiir pcTpctoity : for ibc UruigencG of (he eScci cvcr to beadiDtred, intltbc 
ditliculcyof diemajfifvcrtu bctunvuici]. 

1 bcfc cftmcits arc of ihac nionlUoliiy that ihcy Kfuw iliemfelre* in tlwif 
rKiicoicnts. Thert ii luiocher af better miliar, nnd whifpcrni thoronr tbe 
wtirlj witli fume lUcniiQO; crciiukitB and vulgar ftiiiiiinn rridily bclirving 
It, iiad miirc judjcioui nnddtllinctivelieaJri.noi altogccl^er rc/ectin;; ic. The 
concoMi cicdlent, aod it' [[is cSnt would tblloiv. Itmicwiiat divmc ■. whrre- 
by ive Diigbi conimunicaic like rpints, xni confer on.mrttt with Maiiffui 
in tlic htoon. Anclthif ispfeccndcdfToniEbcfyiiipathy of two needles touctied 
with the Ijune LoAdllonc , and placed in ilie center of two Ahocniirj- arcle, 
orring£iviihletiersdcfi.Tibe(I round about tbcm, one ttiend Keeping one ,and 
anotliO- the orber , and aprecing upon an tiour wherein they will lommtini- 
ate. I' or then , fiiih traaiuon , hi tvbut dil^aopf of pbce loever , when one 
iieedle Hull be removed unto sny letter ^ the ucher by a wonderfult fyinpftby 
will niovciinco die Ciine. But herein I confcfs my eipcncricc tan finde no 
truili ■, for having cxprefly framed two cucfc* of wood , and according to tbe 
nnmbec of tlw Latine letters divided c«h into twert)- three porp ■ placir^ 
iheicin two fiilcs or needles cotnpoftd of the lame ftcci , touHicd with ibc 
fainc LoadUonc , and ut the lame point : of iliefe two , wticnTncver I rrmoveil 
the UK , aUhougb bat at tbe difunce of b&lf a fpon , tbe other would (larul 
tike HtrcMbi pillars , and if tbe earth ftand iVill , havefurdy no mtKion at all. 
Now Hi It it not pollibteiliat any body Ibould bavcoobouaduirs , orSphcar 
of itsadivity, (b It 15 improbable it (hoold effect that at dilUncc, whicb oarer 
hand tt cannot ai all perform. 

Again , 1 be contcii i* ill tontrived , anii one eflefl inferred , wberca* tbe 
concrary will enfue- lor if the rcmovingaf one of tbe needles from AioB , 
fbouldtuve any aAion oc influence ontheoihcr^ it would not initceitttom 
AtoB , but repel! it from AioZ : for needles cacited by the fame point of 
the (lone, do not sttraA , buiavoid each other, c^enai ibcrealltido, when 
tbcir invigorated exticonis approach unto one ottier. 

LalUy , Were this tonteii aflunedly true , yet were it not a condufion at 
every dillancc to be tried by every bead : it being no ordinarj- or Alnianaclt 
bulineli, but a problemc Mathematical , to tinde oar the ditfercoce of 
hours in diffrrcnt places; nor do the wUeO ewftly faiistic tbcmfclvcs in 
lall. For the hours of fevcral places anticipate each otlicr , according unto 
j their Lonfttudcs -, wl«cb arc not eaadly difcovcred of every place -, and 
tlicrctore the trial hereof at a confiilerable interval , is bdl performed at 
the diftancc of the Aainci; that is, foch babitatiors as have tne fame Me- 
ridian and e^jual parallel , on different fides of the iEqaator ; or ntore plainly 
the lame Lui^ituJe and the fame Latitude unto tlie South . which wc have 
in the North. Vor unio fucb Situations it is noon and midnight at the very 
fame time. 

j And ibcrefore the Sympathy Of tbefe Needles i* much of the fame mould with 
' that midligeiKC which » pretended from tbe flcfti "f one body cranfmured by 
I iiriition two another. Tor if by the Art of Tslsacotim^ apcrmutanon of flcfti, 
or ttanCnutauon be made from one mans body into anotlicr, :** if a piece of 
flefli be exchanged from iliebiriptul mufde of either parties arm , and iboui 
them both, an Alphabet timimfcribed ^ uponaiimeappoiDtedasfometoncejm- 
ofis alfirm, they may communicaicar whatdiilanccfocver. For if the one rtiall 
prictihimfelE in./J, thtotherat tbefimeume, will have a fence thereof in the 
I'amc pan : and upon infpcdion of his arm perceive wfhat letters tlic other 
points out in bis. Which is a way of intelligence very fti^nge ■ and would re- 
quite the loll Art of Pnhaftrdu: wbocouldwada rcverfc in the MooD. 

K 2 Now 

6o I 

Bnquiriis into Vulgar 

Book i. 

thtnc* inAtilm. 
by D. God- 
win Biihop of 

Now this Magnctical conceit how ftrangc foevcr , might have fomc origi- 
nal in Reafon ; for men obferving no folid body , whacfoever did interrupt 
its aft ion, might be induced to believe no diftancc would terminate the fame ^ 
and moft conceiving it pointed unto the Pole of Heaven , might alfo opinion 
that nothing between could reftrain it. Whofocver was the Author , the 
ty£olHs that blew it about , was Famianus Stmda , that Elegant Jefuit in his 
Rhetorical prolufions , who chofe out this fub jeft to exprefs the ftilc of | 
LHcnttHS. But neither Baptijfd Poru^ defurfivif literarkm notis • TrithemiHs 
in his Steganography , Selenus in his Cryptography , or Nmtcius inanimaitis 
make any conilderation hereof - althougn they deliver many waies to com- 
municate thoughts at diftance. And this we will not deny may in fome man- 
ner be effefted by the Loadftone : that is, from one room into another ^ by 
placing a table in the wall common unto botb> and writing thereon the lame 
letters one againft another : ibr upon the approach of a vigorous Loadftone 
unto a letter on this (ide , the Needle will move unto the fame on the other. 
But this is a very different way from ours at prefent *, and hereof there are 
many waies delivered, arui more may be difcovered which contradift not the 
rule of its operations. 

As for Vnguentum Arvutrium, called alfb Magntticum , it belongs not to this 
difcQurfe ,. it neither having theLoadftone for its ingredient , nor any one of 
its adions ; but fuppoleth other principles , as common and univerfal fpirits, 
which <:oqvey (he aftion of the remedy unto the part , and conjoins the vertue 
of bodies far disjoined. But perhaps the cures it doth, are not worth fo mighty 
principles ; it commonly healing but fimple wounds, and fuch as mnncmied 
and kept clean, do need no other nand then that of Nature , and the Balfam of 
the proper part. Unto which eflcft there being fields of Medicines, it may 
be a hazardous curioiity to rely on this *, and becaufe men fay the effeft doth 
generally follow, it might be worth the experiment lo try, whether the fame 
will not enfue, upon the fame Method of cure, by ordinary Balfams, or com- 
mon vulnerary plaiflers. 

Many other Magnetifms may be pretended , and the like attractions 
through all the creatures of Nature. Whether the fame be verified in the 
aftion of the Sun upon inferiour bodies, whether there be ^yEolUn Magnets, 
whether the flux and reflux of the Sea be caufed by any Magnetifm fix>m 
the Moon ^ whether the like be really made out , or rather Metaphorically 
verified in the fympathies of Plants and Animals, might aflfbrd a large difpute •, 
and KirchfTHs in lus CateuA Magneticd hath excellently difcuffed the^me-, 
which work came late unto our hand, but might have much advantaged this 

Other Difcoorfes there might be made of the Loadftone : as Moral , My- 
ftical. Theological^ and fome have handfomly done them^ as jfmhyhj 
AuJHne, GttUelmus Pmrifienfuj and many more ^ but thefe fall under no Rule, 
and are as boundlefs as mens inventions. And though honeft minds do 
glorifie God hereby -, yet do they moft powerfully magniiie him , and are to 
Be looked on with another eye , who demonftrativdy fet forth its Magnalt- 
ties ; who not from pofhdated or precarious in^ences , entreat a courteous 
affent ^ but from experiments and undeniable effects^ eniforce the wonder o/i 
its Maker. 

Ch A F. 


And CtmimM E It n o K 1 

Ch*p. IV. 
of B»dits Eleffrirai. 

HAving thiH (pokea of the LoadtWne and Bo<J« Mngnwical , 1 (hall 
m tfic next plK<; dclivw foniwliat of Bectrit?.! , and fuch as may fetm 
ro Imvc attraciKiii like ihc oUkt. Hereof wc fliull M((> deliver what' pin\- 
cuhrly (poken or not generally krwwn is nunil'dtly or probably true, what 
generally believed is alio lillfe "f duhiouj. Now by Elmna! bodtcs, ! an- 
ucrftand not fuch iis arc Mciallical , tncniiofwd by F/inj , and che Anci- 
enu ■ for ilwir Elcctrum w« a mature nude of Gold , with rlie addition 
of a fifth part of lilver^ a fubflancc now as unknown, as true JurJchalcim, 
or Cmnikitw Bmfi . and itx down among thui{;« loll by pMnnSfu. 
Nor by Elcctrtck Bodies do 1 conceive fudh oncly a* take up ftavinci, 
ftraws , and light bodies , in whidi nuntbcr the Anciems oody placed Jrt 
and Amhn\ bot futh as eonvenicndy plated imro fficir obirtw attraa ill 
bo«liei palpable wbacfocver. I fay tonvenicmly plnrrd , that ti. in regard 
«f tbe obt'ect , (bat it be not coo ponderous , or any way affixed ^ in regard 
oftbcAcent, that it be not foul or fullicd, but wiped, rubbed and cscitated; 
io rr[;ara of bntli , that they be cimvcrnicntlydidam , and no impediment in- 
terpofcd, i fay , nil bodies palpable, thereby excluding fire , which indeed it 
will not attract, nor )'ec draw tltrough it^ tor fire toufumes iti effluxioos 
by whkhitlhould attract. 

Now although in this rank but two were commonly nieniioncd by the 
Ancient? , G'tlhtrtus difcovercib many more ; as Di^jmnaJ , SMphjrt , C*^- 
^mnkt. Jru, 0f4ffs, Amtthj^t, BmS, ChryftAt , Bri/hf-fitm, Sn/fhur, 
Afafikk^, hard IV**, lard fio/w, Arfittic , SuK^tmm , Rnk-AHttm, cnm- 
mon-GlaK , Stihttm , or GlaYs of Amiimnj. Unto thtfc Cafnm iddedi 
white Wax , <iHm Elrmi , Gum Ctmn , Fix H'tffamrM^ and Ciffum. And 
unto ihcfe we add Gnat Anime , SojitmM , Talcum , CbywfSfhri , J^«i»- 
I ddrdcM , Tm-ftnttnf , Styrax LitfMuLt , and CaranM dried into a hard con- 
; Itdence- Ana the fame attraction we find, not oncly in (imptc bokliei, 
but futh a« arc mnchcoaiptninded-, as tlw Oxjrreceitm t'laiOcr, and obfcOFC* 
ly that iiA Brmi^m , and GrauM Dd ^ all wiiidi fniooih and rightly prc- 
' pared , will difcover a fuffiticnt power to (Ur the Needle , fetled fi-cdy op- 
i on a wdl-pomied pin-, and l<> as the Electrick ntay be apphed uqco it, wiift. 
i out all diliidvantagc. . 

I Biic the attraction of thefe Electrick* wc obfervc to be vcrj' different, Rr- 
I Itnout or unciuous bodies , and fucii as will flioie, attract mofl vigoroolly, 
and mnft tbtreof without frication ; as Animr, Btnjjutin , and molt power- 
fully good hardWax, which will coovcri the Neeiitcitmolt as actively as the 
IjjaJlionc- And we bcHcve that all or moft of this fubibnce if reduced to| 
> hardnris . iraluceoty or clearnefs, would have fonic attractive ouality. But I 
juiin toncretc, or Gums eafilydilTolving in water, draw not stall : as Atsr, 
Ofimtt*, Sdn^^mu DrAtonis , Lscta^ Ca/^dntm. SAf/ftittim. Many lloncs alfo 
both pcniousand riilgar , though terlcand fmoutlr, have not thic power ac- 
' tractive -. Ad EmnMi, Ptsrl^ ]^ff'>, CcrHtltAJti^ A^dtht^ Hitutriiftt, Marhlt. 
I AlAtta^tr, TiMclijhnf, Flim and BfK^Ar. tilaft attntu hot wejkly, though 
I cletr ; Tome Ittck-liones and chick Gtaffes codilfeTently -. Arftmc but weakly -, 
io Hkewifc Glafs of rf)»f *'«»»; ; Bot CrsiHi Mtt^Strnm not at all. SaJti »■ 
n^ly hit weakly : 3sS<ilGfmmA^ ASitm indalfo TAiks , tior very difcotcrtbly 




Enqtriries into Vulgdr 



CabiUt Us 
way for tv- 
tradion In 
bodies Ele- 


The way of 

byanyfrication: but if gently wanned dt the fire, and wiped with a dry doth, 
they will better difcover their Electricities. 

No Mettal attracts , nor Animal concretion we know , although polite 
and finooth •, as we have made trial in £/i^-Hooft , H^wi^z-Talons , the 
fword of a Sword'fijb , Tartoyfcfiels , Sed-horfi and EUfhdnts Teeth , in 
bones, in Harts-horn , and what is uTually conceived Vnkorns'horM. No wood 
though never fo hard and polifhed, although out of fome thereof Electrick bo- ' 
dies proceed : as Ebonj^ Box^ Lignum vlu^ Cedar ^ &c. And although fet and 
Amhtr be reckoned among Bitumens , yet neither do we find Affhakus , 
that is. Bitumen of Jsuiea , nor Sea^ole , nor Camphire , nor Mummia to 
attract •, although we have tried in large and poliihed pieces. Now this 
attraction have we tried in ftraws and paleous bodies , in Needles of, 
Iron equilibrated •, Powders of Wood and Iron , in Gold and filver foliate. ' 
And not onely in folid but fluent and liquid bodies,, as oyls made both by \ 
expreffion and diltiUation j in water, in fpirits of Wine, Vitriol and Aqua- 

fortU. : 

But how this attraction is made, is not fo eafily determined •, that 'tis per- j 
formed by effluviums is plain> and granted by mofl*, for Eledricks will not com- 
monly attract, except they grow hot or become perfpirable. For if they be 
foul and obnubilated, it hinders their effluxion ^ nor if they be covered, though 
but with Linen or Sarfenet, or if a body be interpofed *, for that intercepts the 
effluvium. If alfo a powerful and broad Electrick of Wax or Animehc held 
over fine powder ^ the Atomes or fmal particles will afcend mod numeroufly 
unto it ^ and if the Electrick be held unto the light, it may be obferved that 
many thereof will fly, and be as it were diftharged from the Electrick to the 
diflance fometime of two or three inches. Which motion is performed by the i 
breath of die effluvium ilTuing with agility ; for as the Electrick^ cooleth , the' 
projeftion of the Atomes ceafeth. 

The manner hereof C4^fivi wittily attempteth, afHrming that this efHu. 
vium attenuatethand impetleth the neighbour ayr, wtiich returning home 
in a gyration , carrieth with it the obvious bodies unto the Electrick. And 
this he labours to confirm by experiments ^ for if the Araws be raifed by 
: a vigorous Eledrick , tliey do appear to wave and turn in their afcents. 
I If likewife the Eledrick be broad, and the flraws light and chaffy , and 
held at a reafonable dillance, they will not arife unto the middle, but rather 
adhere toward the verge or borders thereof. And laftly, if many flraws be 
laid together, and a nimble Eledrick approach, they will not all arife unto it, 
but fome will commonly flart afide, and be whirled a reafonable diftance firom 
it. Now that the ayr impelled returns unto its place in a gyration or whirl- 
ing, is evident from the Atomes or Moats in the Sun. For when the Sun fo 
enters a hole or window , that by its illumination the Atomes or Moats be- 
come perceptible , if then by our breath the ayr be gently impelled, it may 
be perceived , that they will circularly return and in a gyration unto their 
places again. 

Another way of their attraction is alfb delivered ; thatis^ by a tenuous ema-^ 
nation or continued effluvium , which after fome diftance retracteth into 
I it fclf ; as is obfervable in drops of Syrups, oyl and feminal vifcoGties, which 
fpun at length; retire into their former dimenfions. Now thefe effluviums 
advancing nam the body of the Electrick , in their return do carry back 
the bodies whereon they have laid hold within the fphear or Circle of tlieir 
continuities ^ and thefe they do not onely attract , but with their vif- 
cous arms hold faft a good while after. And if any (hall wonder why thefe 
effluviums ifTuing forth impell and protrude not the fbraw before they can 
bring it back^ it is becavfe the effluvium paffii^ out in afmaller thred and 


L>3 o 1 X. 


lore enl«figthranl filxmcnt, it A.i . 
llTMng ttmo iw orrjiinal. Wis imo ;i (lui, 
ifcttiunio ii fdf And tlii= way of attrarti' 
fJCitiim r>i«if in his excellent Treaty o: : 

i his IVimipIWiifl'lulufopliv , as fir as contt-Jiu .-,. - 

'and with «tq>tinn of Glad , whofc aitractton lie alio iIl-t. 
j rctefi of Hi ciHudion- Anil tins in fomtf niaiincT tlurworiii m 

' beir. V-$tr.ui i'lJ tiuaiiT* ciuiifiunt & Ampitduiisiir iBi-pvi.-.. , 

[TW, &• £ldirts iMfit^nt txttnjit trAthifJ , (t jiJ K-mim ^rxfinrjuiiau irn^a- 
i itfeentihui rf^uviu, titJi^imiHr. And il' ihi cround were [rue, itut tik Eirth 
jwtre an ticAricK body, and the avr but too citiuvmih dwrenf ■ we tiii^c 
pcrhufh Mtc've tint from rhrt mtraAion, and by tliis eSluiion, iiodin tcndra 
I wthc EiifLlf, aiidconldnotrnitainabflvcit 

' Olir other difcoiirfc nf Elcftncb ctwcernwh a gcncnl opinion toiiiKng 
Jit and Am^'vr, thar ilicy attrad all ligbt bodicf. encept dtjmtm or £^^7, 
I aiid fijch -n be dipped m njl or nylcJ- and ilii» if urged as Iiigli a* Tbn- 
fhi^jj^itf: but Scali^iT aci^iiittcdi Iiirii-, And kid this bccnliUaflcrtion, Fimj 
would probflblj' Iiavc laii^n it up, Wlio herein fiands out , and ddivcrcth po 
more butwiut is rulgarlj Icnnwo. But Pluunh fpcaks polltivdy in Wi Sjip' 
j fw/ijr^r, thai Jmhtr aitTiftcdi all bodirs, ciccpting Kalil andoyted lubn&o- 
\ca. With f/jirjTfi coiifiait rtiany Autbom both Ahficnt and Wodcrn ^ but 
I the moft ioexnifabic arc Ltmnim and Smmi, wncreof the one delivering the 
nature of NlineraU incntiiined in Scripture, the m^dliblc fountain of Trmh, 
< conrirmrth their vcriucs with eironcou* traditions^ the otlicr andcnakifffi 
! rhc occult aud hidden Miracles of Nature , actcptcth tliis for one i and cn- 
I deavouretb to aHcdgc a reafon of that wlufhiimore then occult, uiatit.DuC 
' Mirtcni. 

Now itcrdn, omitting the auilraHty of others, as die DoAirinc of experi- 
ment' tratti cnibrtncd a-i, we HrO affirm. That jtmhr attracts notBaul, is 
wlurily rcpugnam um6 truth, loc if the leaved I'tcreor or d^yed (lalki be 
ftrfpprd into fmall rtraws, they a rife unto yimier , IKiV, and other Ele^ 
rtric5, no otlicnvUe then tliolcof Wheat and Rye:nor ittbcreany peculiar 
facnefs or linjjuUr vifcofuy m that plant that nuglit caufe adhdion, and To 
prci'cnt its ilctinlion. But that frt and ^fjn^r attract tiot flraw«oyled, is in 
I part tra<J and talfe. For it" the draws be much w« or drenched in oj-I, 
true tt IS (bat ^mirr drawcih ihcm not -, ier then the oy) the flraw 
I to adhere unto the pan whereon they are plated, fo that they canmrt rife 
! umotlie Aliractori and this is true, not onclyif ibcy b* foaVed in oyl , bw( 
fptriti of wine or water. But if wc fpeak of ftraws or fcftucous aviiions 
'lightly draivn nvcf with' oyl, and (o dm it taufctB no aJbdlon ^ or If 
' concave an Antipathy between Oyl and Amber , the Doctrine is not inic. 
I For Amhrr will attract llraws thus oylcd ■ it will convert the ISeedlcs of 
ISab niade cither of BraG or Iron, although ihcy be much oyled; tiirlb theic 
Needle* lonCildng free upon their Center, dierecan be no adhcfiori., It will 
' htewife attract o)! it fdf and if it approacheth unto a drop ibereoi*,' it be. 
cocneih conical, and artfeth Up unto it^ for oyl taketh notaway \ui atrrdcrj- 
j on, alittOLigb It be rubbedovcrft. \ot it you touiiiapiccif Wax alrqdycs- 
citaicd. Willi common oy!, it will nolwithitanding attract, though ijot fo] 
I vigoroully as before. But if yoii moillcii the ftmc with any cbymieal oyl , 
waa-r or fptrits of wine , or ondy breath upon it , it qm'tc omiw its aimcn-, 
on i tor oibc-r iu effllicncies cannot get throu^ , or will not mingle Villi 
tliole fublUoccf. 

I ]c is hkcirtfe probable the Ancients were miftakcn concerning it* fu^ffjtnce 
I and gcDCnitioii i the)' conceiving it a vcgctJbTecotictction made ofthe'^ums' 


Enqitiries into Vulgar 


OO K 2. I 

of trees , cfpccially Pine and Poflar falling into the water , and after indu- 
rated or hardened •, whereunto accordeth the fable of Phaetons fifters ; but 
furely the concretion is Mineral , according as is delivered by Boctius, For 
either it is found in Mountains and mediterraneous parts ^ and i'oit is a fat and 
un&ttous fublimation in the Earth , concreted and Hxed by fait and nitrous 
fpirits wherewith it meetcth. Or elfe, which is moft ofual, it is collected upon 
tne Sea-ihore •, and fo it is a fat and bituminous juice coagulated by the falt- 
nefsof the Sea. Now that fait fpirits have a power to congele and coagulate 
unftuous bodies, is evident in Chymical operations^ in tl)e didillacions of 
Arfinick, , fublimate and Antimmj j in the mixture of oyl of Junifer , with 
the fait and acidefpiric o( Sulphur-^ for thereupon enfuech a concretion unto 
the confiftence of Birdlime •, as alfo in fpirits of fait, or Aqua fortu poured 
upon oyl of Olive, or more plainly in tne Manufacture of Sope. And many 
bodies will coagulate upon commixture , whofc feparated natures promife no ' 
concretion. Tnus upon a folutionof Tin by A<]Ma fonts y there will enfue a 
coagulation, like that of whites of Eggs. Thus the volatile fait of Urine will 
C(Migu\^i&Aqt44vit£j or fpirits of Wine J and thus perhaps fas Helmont excel- ^ 
lently declareth j the ftonesor calculous concretions in Kidney or Bladder may i 
be produced : the fpirits or volatile fait of Urine conjoyning with the AqmM \ 
vite potentially lying therein •, as he illuftratetb from the diftillation of fermen- ; 
ted Urine. From wnence arifeth an Aqtta vitdor fpirit, which the volatile ialc 
of the lame Urine will congele 5 and finding an earthy concurrence, ftrike into 
a lapideous fubftance. .^ ' I 

Laftly , We will not omit what BelUbonus upon his own experiment writ f 
pftBec and ^^^ Dantzich unto MeUichitts ^ as he hath left recorded in bis Chapter, Dc\ 
a Viper invol- fifccin^ , that the bodies of Flies^ Pifmires and the like , which are faid oft- 
times to be included in Amber ^ are not real but reprefentative , as he difco- 
Ycred in feveral pieces broke for that purpofe. If fo , the two famous Epi- 
grams hereof in MartiaU are but Poetical , the Pifmireoi Brajfavoluslmzgjt" 
nary, and Cdrdans AIoHfoleum foraflye, ameer phancy. But hereunto we 
know not how to affent , as having met with fome whofe reals made good their 

How the 
ftone Is bre^ 
In the kidney 
or bladder. 

v^ in Am- 
ber, if ar/.II.4. 

C H A P . V. 

Cempendioujly of funJry other common Tenents^ concerning Miner dl 4nd 
Terreous bodies, which examined^ prove either falfe or dt$bious. 

I. A Nd firft we hear it in every mouth, and in many good Authors read 
x\it. That a Didmond^ which is the hardell of ftones , not yielding unto 
Steely Emerj^ or any thing, but its own powder, is yet made foft, or broke by 
the blood of a Goat. Thus much is affirmed by Plinj^ SoUnnsy Albertus^ Cr- 
prian^Aufiiny Ifidore , and many Ghriftian Writers^ alluding herein unto cBc 
I heart of man and the precious blood of our Saviour • who was typified 
by the Goat that was ilain , and the fcape Goat in the Wilderne(i» -; and 
at the effiifion of wliofe blood, not only the hard hearts of his enemies relent- 
ed , but the ftony rocks and vail of the Temple were (battered. But this I per- 
ceiveiseafier affirmed then proved. For Ldfidaries, and fuch as profefs the 
art of cutting this ftone , do generally deny it ^ and they that feem to coun- 
tenance it , have in their deliveries io qualified it , that little from thence 


Sooi. 1. 

dfni CMnrMHf E R. R K i . 


ii( munient cka be infcrictt Inc ic Voc tiffl, ihc holy Facbert, widioui a fut- 
xher coqairy <iid calte k- tiir groutcil , and rcflcij qpna the auifiohty ot ibe 
lirdilcliveren. At.torW/^irrjM, he proinircil) tliuflTcd , but cundibonally , 
noc ciccfK tbc Goat diini ^noc , aod be Ted with J't/cc fwu.nwn , f<tr«filf 
HMm, andfuch bt-rb* asare tonccii^edof (lower m break tbc flonc i» thoblad- 
Idcv. Dm ibeivuidfof Plii;, ftomwhom molUikcly tlairdlae tirft derived it, 
it' IVi'iAly conliderrd , do miter ovcFthruiv , ihcii ajiy way AdvAniAgp thu 
eHeii. Hm wordt Art tliefe ; Hircim mmfaur fMif^mitie . kc aiitrr ^mam rt- 
(ani y cdUdvff nnurrjts^ C^ fttpiai, mniiu iilibii , tmtr r/MM frsur^njtm 
tximiM ipt»dtt muUtef/, trmvt {nm^ent. ThitiS; ii » broken with Ocuu 
blood, but not ctccfi it be fi-clh and warm, xnd tliat not without many 
blows ; and then alio it wiil break the befl AnvilU and himmeri of Iron- 
And anfwcTjblo hereto, is tbc afleniot) of Ifi4iiirt»nd SJintt. Uy whidi ac- 
count , A Oiamoiid llecpcd in Goats blood , rather increalcth m hardneb , 
then a«.(|iiircili any foftncft by the infulion -, for tttc bed we iiave are cora- 
niinuiblc witliouc it ^ and arc fo far troiii brcakinghatntDcrt, thu they fubmtt 
umo i^tltiltation, ^tiidrettt^ not an ordinary pclUe, 

Upon ihts conceit arole pahaps the difcDvery of dnocher ^ that iIk blood of 
a CoaL, waf fovereign ft»- the Stone, asit Itandf tommendedby otany good 
Wiitcri , and bringt up liie compolttion in tiic powder ofNUcltMt , and the 
ElcAuary of the C^ecu of Cv/riff. Or railtcr bccaulc it was tbund an escel- 
knc meditine for the Stone, and its abilitycommcndcdby fbrnetodilToIvethe 
larddl thereof ^ it migtit be cwiceivcd by amptif^nng apprehealittons , to be 
Ale w brcaka/JMwwwii '"^ '<>'t "">^ to '>'^ ordaed Uiatthc Goat iboold 
be fed with faiiiVagoui herbs , and fuch as ate conceived of power to broik 
the n one. Howcvcritwerc , asihccffcdwlilfcinthcoiie. foi»itfurdy Tcry 
doubtfull in che other. Voraltltongh inwardly received it may be vrr^'diure- 
bck , and expulfe tbc l^oac in ilic Kidnycs •, ycc how it (hould liilfolvc or 
tuxak. that in the bladder, will require a further difpufe-, and perhaps would 
be more reafonably tried by a wiirm injeiliion thereof, then ai it is eonunoolyi 
nfed. Wherein notwithllandiii;; , we fhoiild rather rely upon the urioeia 
a Calllings bladder ^ a refoUitioa of Crabi^ eyes^ or tbc Kcond diOilUlioo 
of unoe , as Hilmom hath commended -, or rather ( if any fuch might 
be found ) a C hiliBi.'tory mcnllruiini or digeilive prcparscioti drawn frotn 
fpccies or individuals , whofc ftomacks peculiarly diflblve lapidcODc 

z. ThatGiiift it pojfoif, according unto common cooteit, I know not bow 
to grant- Not only trutn tiic innucency of its iD^rcdicnts, tliatis, Hnefaod,. 
' and the aAies ofgla£-wort offearn, wluch in themfclves are barmlelt nfid 
'ufe&ll : or bccaufc I find it by many commended fur the 6toac -, but alfo' 
Ifrom experience , a^ having given umo dog& above a dratn thereof, Gibttlty 
powdered m butler or paDc , widKiut any viJibledilhirbancc. 
I The conceit ii furely groimded upon the vifible mifchief of Gbfs grofly 
'or courOy powdered^ fur that indeed is mortally adxioui , and ctfi:nually 
ufed by iOuie to dellroy Mice and Ratts ^ for by leafon of its amienH* and 
I augulariiy , it commonly cscorutc^ the part* through uiiich ii s^affeih , and 
folLicift lueni 1111(0 a contimut expullion. Whereupon tliere cniues fcarfiill 
I fymptomei , not much unlihc tlmfc which attend the ai^ion ot poiion. I rom 
I whence notwithOanding , we cannot with propriety impt/fc upon it that name, 
I either by octult or clcmcniary quahty-, whirh he that concedcth will much 
cnJarRCLhcncoIogut: or hlU of poifom- lor many things, neither deleterious 
by fumiancc or ijualuy, arc yet dcitructivc by liguro, oi: forac octaiional 
aAivity. SoaicLxcchcsdcfUui^ivc, and by ibme accounted poiibn: noc ptppcr- 
ly t that is by lempei'Amcmal contrariety., occult form, or igmucb aiclemen* 

t tair 


comiBoaiy ■ 
Ma to be 4 

poyfonooj,' .| 

66 \ 

Bnquirits intoVntgar 

B oo ic 3. I 

tall repugnancy ^ but becaufe being inwardly taken they faften upon the 
veins , and occafion an eifiifion of blood , which cannot be eafily Itanched. 
So a ipongeis mifchievous *, not in it felt, for in its powder it is harmlefs : but 
becaufe being received into the flomack it fwelleth, and occasioning a conti- 
nual difteniion y induceth a ftrangulation. So pins , needles , ears of Rye or 
Barley , may be poifon. So Dumel deftroyed the Dragon by a compolition 
of three things , whereof rteither was poifon alone , nor properly all together, 
that is , pitch, ftt, and hair •, according as is exprefled in the hiftory. Then 
Dunitl took pitch , and fat, and hair, and did feethe them together, and made 
lumps thereof, the(e he put in the Diagons mouth, andfo he burft afunder. 
That is , the fat and pitch being cleaving bodies , and the hair continually extt- 
mulating the parts: by the adion of the one, nature was provoked to eicpell, 
but by the tenacity of the other forced to retain : fo that there being lett no 
paflage in or out, the Dragon brake in peeces. It muft therefore be taken of 
grofly-powdered Glafs, what is delivered by Grevimu : and from the fame 
muft that Mortal dyfentery proceed which is related by SanCloriM. And in 
the fame fenfe (hall we only allow a Diamond to be poifon ; and whereby 
as fome relate Paracelfus himfelf was poilbned. So even the precious frag- 
ments and cordial gems which are of trequent ufe in Phyfick , and in tbem- 
felves confefTed of ufefnll faculties •, received in grofs and angular powders , 
may fo o&nd the bowels, as to procure defperate languors , or caufe moft dan- 
gerous fluxes. 

That Glafs may be rendered malleable and pliable unto the hammer, many 
concdve , and ibme make little doubt : when they read in T>io , PHnj and Fc 
tnuim , that one unhappily eflfefted it for Tiberiw. Which notwirhftanding 
muiV needs feem fbrange, unto fnch as confider, that bodies aredudile from 
a tenacious humidity , which fo holdeth the parts together *, that though they 
dilate or extend , thev part not from each others. That bodies run into 
glafs , when the volatile parts are exhaled , &nd the continuating humour fe- 
parated : the fait and earth , that is , the fixed parts remaining. And tberc- 
ibre vitrification maketh bodies brittle : as delbroying the vifcous humours 
which hinder the difi^ption of parts. Which may be verified even in the bodies 
of Mettals. For glafs of Lead or Tin is fragile, when that glutinous fulphur 
hath been fired out, which made their bodies ductile. 

He that would moft probably attempt i t, muft experiment upon gold. Whole 
fixed and flying parts are fo co- joined, whofe fulphur and continuating prin- 
ciple is fo united unto the fait , that fome may be hoped to remain to ninder 
fragility after vitrification. But how to proceed , though after frequent cor- 
roiion , as that upon the agency of fire , it (hould not revive into its proper 
body , before it comes to vitrifie , will prove no ea(ie difcovery . 

3« That Gold inwardly taken , either in fubflAnce , infufion , decoAion or ex- 
tinction , is a cordial of great efficacy , in fundry Medical ufes , although a 
I pradice much ufed , is alfo much queftioned , and by no man determinedbe- 
yond difpute. Thorc are hereof I perceive two extream opinions •, fome ex- 
ceffively magnifying it , and probably beyond its deferts^ others extreamly 
vilifying it , and perhaps below ict demerits. Some affirming it a powerfull 
Medicine in many difeafes, others averring that fo ufed, it is eflfectual in none j 
and in this number are very eminent Phyficians •, Erafius, Thnretus , R$ndelf 
tim , BrMffdvolns and many otbar ^ who befide the Ifarigments and fudorous 
adhcGons from mens hands , acluiowledge that nothing proceedeth from 
gold in the ufual diecoction thereof. Now the capital reafon that led men 
umo this opinion, was their obfervation of the infeparable nature of gold ^ it 
being excluded in the fame quantity as it was received , without alteration of 
pAf cs > or diiBinntion of its gravity. 




B a o c 3. 

4ni CMmm B k « o a t 


Now bcftiit to deliftf (wnn'tuit wbicb in a m'Me sny rrMy be nit(riiTn>- 
cd^ wc tirft aiHrm. that die fabilancc ot gold j* mnocibtt by tlippowerfu!- 
kft action of wiunil bcii -, and that net only alimemaily lo » fiibflsnnd 
inuwtion, but alio nicdicim^nrally in my cnrponnil convcrHiin. As i< ?m' 
evident, not onlv "m the !'■ i ' i ■ ' - .''JiL-n ballets, but in rbe IcITm- and 
foliate divilions tWeof: p k and put* even as ii is doHtthc 

throat, thati*, wicJiouta; It orconfiflmce, So thutircmer- 

etlintH the vein* wuhtholcdLXtuur-ir^ , wdcfcin ici« niiied : but tikcrfilcavc 
<>r die i«errr.can[ jwiri!, nt (he mowthrs of the ,\f,-ftr.tlrkj , ar.daii«)Tpp«ot«h 
liic inconveiiiUc portion umw the licgi*. Nof u its Uiliflnniial amvc/ftijn cxiftD- 
Wc in *ny wmiHilition or aliment wherein ir i^ taken. And ilicrdiirc that 
was truly « 1lar»if^ ^furdiry, which btfcU the wifhe? uf MU.u. Aiid little 
credit tlierc b to be given to the golden Hen, related by Weadltrnt. Soinihe 
•xoncuon ol gold , we mull nc>i conceive it parreth with any of In fair or dif- 
Wublcprincipk-thcrchy , eswcmay affirm of In.n; fiir the parts ihermfare 
hied beyond diviiion ; nor will ibcy fcparatc upon the JUongtft tcft ot" lirr- 
This we affirm of pure gold ; fur that wtiith u currant t>nj pafTctti in (lamp 
•mongll u« . by re»fon ot iu allay , which is a proportion of Ttlvcr or copper 
mixed iberewicb - is aaually detjruacitued by ftre, and poflibty by &er|ucnt 

Secondly , Although il>e iiiblUace of gotd he not immuted or its pr:ivtty 
fctilibly detrealcd, jet tlut from thence fome vcrtuc may prorecd cither 
in fubilani.aJ recepdon or infiilioa we cannot (ifrly deny. Vor poiJibIc it 
t9 that bodies may eniit vcrtae and operation without abatement of weight- 
u II moit evident to the LoadAonc , wtiorc elBuencic* ate continual, ana 
commonitaWe without iininoration of gravity. And the li)(e \s obfcr^-ablein 
bodies electrical, whofe cmiflions arc Ich fubtiJe. So will a DiaraundorSa- 
pbii-ecawanclHuvium fufficicnt toraovctlTc needle or aftraw, wiihoutdimi- 
nuiioii of weight. Nor will polilhed Ainber although it fend fonh a grofs 
and corptiral cxlialemenr , be foard a long time dcfcaivc awsn the eitMtcrt 
fule*. Which is more cafily conceivable in a contini»ed and tciMcioos efflii- 
viiun , whereof' a great part rorcatt into ttt body- 

Thirdly , If amulets do work by eminarJons from their bodt« , opon thofe 
parts wbercunto they arc appended , and are not yet obferved to abate their 
weighty if they produce vifiblc and real cffeftsby tmponderoin and inTifiUe 
cnuflionsi itoiay bcun/uftto deny ilic pofijble cfficncy of gold, in the non- 
orailTion of weighty ordcpotdiiionof any ponderous particles. 

LalUy, Since ^ubium or glafi of Ai*timtHj . (ince alfo it* Regutui will im 
nifcftiy communicate unto water or wine, apurgingand vomitory opcntion, 
IMidyct (he body it fdf , though a&er ItcraEed uituftons, cannot bc fonod to 
abate cicher vertue or weight ; we (hall not deny but gold may do the like -, 
due if, impart fome efHucnca unto theinfufion , which carrj' with them the 
Icparablc fubtilocs thereof. 

Tliat therefore this metial thmrccciv«d, baih any onJeniaMe ttkA, #t 
Stall not imperioully determine^ although belidc the foriiMr expenORnts . 
many more nay induce us to believe it. Dut (ince tliepoitltif dubiouvitnli 
not )vc autbentictlly decided , it will be no difcretion to depend on difpu- 
Itublc rcmediU', but ratlitr in cil« of luMiWn danger , to have recourfe unto 
BMiiicinet of Jtaown and approved aCttviiy. tor, be^de the benefit tccruing 
unto the fick, hereby may be avoided a grofi and frequent error-, commonly 
MnimiitcJ in the ufe of doobtfUil remedies , conjointly witli tlwfc ivfuth are 
of approved veriua^ thaiti, toimpntc rhecora unto the ccmcerted remedy, 
or place it oo thai wbereoa they piacc their opinion. Whole operation al- 
though it be nodiing , or its concurrence not confideraWc ; yet doth it obtain 




Enquiries int$ Vulgur 

Book 2* 

the name of the whole cure : and carrieth often the honour of the ' capital 
encrgie , which had no finger in it. . . ^ i 

Herein exad and critical trial fhould be made by publike enjoinment : where- \ 
by determination might be fctlcd beyond debate: forfince thereby, not only, i 
the bocUcs of men, but great Treafures might be prefervcd y it is not only an er- 
tor of Phyfick , but folly of State, to doubt thereof any longer. ! 

4. That a pot full of aflies , will ftill contain as much water ks it would ! 
I without them , although by Ariftotle in his problemes taken for granted, and ; 
1 fo received by moft , is not effe AiWe upon the ftrideft experiment I could ever 
make. For when the aiery interfticies are filled , and as much of the fait of i 
the a(hes as the water will imbibe is diffolved • there remains a groft and 
terreous portion at the bottom -^ which will pofTels a fpace by it felf •, ac- 
cording whereto there will remain a quantity of water not receivable • fo will ' 
it come to pals ina-pot of fait, although decrepitated j and fo alfo in a pot of! 
fnow. Forfo much it will want in reception , as itsfolution taketh up-, ac-j 
cording unto the bulk whereof, there will remain a portion of water not to be| 
admitted. So a glafs fluffed with pieces of fpunge will want about a fixt 
part of what it would receive without it. So Sugar will not diflblve beyond 
the capacity of the water ^ nor a mettal in aqua fortU be corroded beyond its 
reception. And fo a puit of fait of tartar expofed unto a moift ayr untill it dif- 
folve, will make iax more liquor, or as fome term it oyl , then the former mea- 
fure will contain. 

Nor is it only the exdufion of ayr by water , or repletion of cavities 
pofleffed thereby , which caufeth a pot of aflies to admit fo great a quantity 
of water , but alfo the folution of the fait of the aflies into the body of the 
diffolvent. So a pot of aflies . will receive fomewbat more of hot water 


The Injrcii- 
cnts of Gun# 
' powder. 


•- f 

then of cold J for the warm water imbibeth more of the falc; and a 
I veffell of aflies more then one of pin-duft or filings of Iron ^ and a glafs 
I full of water , will yet drtnk in a proportion of fait or fugar without ovcr- 
! flowing. 

Neverthelefs to make the experiment with moft advantage , and in which 
fenfe it approacheth neareft the truth , it muft be made in aflies throughly 
burnt, and well reverberated by fire, after the fait thereof hath been drawn 
out by iterated decoAions. For then the body being reduced nearer unto 
earth, and emptied of all other principles , which had former ingreflion 
unto it, becometh more porous, and greedily drinketh in water. He that 
hath beheld what quantity of lead the teft of faltlefs aflies will imbibe , upon the 
refining of Silver, h,ath encouragement to think it will do very much more 
in water. 

5. Of white powder and fuch as is difcharged without report , there is no 

fmall noifc in the world : but how far agreeable unto truth , few I perceive 

are able to determine. Herein therefore to fatisfie the doubts of fome , and 

amufe the credulity of others , We firft declare ^ that Gunpowder conlifteth 

of three ingredients. Salt-peter, Smal-coal, and Birmftone. Salt-peter, although 

it be alfo natural and found in feveral places , yet is that of common ufe an 

artificial Salt , drawn from theinfufion of fait earth , as that of Stales, Scabies, 

I Dovc-houfes , Celiers , and other covered places ^ where the rain can neither 

. dilTolve , nor the Sun approach to refolve it. Brimftone is a Mineral body 

I of fat and inflamable parts , and this is either ufed crude , and called fulphur 

Vive , and is of a fadder colour ; or after depuration , fuch as we have in mag- 1 

deleons or rols, of a lighter yellow. Smal-coal is known unto all , and for this 

ufe is made of SaUow^ Wi/low^ Alder ^ H^fell, and the like^ which three pro- 

portionably mixed, tempered, and formed tnto granulary bodies, do make up 

that powder in ufe for Quns. 


Boor t; 

attd Cmmfif E « ft o a i. 


KowaU^Iicre.lldioiigb itury bear ifharcm tlx dirdiar^, yn buvz thflydr- 
ftinft inwntiuns, And ditfcKntoifcfsinchctompoliuon. li'otnlinniftnnepro- . 
ccedcid tlicpicriing and powerful hnng . VorSiiiai-coalunil Cetor rogcthawUl ' 
onelyl'pit, nor vigofuily tontimie rh« ignition. Vroni Siiial-to;l colDctli rlw ' 
bUcK colour nnj (juiiA atxcolion-, for nodier UnttiilorA' n-K I'rter, aUlioiicb 
III powder. Will laiic fire like Snial-coil i nor will tliey ealily kiinile y[iomDc 
Iporkiof « flint; a» oeiclicr will C'.»iwf /jiW , aU>dy very niflamaWc : Imt Uriwl- 
coiii 11 cquivolcnt lo nnder , and Icrveth to ligbt die Sulphur, ir may alio 
fcrvcco dirful'e ibe igmuoH chrougti every pan ot'che iinsiure^ mid being of 
more grols ami (JKcdparw, may leem w ntwlcRHc tbf ^Ctivicy of Snlt-pctef; 
and prevent coo lialty raretafiion. 1-rom Sali-wcer proteedch the force and 
die report^ lorSulptiurandlinal-coalaiiscd will not take tiru witli noife, or cxi- | 
titjon^ aiid powder wbich is mule of imparc and gmiie Piter, hathliuta weak < 
emilGon.andgivcth a Uuk report. And therefore m the tbrcu fomof powder, 
tbcftroni^dl cotitaiiKtb niol) Salt-pner.aml theproporciun theccofivaboQtU'Ji 
fans of ['cter, uiito one of Cml and Sotpbur. 

But the imnicdiaiecaulc of tbc Report , is ibe vehefnent comitiotion nf the 
iyr upon ttie fudden and violent eruption of the powder ; foriliftt beinafad- 
denly hrcd. and almoft altogciber ^ upon ihi» high rarefaftion, rwjoireib b^' 
miiay dcgrcu a greater Jnace ibenbcforeits body occupied- but tindmg refi* 
IUdtc, itaftively forcctn btiway, and by concullioii of the ii^T, oocafionah 
tbcRepoft. Now with what viokntc it fol^th upon tbeayr, niaynfily be 
conceived , if weadinit what CdreLm aDirmetb . ihAi ibe powder lircd aotlt 
occupy an hundred times it greater fpdce then its own bulk ^ or rather wfaar 
S»eBim more cxadly actounteih ^ iliat it Mcccdeth its former ipacc no iefs 
cben I2000. and 500. times. And this is the rcafoo not oticly of this Itil- 
tninating report of Guns, but may refoUc the caulc of ihurc toriblc cracks, 
and atTnghtingnoylcs of Heaven^ that is, the nitrous and fulphureous cxbalui^ 
cos, fee on tire in tJjc doudi -, whereupon re'iuiring a Urgcr platr, they t'offc 
outtbnrway , notonely with tiK breaking or the cloud, Init tbe lacentuinor 
ibeayr about it. When if ibc matter be ipii'liuou*, and cIk doud compad, 
tbcnoUeis gnat and tanble : If.tbc cload t^thin, and the Materials weak, 
[Ik eruption is languid, ending in corufcaiions and flailws without neife, aJ- 
though butatthedilUnceol'twoMitcs^ which i!.dteefned thcremoteft difbnee 
efcloudij. And thcrcfDrcfuch lighcnings do feldom any harm. And there- 
forcallo It Li prodigious tohavethundermaclear 9ky, as k obfervably record- 
ed mfomc Killorics. 

Vroni the likccaufe may alio prorocd fubterafleous Thunders and Earth- 

S[uakci ; when fulpliiireous and nitrous vciiw being Krcd upon rare-iaftimi, do 
ortc ihcir way tiirough bodies that reilftthcni. Where if the kindled (natter 
be plentiful, and the Mine dole and firm aboat it , fubverlion of Hits ^Wd 
Towns doth fomenmcs follow : It'fcatny, weak, artd iheF-anh hollow or po- 
loui; there onclyenfueth fome taint concullion or tremOlo'Js and quaking Mo- 
tion. Sordy, amain Keafon why the Ancients were fo impertcift in tlie Do." 
dnnc of MctctKs, wascheir ignoianccof Gun-powdw and fir«-work«, which' 
belt difcovcr the taufcs of many thereof^ 

Now therefore he iliat woold dertroy the report of Powder , mull work 
upon the Peter ^ he ttiot would exchange the colour, muil think bow to alter 
the Smal-toal. for ihconc, that if, to raakc white powder; jc is fiirclymany 
waits fcailble: The bdt I knowi* by ihc powder of rOttcn Willows ■, fpunK, 
or Touch-wood prepared, might ptrhaptmakc it Ro/ret: and fome, as AW»- 
ItKtk affirmcth, hive proraiCed to make it Red. All which nocwiihftaiiding 
doth little toncctn the Report ; {,a>wchavelhcwed,depcndson Jodthcr 
Ingredient. And therdbre all<> under the eoloutof black, this principle Is vc- 

■ .'y 

The anb d 



Enquiries into Vnlgar 

Book 2. 

« vn Bmnbxr- 

ry variable v for it is made not onely by Willow^ Alln^ HmzxI, &c. But fomc 
above all commend the coals of Flax and Kufies ^ and fome alfo contend , the 
fame may be efFeded with Tinder. 

As for the other, thatis^ to deftroy the Report, it is reafonably attempted 
but two waies ^ either by quite leaving out^ or elfe by (iiencing the Salt-pe- 
ter. How to abate the vigor thereof , or Hlence its bombulation , a way is 
promifed by Porta , not onely in general terms by fome fat bodies, but 
in particular by JSarax and butter mixed in a due proportion ; which faith 
he , will fo go off as fcarce to be heard by the difcharger ; and indeed plen- 
tifully mixed , it will almofl; take off the Report , and alfo the force of the 
charge. That it may be thus made without Salt-peter, I have met with but 
one example, that is, oiAlfhonfm Duke of Ferrara • who in the relation of 
BraffavolHs and Cardan^ invented fucb a Powder, as would difcharge a bullet 
without Report. 

That therefore white powder there may be, there is no abfurdity *, that al- 
fofuch a one as may give no Report, we will not deny apoflibility. But this 
however, contrived either with or without Salt-peter , will furely be of little 
force, and the effeds thereof no way to be feared : For as it omits of Report, 
lb will it of efifedual exclufion ^ and fo the charge be of little force which is ex- 
cluded. For thus much is reported of that famous Powder o(AIfhonfus^ which 
was not of force enough to kill ^Chicken, according to the delivery of Braffavo- 
Itis. Jam^ue fulvis inventus efi fui glanJem fine kwtk^ projicit^ nee tamen vt^ 
henUfnter ut vel futtuminterficere pojpt. 

It is not to be denied , there are waies to difcharge a bullet , not onely with 
powder that makes no.noife, butwitbout anv powder at all^ as is done by 
water and Wind-guos •, but thele afford no flUminating Report , and depenu 
onfingle (H'inciples. And even in. ordinary powder there are pretended other 
waies, to alter the noife and. ftrengtb of the difcharge *, and the befl , if not 
only way, confifls in the quality of the Nitre : for as for other waies which 
make either additions or alterations ta the Powder , or charge, I find there- 
in no e£kft. Thatufno every pound of Sulphur, an adjeftion of one ounce 
of QiJick-filver, or unto every pound of Pcm: , one ounce of Sal Armoniac 
will much intend the force , and confequently the Report , as Bermguceio 
hath delivered , I find no fuccers therein. That a piece of Opium^ will dead 
the force, and Mow, as fome have promifed. I find herein no fuch peculia- 
rity, no more then in any Gum or viicofe body : and as much effed there 
is to be found from Scammonj. That a Bullet dipped io oyl by preventing 
the tranfpiration of ayr , will carry farther , and pierce deeper , as Pma af- 
firmeth, my experience cannot difcern. That Quick-filver is more deflrudive 
then (hot, is furely not to be made out ^ for it will icarce make any penetra- 
tioo, and difcharged from a PiftoU, will hardly pierce through a parchment. 
That Vinegar, fpirits of Wine, or the diftilled water of Orange-pils, where- 
with the powder is tempered^ axe more effedual unto the Report then common 
water , as fome do promtfi^, I (hall not affirm ; but may afluredly more con- 
duce unto the preferyatioa and durance of the Powder , as Cataneo hath well 

That the heads of arrows and ballets have been difcharged with that force, 
as to melt or grow red hqt in tbett flight, though commonly received, and 
taken up by ArifiotU in his Meteors, is not fo easily allowable by any , who 
(hall confider , that a Ballet of Wax will mifcbief without melting • that an Ar- 
row or bullet difcharged i^ainfl linnen or paper do not let them on fire^ and hard- 
ly apprehend how an Iron (hodd grow red hoc, fince the fwifteft motion at hand 
will not keep one red that hath been made red by fire^ as may be obferved in fwing- 
11% a red hoc Iron about, orfafleningtt int»a wheel ^ which under tlttc motion 


B o o I 3. Md Ctmnufi £ k k o n s . 

W(U IbonergRmcotdtbcnwithQUtiE. That i bulkc xlfo mcxintf iipwft<(] opol 
chtf hon^-ontator point blank (JtfcJiargi;, mnny Amrtidonac allow: wbo con> 
tcnS tintic ddct-ibcili apanbolialvict bowiog Imc, by xtiUm of ics nuura] 
gra>(cy inclining it alwaio downward. 

But, Setidc tike pttvalcnic from Silt.pttcr, as Mailrr-tn^rediooc in ifee 
milture^ Sulpbttr nuy hold n greater ul'c in the coinfH>(;ii<7ti tni rurcher 
xcuvityin tlic cxduiion, then is bymoJt coiicowiJ. for Sulpliur rivt maka 
better powttcr then common Suli^hur, whrtK n«^-«rth.-1c1s if oft qtiicfc at. 
ccnlioQ. ^or Snul'Coil, Sali-pecfr and Camfiiirt mdc tmo pt>wdcr will I 
be of ii[tl< lurcc, ivliercin niKWitbfWMling tlxre want* not the scriMiding i 
ingtcdienf. And C4n«^';;ir ttiougli it flomeu'ell, yet will not fltifli To llve> ' 
ly , or dttixaic Salt-pctcr , if you inicct it thereon , hkc \u!j>hur ; «* in the 
preparation ot SaI fruMeHt. And iailly , thoDgii many wai« may be found 
CO Iigbi [hn powder, y« ii there none 1 know to make a llrong and vigorous 
powder of Salt-ptUT i wirfioDt [lie adniixtion of Sulpliur, j^rftmc red and 
yeliow, timt it 0<-femi!>t oxid Stwd^rMeb may pcrha]>t do foinecbrng, as being i 
lofianublc sod containing SnJpbur in thenii out containing atfo « I'alt, and 
Mercurial mixtiao, ttury will be of little ci^t -, and white or ClirilhTine Ar- \ 
ftmt of JcG I for that beiiig nrtihdal , and fublimed with fait , will not en>^ I 
4uR Aantaiion. { 

Tlib Anopathy or comrntion between Salt-pctcr ind Sulphur upon an i 
aaual tire, in tbar contplcai and diftinct bodies, ts alfonianifdtcdintheirpre- 
paratiotw, and bodies wliith iovifibly contain tlmii. Thiii i* the preparation of I 
CncHi AJttAlisritm , iIk nrattcr kindlnband BunKthhkcGun-powdcT^ where- 
in nocwiihltandiiig, there is nothing but AKtimonj and Salt-pctcr. Bat this 
proceedeih froni die Sulphur of Amiimty, not coJuring thu Oxieiy of Salt- 
peter ^ foe after threeor four accenlion* , through a frclh addition of petcf, 
the powdcrwiil 6ulhno morc^ for the Sulpbiir of the Amimonj is ouite rx- 
bilcd. Thuilronin yf?iM ^rj/ will fall intocbulhtion, with noiie and emica- 
cioo , ai alfo a cra^ and fnniid exhalation ; which air csufird from ihif cotn- 
batof thcSulpliurof Iron, with die ande and nitroo* fpiritt of A^na [trtts. So 
if It alii) m Aunim fmlmindMi, or powder of Gold dilToived in A)p>* I^gu, 
ud precipitated with oyl of Tartitr, which will kindle without ansniul tire, 
and afford a report like Clun-powdcfi that is, not at CntUm affinrwth from 
toy Antipithy between Sal Arimniac and Tarf^r, but rather between the ni- P* i^ff*^ 
ROUS ipiir.t^ of A^MM RtiUy commixed ftr minrnM with the Sulphur of Gold, ^^'*'*'«^ 
ai StmntrtMi batli well oofervcd, 

t. I'hat CwaI ( which is a iJihephj/tMi or ftonp-planc, and grownA *t the 
bottom of lite Sea) tifott under water, but wasah hard in thcayi^, fttthoDgh 
tfacalfcrtianof IJi'/fcoriJft, Fliij, and confeqiicntly SvtinMT, Ifidon , Itmut, 
andmany uihos^ and llands believed by rooll, wc hawlbme realbn lotloubc- 
dpeciallvif wc ivitceive Wich common believers, a lotall tbftnrrtae the boi- 
com, and this induratioti to be iingly madeby thcayr, not onely fromfofud- 
dcna peui^cdou and Itnngc induration, not eafily made out from the qiialitiei 
of ayTj butbecaiife werindit rejcaed by clperirrental enqoirie*. fvhAimet Bt- 

Siiuttm hi^Cbflpterof the onrtureof Cor^i/, ui>dcTta««to clearrhe world of 
is error, firom the expreft expcniiwnt of fthn Sifiijfd dt Nk\lf, who wa* 'p 'fce Frendi 

OvCT-Sxrof the gaihain^ofCV^/opODthe Kingdom of 77'««w. Thi*GentIc- 
inan,faithhe, dcfiroosto hi»d chenatareof dr^l, and tobe refotverf how it 
groweifa at the bottom of the Sea i caufnl a man to go down tlo -left then a 
hundred ftthom, with cxprefsto take notice, whether it were h»rd or foft lO 
fheplace wbereit groweUi. Whorecoming, brtioghtiaeachhnndabrflixh uf 
C>irMl, ai&'ining i[ wai at'hardattbcboctom, asinibe-ayr whrrehr delivered 
it. Tbe latDC was aUb'contirmed bya trial 0^blsl>^vn, hjittdling ica Mthoiti 




Enquiries into Vulgar 

Book 2. 



How Coral of I under water before it felt the ayr. Bostius in his acurate Traft De Gemmit^ 
of a plant is of the fame Opinion •, notafcribing its concretion unto the ayr, but the Coa- 
bccomoi a gulating fpiritsof fait, and lapidifical juyceof the Sea , which cntring thci»rt$ 

of that plant, overcomes its vcgctability, and converts it into a iapideous fub- 
ftance. And this, faith he, doth happen when the plant is ready to decay ^ 
for all Coml is not hard, and in many concreted plants fome parts remain un- . 
petrified, that is, the quick and livelier parts remain as wood, and were never 
yet converted. Now that plants and ligneous bodies may indurate under wa- . 
ter without approachment of ayr, we haveexperiment inCcr4Af/<«,with manyj 
Coralloidal concretions ; and tbit little ftony plant which Mr. fohnfon nametb, '■ 
Hipparis carotloides, and Gefncr foliu manfu Arenofts^ we have found in frcfli ; 
water ^ which is the lefs concretive portion of that Element. We have alfo with j 
I us the vifible petrification of wood in many waters ^ whereof fo much as is co- 
vered with water converteth into ftone • as much as^is above it and in the ayr, fc- 
taineth the form of wood, and centinueth as before. 

Now though in a middle way we might concede , that fome are foft and 
others hard •, yet whether all Coral were firftof a woody fubftance, and after- 
ward converted •, or rather fome thereof were never inch, but from the fprout- 
ing fpirit of fait , were able even in their ftony natures to ramifie and fend 
forth branches •, as is obfervable in fome ftones, in fil ver and Metallical bodies, 
is not without fome queftion. And fuch at leaft might fome of thofe be, which ] 
FUroumti obfcrved to grow Dpon bricks at the bottom of the Sea , upon the 
coaftof ^4r^4n>. 

7. We are not throughly rcfolved concerning Parcellane or ChiM dilhes, 
that according to common oelief they are made of Earth, which lyethin pre-- 
paration about an hundred years under ground ^ for the relations thereof are 
not onely divers, but contrary •, and Authors agree not herein. GuiJo Panci- 
roHus will have them made of Egg-lhels, Lobfter-fhcls, and Gjpfum laid up in 
the Earth thefpaceof 80. years: of the fame affirmation \%Scaliger, and the 
common opinion of moft. XAmmSus in his Navigations is of a contrary aflerti- 
on -, that they are made out of Earth , not laid under ground , but nardened 
in the Sun and wind, the fpace of fourty years. But Gonzales de Mentbza, a 
Of whic mat- ^^^ imployed into Chind bom Philip the fecond King of Sfnin^xx^n enquiry and 
ter the China ocular experience, delivered a way different from all thefe. For enauiring in- 
to the artifice thereof, be found they were made of a Chalky Eartn ^ which 
beaten and fteeped in water, afFordeth a cream or fatnefs on the top, and a grols 
fubfidence at the bottom^ out of the cream or fuperfluitance, the fineft difhes, 
faith be, are made , out of the refidence thereof the courfer *, which being form- 
ed , they gild or paint, and not after an hundred years, but prefently commit 
unto the rarnace. This, faith he, is known by experience , and more probable 
then what Ododrdus Barboja hath delivered •, that they are ma^e of fhels, and bu- 
ried under earth an hundred years. And anfwerable in all points hereto^ is the re- 
lation of Linfchotttn^ a diligent enquirer, in his Oriental Navigations. Later con- 
fiiination may be baa firom Alvarez the Jefuit, who liv^ long in thofe parts, 
I in his relations of China. That ProceUane VefTeb Were made but in one 
j Town of die Province of Chiamfi : That the Earth was brought out of other 
Provinces , but for the advantage of water ^ which makes them more polite 
I and perfpicuous, they were onely made in ttus. That they were wrought and 
faihioned like thofe of other Counuies, whereof fome were tin Aed blew , 
fome red , others yeUow , of which colour onely they prefented unto the 

Now if any enquire, why being fo commonly made, and in fofhort a time, 
they arebccomefo icarce, or not at all to be had? The Anfweris gjiven by 
thefe laft Relators^ that under great penalties it is forbidden to cairy the firft 


difhcs be 

Book s. 

MffdCnmnn £ a k 

„„outof ibe Country. And of tliofc furcl)' tltc prowimc?. nm'.i Iw lunnfcd, 
Hbicliby ir^/iVfr and others arc afcribcditr Cliinii'dllhi- :',z nb 

fijn, ThsEclKY lirikcfite, Tlut iJjc^* will grow i.n- ...c li- 

iDilinnariicth. For liicji as pafiamongit us,and •. «t the 

hndl.williiniziy llrise lire, but not dirtovcr,^iWj/r,-*/f''£i.fy,i3L- A.-ftmct^i, bur 
nuybculcful inJyrcntcricjand fluxes bcyonJ tin; other. 

B- Whether a tirhiintic (which is cheenicd tlicbdlandbrtjgtdorRnhie*^ 
doiliflamcinihcJirk, nrftunclikc a ci>alinthcniglit,ih(mgii generally aprrtd 
by comiDon believers, Uvcry muthtguclhuncdby iii.iny> iiy M>titis\, who 
account-tit a, vut^^^rf.rtor : Uy tlie \zuixA liatiMt \ who could not find it ve- 
rified in that iUniouioncof HUnlphij, wlmhwasas Ugiwan ngg.andeftccni- 
edtbc bd\in F.nnft. Wherefore aiiliniigh (vcdilputciJoctJic poi(ibiltiy,w[i*- 
llicr hi-rein there be no; t«ohiglianap(vchcn!ion, aril Above iw natural rtdian- 
cy. It r<oi without \»\\ doubt : however it be granted a very (plendid cVriw, 
and whole fpaL-ks may iitnicvhai rdcmbic the gUnccf ot' ticc: andMcupho- 
nciilly dcfervctliac iiame. And therd'ore when it ucorceiTea by fome, that 
this »one in the Btcll-pUK of Atr^H rclpcfted the 'I ribc ot' D^n, who burnt 
the City of Ltijh -, ainl SuM^ftn of the llmt*.- mbc, who tired the Corn of the r\a^ 
tijiimfi in fonic fenfc It may beadniittcJ.and i5 nymtollerablctoiiccption. i 

\s for that IhMmSiooc^ dut Huncd ft> brightly in the Night, mul prccended 
to have been (hewn to many iniheCounof /^r^vcr, tajiMJrtmCbioetiHimh 
dccUrcdout ofThuaMMJ:, It proved but an impofturc, as ilm eminent Philo- 
fophcr UceiMt hath dirtovcrcd j andthercfore intlicrcvifcd Edicionsof ThH4- 
««/, it is not to be found- And for the Phoffbtmi or SommnH Stont , which 
cxpofedunto theSuii, suid then dofety Hiut up, wiU afterward afford a light 
inthcdarkj it is of unlike confidcration, for cliat rcijiiircth calcination, orrc- 
dudron into a dry [towdcr by^e^ whereby it imbibeiti the light in theva' 
porous huniidity of tlie ayr about it , and inercti>re mainlainech its li^t not 
long, but goes out when the vaporous vehicle i^ confiimcd. 
I y. Wfiethcr the ■ ^litfi or t^t^le-i\oTK hath that eminent property to promote 
delivery or reftrain abortion , refpcftively applied to lower or upward parts of 
ihebody, we (hall not difcouragc common pratftitC by our qiiellion: but «he- 
■tbertbeyanfwa ihcaccouni thereof , as tobeiaKenoutof t/ep/r/ncfl*, co-optf- 
! rating in women unto fmh etfcAs , as they are conceived toivard tlie yonng 
I f^glti : or wlicthcr tlie Itngle lignaiure of one Hone included in tlie Matrix and 
belly of another, were not iufficient attirft, to derive this venue of tbc preg- 
inanlStone, upon otliers in impregnation . may yet be lartherconlidercd. Ma- 
, ny forts there are of this rwling Stone, bcfidc the Gtodn, containing a foftcr 

fubHancc in it. Divers are found in En^lami, and one we met with on tbc 
Sea-fhorc, but becaufc m^yuf cmment ufe arc pretended to be brought from 
I ijlund, wifcrcin are divers ayriet oityf.^Ui ^ wc rannot omii to deliver ^vhat we 
[received trom a learned perlbn in tbat Country,^ »Vf/ nit iw mAh AtjuiUrt/m ali 

ijMMida furrit riftriutttifciv^cfitMCfrti memorU ,tliAm ipt^uirriiUttt trm ce»- 

li^il inviiiffr, <jHArt in fjhuUs hdbtidum. 
I to, TciTiblc anprchcniionsand anfwerable unto thpir names, arc railed of 

F^nV (tones, ^riiEhti(mr%, found commonly with us, inSione, Otalk,and 
, Marl-pics, ivhich notwitttilanding arc no more d)cn Echfmmtrritt! and ^r- 

Itmnitci . the Sca-Hcdg-hog, and the ZXtrf-ftonc, ariling from fbme filiccotis 
[Roots, and foficr then thatof Ilmt, the Maltcr-ltone , lying mor^ regularly 
.incourfcj , and ariling from tbc primary and (Irongdt fpjnt of the Mine. 
I Of the Echiniin, fuch asarc found mChalicpits are white, glaffy, find buik 

Lpon 1 QiAllty miidc; fomc of an hard and flinty fublUnce, are found in 
I Stone-pits and elf-wliere. Common opinion comtircadrth tbem for thcltonc 
I but arc moH praftically ufedagainll lilmstn Horfese^cs, 


. LaftJy 

"u HilittM 


I Urine. 

1 1 . Laftly , He mud have more heads then Rome had Hills , chat makes out half 
of thofe vertues aftribed unto ftones , and their not onely Medical , but Ma- 
gical proprieties, which are to be found in Authors of great Name. In PfeUns^ 
SersfisnyEvax^ Alhertus, AUazat^ Marhodeus-^ in Maidlw ^ Rueus^ Aljli- 
ns^ and many more. 

That Lafis LafuU hath in it a purgative faculty we know ^ that Bcz^ar 
is Antidotal, £4^*/ ^^^^/r*/ diuretical , C<?r/i/ Antepileptical , we will not de- 
ny. That ComeliMs^ f^^^^i He/iotrepes^ and Blood-ftones, may be of vertue 
to thofe intentions they are implied , experience and viiible efleAs will make 
us grant. But that an Amethyft prevents inebriation • chat an Emtrald will 
break if worn in copulation. That a Biam$nd laid under the pillow, will be- 
tray the incontinency of a wife. That a Saphire is prefervatrve againft in- 
chantraents • that the fume of an A^ath will avert a tempeft, or the wearing 
of a CrjfofTdfe make one out of love with Gold ^ as fome have delivered, we 
are yet, I confefs, to believe , and in that infidelity are likely to endourdaies. 
And therefore , they which in the explication of the two Beryls upon the 
Efbody or the twelve ftones in the Rational orBrefl-plateof Aaron^ or tliofe 
trt^dve which garniftied the wall of the holy City iii the Apocalyps, have drawn 
their fignifications from fuch as thefe •, or declared their fymlyolicai veriti^ 
from fuch traditional faHities •, have forely corrupted the fincecity of tlicir Ana- 
Ic^ies, or mifunderflood the myflerie of their intentions. 

Chap. VI. 

of fundrf Tencnts conccrmngvegeubUs $rPtdnt$y ivbich exArnined^ 

fr$ve either falfe or dubious. 

I. \ T Any Mola's and falfe conceptions there are of Ma»drakes , the firfl 

JLVL from great Antiquity , conceive th the Root thereof refemblech the 

ihape of Man ; which is a conceit not to be made out by ordinary infpeftion , 

or any other eyes , then fuch as regarding the Clouds , behold them in (hapes 

conformable to pre-apprehenfions. 

Now whatever encouraged the firfl invention , there have not been wanting 
many waies of its promotion. The firft a Catachrcflicall and far derived fimili- 
tude, it holds with Man ^ that is, in a bifurcation or divifion of the Root into 
two parts, which fome are content to call Thighs •, whereas notwithflanding they l 
are oft-times thrde, ahd when but iwo, commonly fo complicated and crofTed, 
that men for this deceit, are fain to effed their defign in other plants ^ And as 
fair a refemblance is often found in CarrdtSy Parfitifs^Srionjy and many others. 
There arc, I confefs, divers plants which carry about them, not onely the fhape 
of parts, butalfoof whole Animals, butfurely not all thereof, unto whom tliis 
conformity is imputed. Whoever (hall perufc the fignaturespfCr(^//iMi, or ra- 
ther the Phy tognomy of Porta , and ftriftly obfcrve how vegetable Realities 
are commonly forced into Animal Reprefentatlons, may eafily perceive in very 
many, the femblance is but poflulatory •, and mull have a more afllimilating phon- 
ey then mine to make good many thereof. 

Illiterate heads have been led on by the name ^ which in the firft fyllable ex- 
prefTeth its Reprefentation • but others have better obferved the Laws of Etj- 
mologj^ and deduced ic from a word of the fame language , becaufe it delight- 



- - r.u ijmJ 

ftftKjM d fu 


B o K 1. itW Cmmm E n r o r i . 

eili cogTowinobrcuTciod fludy [•!■£» ^ whici]d«nv«ioti, 'Although m fhall 

not fttne! lo muntain, yet tlw ochcr Iccmctli aolW^ "i" " ' r 

logloof many Auibon, who often o^nrnunii fucli : 

to ni*|nirc bq'ond uur own profclliiia , cbe Laiirt ■ 

bercd unto ilie Arabkk^^i^ t twve often !.ti1«1 h^'tL' ■ .-.,.,,», 

di TsrrMtu, i rcccivoi i'bylltian, in whole PLi/ " 

tticfc may be obfcrved | Didrhta , faiih he , Qjd.t f 

tfi tdAtrc. LitKa-tU « Liivt tjuf^i 

tar, tf" Tdlmtn ^»d tji •ncfa/w. /' . , 

/mMJ C- fioleit ifmi rfi tmiff* , ^imfi. cmiiiia Jim vti in 

tiom a» Itnn^c indeed as ilic other, and tisrdly co be pjriUlcM dlWture -, con- 

(inning not ondy the words of one lan^ugc with AnodKr, but cruting fucb 

as were never ycttn any. 

Tbemaved diAmction aod common Notaiinabyiietef , baitiaUb pcomo- 
ccdtbcainceit-, for true tc ii, liut Htrdahjit ixom ancieoc qmes , hkve thus 
dilKnguilbed than ^ nxoiing tliiit the NUlc, wbofc lesvcs are lighter, and 
frait iind Ap{»)« rounder ; buc this it properly no gcaouivcdtvifion , butnt- 
tba fome note of diUinAwin in colour, figure or uperuion. ForiboQgti£M- 
^iwy»aijinn, there isamixt, and undivided Sex in Vep^uhlo^ mASeMhttr 
upon ArifiotU, doth &vourably espUin that opinion •, yet will it not tonlift with 
diecommon and ordinary acccption, nor yet with AyifiotUi dehnition. For if 
that be Male whith gcnciatcs in awKher. that Fcraalc which procreates in it 
fdfi if it be undtrUoodof Sexes conjoined, allpiantsarc l-cmale ^ and if of 
disjoined and tungrcffive generation, thcrcis no Mak or Femilc in chcm at all. 

But the AtUi or main AxU, whith fupporccd thi» opinion, was daily cxpc- 
pcricnce, andthe^illblc teltimony of fenfe. For many there aic in fevcrall 
parts of Bimft , who carry aboat Roots and (eU them unto ignorant people, 
which handfonJy make out the fliape of Man or Woman. But ihcfc are not 
produdiomof Nature, but contrivance* of Art , as divers have noted , and 
MjehUlMi plainly dcEcded, who learned this way of Trumpery from a vaga- 
bond chflaicr lying under liisture foe the French difeafc. His wordsare ihefe, 
and may determine tlic point, Scd frtftliavAHnm& fMhnkfum,&.c. But this ig 
vain and fabulous, wluth ignorant people, and fimplc women beiievC; for 
the rooti which are carried about by iinpoUors to deceive unfruitful! womaa 
are made of the roots of Cants, Bryony and other plants : for in ihcfc yet frefti 
«nd vircm, they carvcouttberigures of men andwomcn , lirlt llicking there- 
in the grains of barley or mdlet , where liicy ineiml the hair fliould grow - 
then biury them Inland, oiitdltbe grains (hoot forth their roots, which at the 
longcrt will happtn in twenty daics-, afterward clip and trim thofe tender 
ftrings, in tberalhitrtiofbeard^andothcr hairy teguments. AH which liiurother 
iropoOures once difcorercdis eafily etfc^ed, and m tlie root of whin Brjunj 
may be practifed every fpring. 

What s ikrefore delivered in favour thereof , by -•VutlKiis ancicntor mo- 
dero , mutl have its root in tradition, impofturc , tar derived fimilitude. or 
cafual aud rare contingency. So may we admit of the Hpithet of P)th»^v*i , 
who tali It Anthn^imrpbtM ; 3nd tlwt of Coiimfffa . who tcftni it Sem- 
hemo, more apphable unto the MAO-Onhu , wlwjfe Bower rcprefcnts a inan. 
Thus IS ^/^Mw to be received when hcaflirmcth, that M*n-irtik£i rcprefeat 
man-kind with the difUmSion of either fex. Under thcfc refiriitioas may 
tbofc AutlMribcadmitted, which fbr this opinion are introduced by prufiHt^i 
tax (hall we need to qodUon the monllrotb foot of Sry»Bj deicrib«d in At- 

M2 The 


Tke (mpo 

Ing At R iKt 
of Mindt^e- 


^6 I 

Bnqniriis im§ Vulgar 

Book %. 

eqaiYocai, are 
ycc commonly 
regular and of 
a determiaatc 

The fecond atfercion concerneth its produAion , That ic naturally growech 
tinder gallowfes and places of execution , arifing from hi ocnrinetbac drop» 
from toe body of the dead ^ a ftory fomewbat agreeable unto the fable ^ the 
Serpents teeth fowed in the earth by Cadmus ^ or rather the binh of Oruw 
from the urine of Jufiter , Mercarj , and Neptune. Now this opinioa fetms 
grounded on the former , that is , a conceived fimilitude it hath with man ^ 
and therefore from him in fome way the^^ would make out its prodndkm : 
Which conceit is not only erroneous in the foundation , but in jurious^ unto 
Philolbphy in the fuperftruftion. Making putrifadive generations , corrdpen- 
dent unto feminal f^oduftions , aud conceiving in equivocal effeds and nni- 
vocal conformity unto the efRcient. Which is fo far from being verified of 
animals in their corruptive mutations into plants , that they mantain not this 
fimilitude in their nearer tranflation into animals. So when the Oxe corruptecfa 
into Bees , or the Horfe into Hornets , they come not ibrth in the image of 
their originals. So the corrupt and excrementous humours in man are ani- 
mated into Lice-, and we may obferve, that Hog5, Sheep, Goats, Hawks, 
Hens and others , have one peculiar and proper kind of vermine ^ noc reian- 
bling tbemfelves according to feminal conditions , yet carrying a faled and 
confined habitude unto their corruptive originab. And ther^re come noc 
forth in generations erratical , or different from each other ^ but feem fpedically 
and in regular fhapes to attend the corruption of their bodies , as do moce* 
perfed: conceptions , the rule of feminal produdions. 

The third affirmcth the roots of MsuJrdkis do make a noife , or give a 
(hreek upon eradication- which is indeed ridiculous, and falfe below confute-, 
arifing perhaps from a fmall and fbridulous noife , wiiich being firmly rooted, 
itmaketh upondivuUionof parts. A flcnder foundation for fuch a vail con^- 1 
ception : for fucba noife we fbroetime obferve in other plants, in Parfenips , 
Liquorifh, Eringium, Flags and others. 

The laft concerneth the danger enfiung. That there fbUows an haza^ of 
life to them that pull it up , that fome evil ^e purfues them , and they l;te not 
very long after. Therefore the attempt hereof among the Ancjents , v^as not 
in ordinary way • but as Pliny informetb, when they intended to take up the 
root of this plant , they took the wind thereof, and with a fword defcribing 
three circles about it , they digged it up, looking toward the Wefi. A conceic 
not oidy injurious unto truth, and confutable by d^y experience , but fome. 
what dero^tory unto the providence of God ^ that is, not only to impofe fo 
defhrudive a quiaKty on any plant, but conceive a vegitable^ whofe parts are 
ufefiiU unto many , (hould iatne only taking up prove mortall unto any. To 
think hefuffereth the poifbn of Nukd y> be gathered , Nafettus, AvnheznA 
Thora to be cradicatea , yet this not to be moved. That tie peimicteth Ar- 
fenick nxA mineral poifons to be forced from the bowels of the earth , 
vet noc this from the furface thereof. This were to introduce a fecond forbidden 
nruit, and inhance the firft maledidion-, making it not only mortall for jlJam 
to taft the one, but capital unto his pofterity to eradicate or dig up the other. 

Now what begoc , at leaft promoted fo flrange conceptions , might be 
the magical opinion hereof-, this being conceived the plant fo much in ufe 
with Circe . ^d therefore named Cirees , as I>i§fi:oriJes and The$fhrafim 
have delivered ^ which being the eminent forceres of elder ftory , and by 
the magtck of fimples believed to have wrought many wonders ; fome men 
w^eapt to invent, others to believe any tradition or magical promife thereof. 

Anuhgus relations concerning other plants , and fuch as are of near affinity 
unto this 1 have made its currant fmootb,and pafs more eafily among us. For the 
fameeffedis alfo delivered by fofefhus, concerning the ro(X BiMras -^hytA^Msu 
ofCjnofpdfiuj ^ and we read in Homer the very fame opinion concerning Molly. 

BoOi| 3, 


Euro n <. 

aHni t%i»p ^^uta aul,i,^i^TvJi t'-filtnif 

The God* it Moly r.ill, whofcrtoottodigaTfa)*, 

Is iJogeroasunroManj bnt Gods, ibeyslliftings may. 

Now (iirslklior likcrdstiom ikcriuccly rd>rvc catl) ottter^ when ndib€T 
will ptlJE Aliiniler , yet tic ibry plidfibtc cogfldirc -, tjicti nniEluI cofuurreii«e« 
fappocciru; their iblitAry inlUnlicct. 

Sigoicurids Iwve (oincwhai »d»anccdit^ wlio fcldom oiiinDrr -.'[lu Ati- 
aenaddivered- drawinffiaw inference received ditbn(^:o(u ' 
ling to uamine lUhtsiRine RTenUarKc^ nn<d pLicingit intlic < 
ano iBigical I'itnpici , hare nudemen ibfpeft there wai moK ifv: 
dinirypniftitc allowed", and r> became apt co cmbrice wlsccvct iJicy Jieari 
orretid tonfivmable luun fuch coRCcptMiu. 

t*i\.\y . The conceit protnoiccb it (elf : 6yt corKCTRingancffeftwIiofc triaU 
mu(l cofl To dear, it fortifies itIelfintflBt invcnrion; andtewdicre are wliole 
expcrimcot it needto ieor. For(«^t ismoll contemptible) althougli not only 
die realonM any faeid, but expericnceof every hand may ircU convidii, yci 
wilf iinoc by divers be re jeAcd; for prciJoffeffed heads will ever doubt it, vtd 
(rmorouibclic6 Will never dareto'tryit. Sotlicrc iradiiitittt Ih>w low iodridt> 
culouirocTer.williind fafpttton in fbmc, doubc m others, antl l'avca» idUuc 
critkof Metancbely f ind fiiperfttioat tempen for ever. 

a. Thai Cinimon. Gmgcr, Ck>ve, Mice and Nooncg, are boc the feverall 
pan*, and fruiuof therimfcrcc, h thecownan bcliefof tbofc wbtdi daily ulc 
chem. Whereof to fpe-ik diilinSly { GiR(;er i\ the Root vl neithti* tree not 
fhrub, bucbfao herMdHHB plant , relcmbling the W^iccr-flower-De-luce, as 
GMviat lirft dcfctihed ; or rttbec tbccoinmon Reed, as Ishhtu linco affirincd. 
Very commonm many paruof/it<^,.gtowingeitfier from Kootor Seed, wbkli 
in ZJM-ffft^r and JdwwMj tbey eaJii! up;ind gently dried /ok it up in evth ^ whir«- 
by occluding the poret^ ibcy conferve the natural humidity, and Ibpreventror- 

Cinfimoo it the inward bark of a Gnamon tree ^ whereof the beft 
brought inwaZeilMn-, tht< freed from ibe outward bark, andexporeduitiothc 
Sua, conrrads imo ihore f»ld« whotin we commonly receive it. If it have 
not afut^cieni iololatioait Inoketb pate, and attains aoc its laudable colour^ 
if it be funned too loog, it fufferetb- a torrefiidion, and defoendah fomewbu 
below it. 

Clove fecms to be 6iher the rudiment of a fruit, or , diefiroit it felf growing up- 
on the Ciove-trec ^ to be found but in few Councric*. The moft comnwndabje \s 
chat of \i\tsiti Mtlittcd ■, it iv/iril white, afterward green» wbiih beaieti down, 
and dried in the Sun, becooieth black, and in ttte complexion we receive it. 

Nutmeg iichefruitof atreedifFirriRg from all cheic, and as 6*4^/ /.»' defoihr 
eth it, fumewhat likca Peach - gruwini; in divers pbces, buitinKtifyiogin the 
Ille of Bandit. The fruit hereof (onrdfwh of four parts ■, the (irfl or outward 
pttti»achkkandcafaouicoveringls)icthatof aWal-nur- The licondadryand 
flofcvtous coar, commonly called Mace. The tltird a liardcr tegument or ftictl, 
wbcb lyeth underthcMace. The foartli a kernel included in cIk (licll, which 
itche (iune wecall Noimegr All wliicb both to their partf and order of difpoTure, 
are ealily difeerned ih thole fruits, which are brouglu in prefcTvci anto iw. 

Now if becaute Mace and Nutniegl proceed from one tree , the roA muft 
bear them company ■„ of beouifctbey are all frotathe Eail-/j*>Airf, they are all 
fivmolie plant: ine Interenre » precipitous^ nor will there fuch a pUnt be 
ftnindtn ifieHo-baJlof N«ture. 

5. ThaiVifcoos Arboreuior Miffdtoc is brfldupon trees, from feeds which 
birdt. efpeuaUy Tbruflief and Iiing-dovc» let fall thereon , w;u the Ccced of 


78' 1 

Enqnirtes into Vulgsr 

Book t. 


What the Mtf. 
toe In feme 
trees 1$. 


Faganifli fu- 
about the 
the Oak. 

the Ancients , and is dill believed among us i is the account of its produAion, 
fet down by Plinj , delivered by Virgil^ ana fubfcribed by many more. If fo, 
Ibme rcafon muft be a/Qgned , why ic giweth onely upon certain trees, and 
not upon many whereon thefe biros do light. For as Ezotick obfervers de- 
liver, it growcth upon Almond-trees, Cbefnnt^ Apples, Oaks, and Pine- 
crees. As we obfcrve in EngUmJi, very commonly u^n Apple, Crabs , and 
Whke-thorn -, fometimes upon Sallow, Hazel and Oak : rarely upon'Aih 
and Maple ; never, that I could obferve , upon Holly, Elm, and many more. 
Why it growethnot in all Countries and places where theft Urds are found •, 
for fo Brdffdvolm affirmech , ic is not to be found in the Territory of Ferr^- 
Td -, and was fain to fupply himielf from other parts of Itd/j. Why if it arif- 
tth from a feed , if fown it will not grow again , as Plinj aflSrmeth , and as 
by fetting the Berries thereof, we have in vain attempted its produftion^ 
why if it Cometh from feed that falleth upon the tree , it groweth often 
down-wards , and puts forth under the bough , where feed can neither fall 
nor yet remain. Hereof befide fome others , the Lord VernUm hath taken 
notice. And they furely fpeak probably who make it an arboreous excref- 
cenfe , or rather fuper-plant, bred of a vifcous and fuperfluous fap which the 
tree it felf cannet affimilate. And therefore fprouteth sot forth in boughs 
and furdes of the fiune (hape, and fimilary unto the tree that beareth it ^ but 
in a different form , and fecondary unto its fpeciiicall intentiOQ *, wherein once 
foiling , another form fucceedeth ; and in the fixH place that of Mifleltoe , 
in plants and trees difpofed to its produdion. And therefore alfo where ever 
it groweth , it is of confbnt ihape , and Maintains a regular figure ^ like 
other fupercrefcenfes , and fuch as living upon the flock of others, are 
termed parafitical plants , as Polypody , Mofs , the fmaller Capillaries , 
and many more: So that feveral ri^ons produce fevcral Miffeltoes^ /«- 
Md one , Amerkd another ^according to the law and rule of their degene- 

Now what b^t this conceit, might be the enlargement of fome part of 
truth contained in its flory . For certain it is , that fome birds do feed upon 
the berries of this vegetable, aiad we meet in Arifictle with one kind of 
TYufh called the Miffel Trufh or feeder upon MifTeltoe. But that which 
hath moft promoted it , is a received proverb, Turdns pti mdl$tm cdcdt ^ Ap- 
pUaUe unto fuch men as are Authors of their own misfortune . For according 
unto Ancient tradition and PUnies relation , the bird not able to digeft the 
fruit whereon fhefeedeth ^ from her inconverted Muting , arifeth this plant , 
of the berries whereof birdlime is made , wherewith (Ik is afrer entangled. 
But although proverbs, be popular principles, yet is not all true that is pro- 
verbial ; and in many thereof, there bong one thing delivered, and another 
intended •, though the verbal expreffion be falfe > the proverb is true enough 
in the verity of its intention. 

As for the Magical vertues in this plant , and conceived efficacy unto vene- 
ficial intentions, it feemeth a Pagdn relique derived from the ancient Druidcs, 
the great adn^irers of the Oak , efpecially the Miffeltoe that grew thereon •, 
which according unto the particular of PUny , they gathered with great fo- 
lemnity. For afrer facrifice the prieft in a white garment afcended the tree, 
cut down the Meffeltoe with a golden hook , and received it in a white coat • 
the vertue whereof was to reGu all poyfons, and make fruitfull any that ufed it. 
Vertues not expeded from Claffical praftice ^ And did they anfwer their pro- 
mife which are fo commended , in Epileptical intentions ; we would abate 
tbefe qualities. Counrrey praftice hath added another *, to provoke the after- 
jfoirth y and in that cafe the decoftion is given unto Cows. That the berries 
I are poyfon as fome conceive , we arc fo far fixim averring, that we have fafely 



' 'ctgiruu. ^,, : ... ^ ■ _ _..: 

^w commonlV pt-iv ttiis (ncW upon in*! £vr of our Saviburs Nativity , ,(v!wn 
ly drj-ing tlic phnt again , it tlofed tijc n<!M tUy ^ and fo ji(«ci)Jtd a 
double my'.tcric: rcfcrrmg unto die ot«tting an^'cIodngoft/kcwombol^l/^/j 
There wanted not nIl>c€;oiB confirmation from a Kst In HrLii^piiui.QMft 
jumU ixMiMM Jhm in Cjdtt ^ o^ <]ii^f> fUnutio Rvfi io JiAiih- .\ wa^ 
"talted like a ratm tr« in Kh^aM, .ind iit a Rofe in JitittH. The foaod 
. licu-ot' in cftnimoi) enn, bt^t an exiraordinary oiiii»()n of iIjc RoR of stWlT^tA. 
rbu dcmim'inntion. Hut herein tberc fctniftli a inill.'ike: R'f by the Rofc 
ia ttie text, is tniplied th< true and proper Kofe, 3« ftrlt iltc Gectk, W 
oan accordingly rendCreiTi ic. Hut tlut wIikIi p:i(rc(!i ucdcr ihit HatOe, 
and Vywi t» lomnmoly alkil the Rofe '>f f.-nch^ , u proj^rly iio Rofc, 
but ,1 luilll ilKirny ihruh or hind of ijeatli , locating liiilc white fiowcn , far 
differing from the Knfc ^ wiscreof Br!!i»iiu' a very iii<juifitivc t^trhaGfi, 
could HOT find any in his travel* llidfow jtriiha. A piaiJt fo unlike a 
Role , ii bath been ciUlaken by fonic good SimfH^ for Amntum j 
\irtiKh truly uodernocMj U fo unlike a Rofe , Uac as DitfcmJit Jtli- 
Tcr* , the floweis shc/eof are like the white violet , and its Icdvis rtfemble 

Saulslc anto this relation almotl insIlfOtnis is that of tlie thorn at GUf- 
ftttinry . and perhaps tlw daughter tli^rifof -, liertin our endeavours M yet 
tave lyjt actainsJ duisfadJoa , and tannoi therefore enlarge. Thus inuch in 
general we may uhferve, ihit flrange elfrifts, are naturally taken for Mira- 
cles by weaXer h'.-flJs j and artificially impfoved to that apprehcnlitmbywifer, ' 

I pdrt* ot Ji^rasi, and ( 
' trees do btffln to fjuoui in the lall of the leaf or Autumn ^ and if not kept 
! battc by coW and outward caufes , would leaf aboutjJ|c SoUHce, *' — "- - 


Now UK (Utnttfrs. 

Certainly many pctcucious trees, and fiich at fpring in the winter, may'*'"'" '^'' 
be found in fflott pdrti of £<row . and divers alfo tn Eitflimd. Vor (noU ■ p"'' '* '"^.j, 
■ M of the leaf "' " 


happen, that any be fo ftrongiy conltituted , as riimake this cnoi againft 

I the power of winter , ibey may produce their leaves or blofloms sn that 

Qafon. And pertbrm that in fome flnglcs, whidi is obfervablc in whole 

I kmde*-, ns in Ivj , wbith blofTomes and beajs at Icall tw-cc a year, 

' and ontc in tiie winterv as alfo in ftiTSA which ftrtwcrcih in that lotfoa. 

5- Tltat /rrrwjw E^mntim , w SfrrrxCavn/lo haih a vcrtue anrattive of 

' iron, a pciwer to break locks , and draw off the Oiooei of ahorlc that palTcti) 

uvec it , whether ) ou take it for one kind of Securidnca , or will alio take 

in LKwtfU , vre know it to be fiilfe : And cannot but woiider at Mtahiislw , 

wlfoupou a pamllcl in riiay was daggered into fufpenfion. NotwithtUodmq 

in the impu;M vertue to open things , clofc and fhut up , could bugli himfrlc 

■ ■' ■ I miillen; and condcnirj 


Effqturies ii^o Vulgar 


K %. 

How beer and 
wine come to 
be fpolled by 

How drinks 
Intoxicate or 

therein indeed ic fooiewhac refembles a horfefhoo ; which nocwichftanding 
Bdptifta portd bath thought too low a fignation , and raifed the fame unto a 
Lunary reprefentation. 

6. That Bdjes will proteft from the mifchief of lightning and thunder , is 
a quality afaibed thereto, common with the figtree, ^gle, and skin of a 
Seal. Againft fo famous a quality , Vicomercattu produceth experiment of 
a Bay tree Wafted in Italj> And therefore although Tiberius for this intent, 
did wear a Laurel upon his Temples ^ yet did AHgufim take a more probable 
courfe , who fled under arches and hollow vaults for proteftion. And 
tbou^ Peru conceive, becaufe in a ftreperous eruption, it rifcth againft fire , 
it doth therefore refift lightning , yet is that no emboldniag Illation. And if 
we confider the threefold eflfeft oi ^uf iters Trifulk , to burn , diffcufs and 
terebrate^ and if that be true which is commonly delivered, that it will mclti 
the blade , yet pafs the fcabbard , kill the child , yet fpare the mother , dry- 
up the wine , yet leave the hogihead intire ^ though it favour the amulet, ic 
may not fpare us •, it will be unfure to rely on any prefervative j "'tis no fecurity 
to be dipped in Styx , or clad in the armour of Ceneus. Now that beer , wine , 
and other liquors, are fpoiled with lightning and thunder, we conceive it pro- 
ceeds not only from noife and concuiiion of the ayr, but alfo noxious fpirits , i 
which mingle therewith , and draw them to corruption j whereby they become ! 
not only dead themfelves , but fometime deadly unto others , as that which ' 
Seneca mentioneth j whereof whofoever drank , either loft his life , or elfe his 
wits upon it. 

7. It hath much deceived the hopes of good fellows , what is commonly ' 
expeded of bitter Almonds , and though in Plnurch confirmed from the pra- 
ftice of CUhUhs his Phycifian, that Antidote againft ebriety hath commonly ; 
failed. Surely men much verft in the praftice do err in the theory of in- 
ebriation •, conceiving in that difturbancc the brain doth only fuflfer from ex- 1 
halations and vaporous afcentions from the ftomack , which fiit and oylie ! 
fubftances may lupprefs. Whereas the prevalent intoxication is from the 
fpirits of drink difperfed into the veins and arteries ^ from whence by f om- 
mon conveyances they creep into the brain, infinuate into its ventricles , and 
beget thofe vertigoes , accompanying that perverfion. And therefore theVame • 
eScftmaybe produced by a Glitter j the head may be intoxicated by a medi- 
j cine at the heel. So the poyfonous bites of Serpents , although on parts 
' at diftance from the head , yet having entered the veins , difturb the animal 
faculties, and produce the effefts of drink, or poyfon fwallowed. And foas 
the head may be difturbed by the skin , it maythe fame way be relieved • as is I 
oblervable in balneations , wafhings , and fomentations , cither of the whole I 
body, or of that part al^ne. 


Book 2. W CnmoM E & k u ii 4 , 

- — -k 

Chap. VII. 
Offfiipt InfeStfj Mti the frafertitf tffeverali Plants. 

t.T^Heprcfage of ibe year faccccding, wliitli 11 tooimonly mad& from In-" 
X ici^t urliitte^ Aoimali in Oali-upplci , attorJing to [he kin>it [hereof, 
cither Maggot , llyorSpidcTi tlsu is, onuininc, War .or Pethlence-, whe- 
ther wc rocanihar woody cxcrcfccncc , whk4iflio'x«h Irom the branth about 
Afj^t or that round and Apple-like accretion, which growcth unrfuf ilie leaf, 
abcAic die Uctcr end of Sitmmtr , is 1 doubt too diftind, nor vcritiable from 

For FlynaodMaggocs are (bund every year-, very feldom Spidtfi : And 
Httm^'tt aStrmnh M could never find tix Spider and the Fly upon the bme 
trees that K, tine figni (if War and PcUdcnce, which ofwn go togcdjet; 
Befiiie, 'fbai the llics found were at firll Maggots, experience haihinfuiro- 
edus- for keeping t>«rc escrdtcnties, wc have oblcrvcd their coovcrlionij 
beholuing in Magni^mg GlafTes the daily pcogcdlion thereof. A» tnay be 
olfo obferved in o:her Vegetable cscretioiu^ whole Maggou do termmatcin 
Fhei of conUant Oupc<i -, as in the NutgaiU of the OutktuliOi Oak, and the 
MoHle cutt of the wild Briar ; which havii^ gathered in Ntvtmbtr, wc have 
found the Httle Maggots which lodged in wooden Cels all HV^r/r , to turn in- 
to Mies in Janr. 

We c(«ifefi riiCTopinion may bold fomc verity* in the Analogy, orEmblcina- 
tical pbinc)'. For Pcllilence i* properly fignifi«l by tite Spider, wiiercoffomc 
klndjareor avery veoeniousNamre. Vaminc by Majors, wluch dcl'iroy the 
fruits of the Earth. And War not improperly by the Hy ; if we rdl in tha 
pliancy of W^jmf, who compares the valiant G*-rr(*»unl0aFly. 

Smiie vccity tc may alfo iiavc in it felf, a truly dciUring the coixoptiv* 
conAitution in the prefcni Tap and nuirimcmal juyrc of tlie tree , and may 
confe<iucntly difco^cr tlic difpofition of that year , according 10 the plenty 
or kinds of thefe prodaclions. For if the patritying juyics of bodic*, [ttiag 
forili plenty of Vlieiand Maggou, th« give tdtimony of common corrapii- 
on. and declare ihjt thcElcincnts arc fiilltif thcfcfdtof puirctatiiua ^ asthe 
£reic numberof Caterpillars, Gnats and ordinary Infects do alfo dccJ^. if 
they run into Spiders , they give iighs of higher pinre&ctnjo , as pkncy *f 
Vipers and Scorpions afc confelTcd to do ^ the pctrct)ing MatehaU produdng 
Animals of higher MifchietV , according to the advance and higher ikain of 

2. Whether all plants have fc^, wdrc more cafJy dcierniinable , if wc 
ctHild conclude concerning Harcs-iongnc, Fern, tlie Ca^liariet aiid. faoie 
others. Biit whcibcr tiu>fc little dully partidei, upon the lower tide of^rbc 
Icivcs.bcfccilsand Iminal parts^ or railicr, as it n contmbnly conceived, cx- 
trtracncal feparatiofis i wc have not been able 10 determine by, any Ccnmnafion 
or univocal proJudion ftpm thc>n>. Thus much we oblerTe, ihac: they )c«(n ro 
rcncwycjriy, and come notfully out cilhhcplant hem :'■■ v - -i ■■ n- / ^y the 
hclpof MagntfyingGlalTcswe find thefeduiiy Atomcs:. ^ upd 

fully rcprcfcnting feeds 1 out of which ptotced Jitile M,- .^^ ^ 

that fucti asare old tland being emptied of fomc buJ ^ , ..:-iudcdi 

which though dilcemablc in Harxs-tongac, is aitHMiilo^i^Mju^y iiMc>tv4f4^|m 
fiMncdiffercncies of Brake or Fern. ",.,,.. ,/. - , 



mivihry i 



inquiries int$ Vulgar 

Book 2 



Why die lews 
fore chrotcs. 

3 . Whether the fap of trees runs down to the Roots in Winter , whereby ! 
they become naked and grow not ^ or whether they do not ceafc to 4raw : 
any more , and referve fo much as fufficeth for conlervation , is not a point ; 
indubitable. For we obferve, that moft trees, as though they would be per- 
petually green, do bud at the fall of the leaf- although they fprout not much ' 
forward untill the S fringe and warmer weatner approacheth , and many trees 
maintain their leaves all Winter , although they feem to receive ver^' fmal ad- ; 
vantage in their growth. But that the fap doth powerfully rife in the Spring, \ 
to rewtir that moifturc whereby they barely fubhfted in the Winter, and alfo to \ 
put tne plant in a capacity of fruftification •, he that hath beheld how niany 
gallons of water may in a final time be drawn firom a birch-trcc in the Springs \ 
hath flender reafon to doubt. I 

4- That Camphire or Bunuchatcs^ begets in Men an impotency unto vencrj', | 
obfervation will hardly confirm ^ and we have found it to fail in Cocks and j 
Hens, though given for many dales ^ which was a more favourable triall then j 
that of -Jr^/if fr, when he gave it unto a Bitch that was proud. For the inftant | 
turgefcence is not to be taken off, but by Medicines of higher Natures • and j 
with any certainty but one way that we know ^ which notwithftanding, by | 
fuppreifing that natural evacuation , may incline unto Madnefs , if taken in 
the Snmmer. 

5. In the Hiftory of Prodigies we meet with many (bowers of Wheat •, howj 
true or probable, we Jiave not room to debate. Only thus much we (hall not ; 
omit to inform •, That what was this year found in many places , and almoft 
preached for Wheat rained from the clouds ^ was but the feed of Ivy-berries, 
which fomewhat reprefent it ^ and though it were found in Steeples and \ 
high places , might be conveigbed thither , or Muted out by birds : for ma- j 
ny feed thereon , and in the crops of fome we have found no lefs then three 


6. That every plant might receive a Name according unto the difeafe it cu- 
reth, was the wi(h of Paracelfus. A way more likely to multiply Empericks 

j then Herbalifts •, yet what is praftifed by many is advantagious unto neither -, 
' that is 5 relinqui(hing their proper appellations , to re-baptize them by the 
name of Saints, Apoftles, Patriarchs and Martyrs ^ to call this the herb of 
%hn^ that of Fetcr , this of J4mes or Jofeph^ that of Mdrj or Barbara, I or 
fiereby apprehenfions are made additional unto their proper Natures ^ where- 
on fuperititious praftifes enfue ^ and (lories are framed accordingly to make good 
their foundations. 

7. We cannot omit to declare the grofs miftake of many in the Nominall 
appirdwnfion of plants *, to inftancc but in few. An herb there is commonly 
called Betonica Pauly, or Pauls Bccony •, hereof the people have fome conceit 

j in rcfiarencc to St. Tanl •, whereas indeed that name is derived from Paulns e></ >/- 
I ntta^ an ancient Phyfitian of t>^^i;?/i, and is no more then Speed-well, or Z//^- 
ellen. The like expeftations are raifed firom Herb a Trinitatis ^ which not- 
withftanding obtaineth that name from the figure of its leaves, and is one kind 
of Liverwort or Hepatica. In Milium Solis, the Epithete of the Sun hath en- 
larged its opinion*, which hath indeed no reference thereunto, it being no more 
^ihen lAthofpermoH^ or Grummell^ or rather Milium S$ler -^ which, as Serapion 
I firom ^ben fuliel Inth taught us, becaufe it grew plentifully in the Mountains 
6f'Scler^ received that appellation. In Jews-cars fometbing is conceived ex- 
thor<finary fix)m the Name , which is in propriety but Fungus fambucinus , 
dr an txcrcfcence about the Roots of Elder, and concerneth not the Nation 
of tht^f*/, but Judus Ifcariot^ upon a conceit, he hanged on this tree^ and 
ispBcctWw a fttoous Medicine in Quinfics, fore Throats, and (hangulations ever 
fmce. And foare they deceived in the name of Horfe-Raddifb, Horfe-Mint, 



W Cornmpg £ ft R D x c. 

BuU-cutti., afl<i nuny asare : coonivinc therein Ibtnc prcnontinnU (ualidera- 
tioD -, wfccrcas iinlwd tiiat exptclBon is £uc a Gr«ilin , by di« prcii. of Hi/. 
/ii'/atii! Jew/, ll'lt is , Hoffc and Bull, iniendicg nonwre then g?eat- Ai- 
(.grding wbcrcto the greu dock u called Hi/tK£jp4!kHm ; iai be ilur cailg 
the H<iik*)i MtxMvUr, GrMt^4d^ eXgceiTciD cIk time, w^Kb the C/vfi^ <k> 
in SiKiphjim- 

S. LilUy. NUny (liingiaredcLver«t and believed ut'odw [)liUtu, wtiac- 
■D 31 leail wc i^uinot buc fUlpcod. 'I'bac thtre r; i propin-cy in ^j/;/ Eoprw- 
pogace Scorpions, aiid thac by liie fcicl! (ticicofihty ajc brtd m iKc bnins 
qToico, U aiucb advaaced by Ht^tritu, w1h> Iciuiid (Jm luli'(i in ibc bnbos 
of a UMUi ibai: dcliglicrd much in ihi& rcoctl. Whcrcm i>cl'\d< thai wc &nd 

00 way iQ conjuiD ttic ciTcd uato die caufc anifywd^ IxTtiii the Modnrm 
lpe»k Ihu tunaouUy. And ibmc of the Aixtcrts «{uitc c:o(icr4fily- Por.accvd- 
iDg unto Onhjiu/. PbyfiEiiui udio j/tiitat , The Afrttunf^ Kkn bdl expcQ' 
tcnodin poifon^iaiHrm, wbufocva luithciEcn f<i^/,aIilio[igIihc bcllimgwtth 
a Scorpion, lltall tixlno pain tla-reby: wbidi i> a very different cffir^aod ra- 
ther aniidoially dcllroying. thoi reminally promoting its produdinn. 

That tlic leaves of tatapuua or Spurj^c being plutkcd upward or down- 
ward rcfpeiSivdy pcrfonD their opcratiunsby Purgcor Vomit, as fomchave 
wricten , and old wives IbU do pteadi , is a ilrangc conceit , alccibing unto 
plant* pormonall operation*, and after the manner of the Loadllonc-, upon 
che Pole whereof il' a knife be drawn firom ttic handle unco the point , it will 
talcc lip i-Nccdk^ but if diawn again from chc point to tJic buullc , it will 
attrad it no more. 

That Cucumbers arc no commendable fniiu , that being very waterllh, 
tbey fill the veins with crude and windy ferolities ^ that containing Utile fait 
w fpirit, they may alio debihtate the vital acidity, and fcnnenta! faculty of 
tbcltomack, wc readily concede. But chatthey Ihould befo cold,ubealaio{l 
ptHfon by that quality, it will be hard to allow, without the contradiftion of 
Gjlen: who KcouQtcfh them Cold but in che fecond degree , and tn that Claflis 
have nralV Phyjitians plated liiem- 

That Eldcr-berrics arc poifon, as wearctaughtby tradition, experience will 
unteach us. And beftde the proniilcs of BUchwitim, the healthfiil ztkAt tlbcrc 
of daily obli:rved will convi^ us. 

Tb« anlvyCup will feparacc wine from water, if filled with boch, the wine 
foakingthrougli, but the water ftill remaining, as after PiiMjaany have averred, 
we know not how to affirm -, who making trial tlicrcof, ioand botli liic liquors 
to fbok indil^tndly tluough the bowl. 

1 That ftwcp do often get the Rot , by feeding in boggy grounds where Ros-fo- 
lisgrowcth, feems beyond difpute. That this herb is the caufc thereof, Sbcp- 

!berdsaflirm anddeny- wliether u Iiath a cordial vertuc by fudden rrlct^ion, 
lienAblc experiment dotn hardly confirm,but that k may havca B^lfamical and le- 
ifcmptive Vcnuc.wherebyitbecomesagoodMedicinein CM^rl}ci:ind Confump- 
'rivedifpofitions, pradifeand llcafon conclude. Thatthe lentous drops uponit 
j'aieiKK extraneous, and rather ancxuduioofrom it fcU', tbena roritl concreti- 
, on from wiilioui : bcfide other grounds, we have rcafon to conceive -, for ha- 
' ving kept the Hoots nioiftand earthed in clofc tliambcr;', they have, chough in 
IclTcr plenty, fcnt out thefc drops as before. 

I That J-los ji^ricAimsispoiton^ and ddh-oieth dog», in two experiments we 
have not found. i 

That Yew and the berries tiicreof arc harmlcfs, w« know. 
ThataSnakcwiUnotendiirethcftiadeof anAfhjWccandeny. Noris tl itH 
1 cunfiderablc whac U affirmed by Brlhnikj -, for if hit alTcrtion be true , our ap- 
[ prebcnlion is oftentimes wide m ordinary limplcs, andincommonufcwemtflakc 
1 N 2 one' 




Enqtdrits into Vulgar 

Book ti 

one for another. We know not the true Thyme-, the Savory in ourGardeof, 
is not that commended of* old • and that knd of Hyfop the Ancients oled, is nn- 
known unto us, who make great ufe of onother. 

We omit to recite the many Vertues, and endiels faculties afcribed unto 
Planes y which fometime occur in grave and fcrious Authors ^ aad we (hall 
make a bad tranfadion for truth to concede a verky in half. To reckon up all, 
it were employment iot' Archimedes^ who undertook to write the nnmber of 
the Sands. Swarmsof others there are, fome whereof our future endeavopn 
may difcover •, common reaibnl hope will faveus a labour in many : WKofe 
a bfurdities fUnd naked unto every eye i Errors not aUe to deceive the Embleme 
of Jtii{ice,and need no Argms to defcf^ them. Herein there furely wants exfmrga- 
tory animadverfions, whereby we mipht fbrike out gireat numba*s of hi(Uen <jua- 
lities • and having once a ferious and conceded lift^ we might with more encou- 
ragement and fafety , attempt their Reafons. 



*n4 Cfimmva E a a o r s . 



Ofdi'oers fofttlar and received Tenets concerning 
(^Animals , -which examined, pronje either falfi 

or dubiotit 

Cha r. t. 

of the BUfhant, 

iMB fif (Khali be of [Ik Elephant J wlwrcof there Wfieral- 
J^'M/Tcth an opinion it ham nojomts-, and ihuaMurdity 
is (aood«l with another, that bcin^ unable to He down, 
it Heepeth againrt a tree ; which the Hunteri obferving, 
do faw almofl afunder- whcrcfm the bead relying, by the 
faX\ of the tree, falls alfo down it fctf , and is able to rife 
no more. Which conceit is not (be daughter of later 
times , but an old and gniy-bcaded error, cv(n in \ht ttdiej 
of Arifiitle, M hedclivereth inhisbooJc, tie inct{fit Miftmliiim, and ftSnds fiic- 
te/Gvcly related by {cvcral oibcr Aurbort : hy DieHar^/ Sit itl mi, Strah, Am- 
haft, CA0iidirc^ol$«M], and many more. Now hciein mcthinks men much for- 
get themlclvct, not well confidaing thcabfurdity of fuch affcniom. 

Vorfirft, ihe^-affimi it hath no joints, and yoi concede it units and moFve^ 
about 1 whereby they conceive there may be a piogreflion ot advancement 
made in Moci<)n wttlioui inflciion of parts. Now ail progrclTton or Animall 
locomotion being (as Arijhtle teacheihj performed trMilH c?- ^«^« ; tliat 
is, by drawing oit, or impelling forward fome part which was before in ftsci-. 
on, or at quiet-, where ttiere arc no joints or flexures , neither can there be 
tbefeaftions. Andthis istrue, noionelyioQuadrHpede*, Volatilsand rilhes, 
which have diftinei and prominent Organs of Motion ,^, Wings and Fins 
but in fuch alio as perform their progrcfiion by the Irunk, as Serpents, Worms 
and Leeches. Whereof chough fome want bonci, and all extended artieulariom, 
yet have they Analogies j and by the Motion of (ihrousand Muli^ulom 
parc«, are able to make progrelUon. Which to conceive in bodies inflexible, and 
without all protrufion of parts, were to cxpcd a Race from HtratlfsH^ pillars - 
orhopcrobeholdihceffcasof Orfh.-its\iisHiT^., when'trecs found jwints/ami 
danced after Iiis MtilkJt. 

Again, While men conceive tJiey never tic down .and enjoy not the pbiititth 
•f roi, ordained unto all pedeHriout Animals,- herrt>y tbeyimagioefwliatre^ 

How pa>- 
nude In laF. 


£0f$irks int§ VwlgMr 

Boos 3< 

Excenfivc or 
Tonlcal Mo« 


fon cannot conceive) that an animal of the vaftefl; dimenfion and longed 
duration , ihould live in a continual motion , wihout that alternity and vi- ; 
cifficude of reft whereby all others continue \ and yet muft thus much come 
CO pais , if we opinion they lie not down and enjoy no decumbence at dl. ' 
For fiaaon is properly no reft , but one kind of motion » reiittag onto thac \ 
which Phyficiaos ( from Gslen) do name extenftve or tornoA^ chat is , an 1 
cxtenfion of the mulcles and organs of motion mantaining the bMjrat length * 
or in its proper figure. Wherein although it fcem to br unmovirf; it is not ! 
without ail Motion ^ for in this pofition the mufcies are fenfibly extend- ! 
ed , and labour to fii[^rt the body i which permimd unto its proper gra- ! 
vity, would fuddenly iubfide and. M unto the earth, as it.faajqyeneth in' 
fleep, difeafes and death. From which occult adion andinvifible motion of 
the raufclcs in ftacion ( as Gaten decburth ) proceed more offimfivr hiiicudes 
then from ambulation. And therefore the Tyranny of fome have tormented 
men , with long and enforced ftatioav and iboogh /am^ and SifipBrnx which : 
alwaies moved , do feem to have the hardeft mcafure ^ j^t was not Titltti ■. 
favoured , that lay extended upon Cmucm/mt ^ and TantaHus fuffired fomewhat j 
more then thirft , that ftood perpetually in hell. Thus MercuriaUs ta kis Gym- ! 
nafticks juftly makes ftanding one kind of exercifc^ and Galen when we 
lit down, commends unto us middle figures ^ that is, not to lie diredly , 
or at length , but fomewhat infleded , thac the mufcies may be at reft ^ tor 
fuch as he termeth Hypotolemdiai or figulroB of excefs , either fhrinking up 
or ftetching out , are wearifome pofitions, and fuch as preturb the quiet of thofe 
parts. Now various parts do varioufly difcover thefe indolent and quiet 
pofitions, fome in right Unes, asthewriftsj fome at right angles, as the cubit: 
others at phliqoe angtes, as thie finders and the knees : all refting &tis6ed in 
pofturesof mMeration, and none endurli^ the extremity of flesvrw (qvenfion. 
Moreover, men herein do ftr^g^y forget the obvious relattoas o^hiftory , 
aiiirmii^ they have no joints , whereas they daily read of ftnrs^ afttons 
which are not performaUe without them. They forget what is dtliirared by 
Xi^linus , and aUb by Smtmns in the lives of Nero and G0lk^^ that Ele- 
phants have been inftruded to walk on ropes , in publike (hemrbefore cfae 
people. Which is not eafily perfiwrmed by man ^ and requireth not only a broad 
foot , but a pliabk flexure of joints , and commandible diTpofure of all parts 
of progreffion. They pafi by that memorable place in Curtims^ concerning 
the Ekphant of King Porus , Indus qui Elefhmnem regebst , iefcendcre emm 
rat us ^ more folitc froc^mtere jujfnm genua ^ catcri tjmefue ( ita emminfi'umi 
erant ) dewufere €erfora in terram. They remember not the cxpreflion of 
De rebus geft" \ Ofirius^ when he fpcaksof the Elephant prefented to Leo the tenth, PontifUent 

tergenihus fleMs , & dtmf[o corferU habit u veneraiundus falmavit. But above 
all, they, call not to mind that memorable fhew of Germanicus, wherein 
twelve Elephants danced unto the found of mufick ^ and after laid tlim down 
in the Triclimnms , or places of icftival Recumbency. 

They forget the Etimologie of the Knee , approved by fome Grammarians. 
They difturb the pofition of the young ones in the Womb : which upon ex- 
! tenfion of legs is not eafily conceivable-, and contrary unto the general 
' contrivance of nature. Nor do they confida: the impoffible exclufion there- 
of, upon extenfion and rigour of the legs. 

Laftly, They forget or confult not experience^ whereof not many years 
paft , we have had the advantage in England , by an Elephant (hewn in ma- 
ny parts thereof •, not only in the pofture of ftailding, but kneeling and lying 
down. Whereby although the opinion at prefent be well fupprefTed, yet from 
fome ftrings of tradition , and fruitfiill recurrence of error, it is not impro- 
bable , it may revive in the next generation again. This being not the firft that 
J hath I 

is Etmmudis. 

j/fv fifom 

^dOE }. 

Mii Cnmaiin E k h o b r. 


hicb been fem In EngUtKl : tor ( bef^de; (ome other Cxact ) ii Psiuhrr Vff 
/i^rdatetb. /.nrif tbc Ircjxfi King fcnc one co Hmnt^it cfvird ^ kad^wMw/ 
of Pirmiid anocfao- to Ltt the i«ncli inro /m/^ ; where nocwicbiUoduig tbe 
errurUltLJlaUvcimi epidemical, £« wjthui 

Tbe hist md grouiul of iliis opinion oiigbc be iIm: groO and foiheivbu 
Cylindrical compofuie of die Icgt » the equjliry and left [Xrnejwiblc dilptf- 
fiircyf ilu- joints, cfpetially in the ft)rtncr kffi of thii AnimnI, ttwy ji]»pcartf>g 
wheu he lUndcch, tike piilari of fleOi, wicnouiiiny evidence of aiticuUcioa. 
The ditfcfcm flciurc and order of ilif joints might ilfo countenance the &inc \ 
being Dot difpofcd in the Elephant, astltey arc la other quadrupcdcs, but car- 
ry \ nearif conformity into thofe of man -, tlmt is, the bought of the lore-legs, 
noc direAIy bicUvard, but latentlv and fomewbat imviird ^ buc Uk hough 
or liiffraginoiu flexure behind ratber outward, Somewhat diCTeienc un- 
to many other i]UJidrupedc«, si Hode<, Qimds, Deer, Slieep and Dogi ^ for 
tbeir fbre-l^s baid hkcour tcgf , and tbeir hinder i^s bkc our nnns,when 
we move them toourJhuulderi. But (juadrupedcs oviparous, as Irt^, Li- 
Ufldf, Croudiles, luve their jumu and motive flcturec more atudogoufly 
framed unto ours : and fomc among viviparous , that if , fuch thereof is can 
bring tlicir forc-feec and lueat tlierein unto their mouiba, m moit cin do 
ttiat bave tbe rlavtdes or coller-bonn : wtKreby tbeir brelU arc broader , 
and tbeir Ihouldert more alunder , is the Ape , the Monkey' , the S'qntrrel and 
ibroc otbcn. if therefore any (hall affirm the joints of Elc'plmnts are dif- 
ferently &aine(lfronimonofoiber(]uadrupedcs, and more obfcurely and grofly 
abnoft tlien any , he doih herein no injury unto trmb. Hut if ASiU ftttaf 
dum f ju'i *i SSiait fiiupldrrr . he ai!iriiieih alfo ttiey bave no ariiculuioni 
aiall, be incurs tbe tontroylment of r«»fon, and caimot avoid thccontraJiai- 
on auoof fcnk. , 

Aifor the manner of Uicir venation , if weconfukhiftorica! uxfericnce, we 
fioIUind It to be otberwite then as it commonly prefmned , by fawtngatvay 
of ucei. Tbe atconnn whereof are to be fecn at large, in ^ohdmKj^ W*«jf, 
EJhm&d»t LtfcK. , GurtiM *ti htriti , CadnnmfiMj , and many more- 

Ocber conccmmcnH ihcfc arc of the Elephant, which might admit of dif- 
courfe: and if wc fbouM qucfbon the teetb of Elephanu, [hu is, whether 
tbey be properly fo termed , or might noc rather be called liorr-* : it were 
oonew craquiryof mine, but a paratJox as old as Offmnitf. Whether asPlimj 
and divers lime atBrm, tlut Btcphants arc territied , and miiheaway upon the 
grunting of fwinc , (jMrdat «/> h*n9 Rtty decide , who aflinrecli upon expe- 
rience, tbey cnteribeir flails, andbvepromifcuouny inthewoodsof MaUvM-. 
That tile fi'tnadonof tbe genitals it ave^li^, and ilKir copulation like that ot 
Camel*, as riinj haih alfo delivered, i* not to be recu-ivcd; for. we have be- 
held that pu't in a difTercni portion -, and their coition is made by fuperfa- 
fioicy, like that of borfcs^ as wc are informed by (bnw who have beheld ctiem 
id that aA- That fome Elephants have m^tonly wrinen whole reniences, as 
o£/mi( octtUtty iettiiicib , but have alio fpokoi, as OffiMtu ddivercth, and 
CkrifiifhtTHt 4t C»fis particularly relaietb ; although it found like that of 
jtciiSft Hotfe in Hinner , wc do not ctmcdvc impoiiiWe. Nor bdide the 
•flbityof rcjlbn in tlus Animal any fuch intollerabic inctraciiy in the organs 
I of diver* iju.idtupcdes, whereby ttiey miglit not be taught lo fpcak, or be- 
: come imiutcjrs ik fpcech like birds. Strange it i» how the curioCty of men 
' that bave been aftive in the inltruftionof beafts, Jiavcflevcr fallen upon this 
artituc^ and among tbofe, many paradoxical and unheard of imiiaiions, 
fliooJd not attempt to make one fp«k. The Serpent that fpake un(o Evr , 
'tbe Dogs and Cau, that ufuaily fpcak unto WiKhei, migh: atfc/rd ionic en* 
omragancnt. And fim.broad and thick chops arc rci]Uired in birds ihac 
^ _ fpeak. 


Some Mtuta 
nrgmil'tl fof 
if<tek md ip- 


Bnqmrits into Vulgar 

Book 3 

oc Carriers. 


fpeak, fince lips and teech are alfo organs of fpeech • from thefe there is ilfo an 
^vantage in quadrupedes • and a proximity of reafon in Elephants and Apes 
above them all. Since alio an Echo will fpeak without any mouth at all, arti- 
culately returning the voice of man , by only ordering the vocal fpuit in con* 
cave and hollow places ^ whether the mufculous and motive parts about the 
hollow mouthes of beaHs , may not difpofe the paffing fpirit into fome arti- 
culate notes, feems a querie of no great doubt. 

tanl sUfier. 

Chap. II. 

of the Herfe. 

TH E fecond AfTertion , that an Horfe hath no gall , is very general , nor 
only fwallowed by the people , and common Carriers , but alfo received 
by good Veterinarians^ and fome who have laudably difcourfed upon Horfes. 
It feemeth alfo very ancient •, for it is plainly fet down by Ariftotle^ an Horfe ' 
and all folidungulous or whole hoofed animals have no gall ; and the fame is 
alfo delivered by Pliny •, which notwithflanding we find repugnant unto ex- 
perience and reafon. lor firft, it cals in queftion the providence or wife pro- 
vifion of nature •, who not abounding in fuperfluities, is neither deficient in ne- 
ceflitics. Wherein neverthelefs there would be a main defed, and her improvi- 
fion juitiy accufable *, if fuch a feeding Animal , and fb fubjeft unto difeafes 
from bilious caufcs, ihould want a proper conveyance for choler ^ or have no 
other receptacle for that humour, then the veins, and general mafs of blood. 
It is again controulable by experience ^ for we have made fome fearch and 
enquiry hcrem ^ encouraged by Abfjrtus a Greek Author , in the time of 
Conftannne •, who in his Hippiatrics , obfcurely aflignech the gall a place in 
the liver •, but more efpecially by Carlo Rnini the Bomnian , who in his Anato- 
mia del Cavallo , hath more plainly defcribed it , and in a manner as I found iL 
For in the particular enquiry into that part , in the concave or fimous part 
of the liver , whereabout the gall is ufually feated in quadrupedes , I difcover an 
hollow, long and membranous fubftance , of a pale colour without , and Uned 
with choler and gall within *, which part is by branches dififiifed into the 
lobes and feveral parcels of the liver ^ from whence receiving the fiery fuper- 
fluity , or cholerick remainder , upon the fecond concodion and the general 
mafs of blood ^ by a manifeft and open paffage , it conveyech it into the duo- 
denum or upper gut , thence into the lower bowels •, which is the manner 
of its derivation in man and other animals. And therefore although there 
be no eminent and circular follicle , no round bag or vefidc which long 
concaineth this humour : yet is there a manifeft receptacle and paffage of cho- 
ler form the liver into the guts : which being not fo fhut up , or at leaA not 
fo long detained, as it is in other animals : procures tliat frequent excretion, 
and occafions the Horfe to dung more often then many other , which con- 
fidering the plentiful! feeding , the larg^nefs of the guts , and their various 
circumvolution , was prudently contrived by providence in this animal. For 
choler is the natural glider, or one excretion whereby nature exdudeth another *, 
which defcending daily into the bowels, extimulates thofe parts, and excites 
them unto expuliion. And therefore when this humour aboundeth or corrupt- 
cth, there fucceeds oft-times a cholerica faffio-^ that is, a fudden and vehement 
i Purgation upward and downward : and when the paffage of gall becomes ob- 
^^__^ fbufted. 

Book j. 

i Cmmm E e n c 

OraAed, the body ^wscolUve, and the excrementsof the bdly wbtcc} u it 
tntpfcnethoit'tiinctin die Jaundice. 

it any thcretwciiticin anHorfc bjiheogill, ihai», no wccpwdc, or pore 
onkincil forthclrptrationof Choln, ornmtfaat haimHiracBll, to Inth both 
fetife and mfon [o oppolrhini, ^u[ it hefiirh ii hatlioO bliidcr of Gall, and 
futh Mii (ibl'eTVfd in many otbor AtiimaU, Kve Ihall nppflfrtiur fetifc, rf wc gaiiv 
fay him. Tliu» mufl Anfiti.'t be niatie out when ht ilewcdi rhis pttrt ■, by thw 
dilliDdioo wc may relieve FUuj of .1 contradiction ; wba in one pb» ttfirtning 
aQHorfehathno gall, diflivrmh \-ct loartofber, ihai the galtof in Horle was 
accouoid puiTtm ^ and ibtrefufe at i\\k lacrilicet ot' Horfu in Rtmr, it waj un- 
lawtiill tor the rAtatfototouchit. But with mote difficulty , or h.irdlyax all if 
thjt rwoncilcaWc wlBcb i* delivered by our Conntr^'-iMJi, and received f-'tirri- 
nuriMH ^ whofewdrdsinliisMaftet-ptecc.andCUfierot'difcafci frcmi cbfl Gail, 
arc Ibmcwbat toaflrid^and (circcadmitaRixofitiliation. Tht i^Ucietbcre- 
ture of thii conceit isnot-unlike tbc torntcr ; ^ Sflt [tttuiiM» ^miV W ^iHum 
fijofliciirr. liecaiifi: tbey have not a bbidder of gall, uke chofe wc ufuaJIy ob- 
lervcin oiiKra, they luve Qo gall ac all. Wfaitbis a Pvalogifin not idmiiDblc ^ 
« fidkeytbacdwds not in ■ cloud, and oeedifloc tike SufiiAlcuurk. 


C n A r . n I. 

of the Dive. 

THc third afTcrtioa is fbmcwbat lijie the (cmod, that a Dove or V^tfm 
bath no gall -, which is alfirincti from very Q:eat Antiquity ; for as Ptrrim 
obfcrvctb from thts confideration thr E.^jptumiiiA maXc it the Hieri?gly[ihick 
of Mtekncfi. It hath beeo averred by many boly Writers : commonly deliver- 
ed by PafiiRtn and Camntriujterj ^ wbo n'om the frequent mention of the 
Clove iotbe CMticht, the precept of our Saviour, to be wifeaii Serpents, and 
innocent as Doves : xndeTpcciallythe appcaranceof cheHoly GhoHtn tberimi- 
litudcof this Aninuil: havetaXen occahon toTet down many afiei^mnj of the 
Dove, and what doth mofl commend it, it, that it hath no gall. And berCOf 
have (Dade ufe not onely Minor Divinc» , but Cjfrijoi , -AifiiM , Ifidnr, Stdd. 
RuftriMt^ /«i^f««/ and many more. 

Whereto nntwichflanding we know not bow co aBeot , it being repugpint 
umo the Amliority and pofitive determination of andcnt Philotopby. The 
affirmative of Ari^stU in bis hillory of Animals it vct)' plain , Ftlnhu t/tmri^ 
AlitsimtQinejuniititr : ilomchavetlM: gall adjoined 10 the guis , at thcCrow, 
the Swallow, Sparrow and the Dove ; theJamcisalfo aitcOcoby/'/Mr/ j and not 
without fomc [MlTion by Galen^ who in Ins book <U Atr* ^ir,accomut bim ridicti- 
tout that denic« it. 

I It is itot agreeable co the confiiiutton of this Animal , Jior cm wc fo rea- 
TonaWy conceive there wants a Gall: that w, the liot and fia-y humour in a 
body fo hoc of temper ■ which Fl^m or Melancholy could not effeA. Now 
ofwKit compteuonit is. luiim AliXA»Mnms doclarcth, when be atfirmctli 
that Ibme upon the ufe thereof, have fallen into Feavcrt and Quinlict. Tbe 
temper uf ttieir Dui^ and inceJlioal Excretions do allb confirm the luDC, 
which To^cally ippTied become a fiMn^imm or Rubifymg blcdidne ^ tod 
O are 



Enquiries into Vutgat 

htot %* 


Whence the 
wtencc the 
paflions do 
moft arifie. 

UVit' I . 

Doves, the 
birds of Vc* 


arc of fucB fiery parts , that , as wc read in Oaten , they have of thcthfclves 
conceived fire, and burnt a houfe about them. And therefore when in cbe 
famine of Samaria ( wherein the fourth part of a Cab of pigeons dung was 
fold for five pieces of filvcr , ) ic is delivered by fofephus^ that men made xtCe 
hereof in (lead of cominon fait ^ although the exposition feem ftrange ^ it is 
more probable then many other. For that it containeth very much fait ^ as 
befide the efle As before expreffed , is defcernable by tafte, andtheearchof Co- 
lumbaries or Dovehoufes, fo much defired in the artifice of falc-peter. And 
to fpeak generally , the excrement of birds which want both bladder and kid- 
nies^ hath more of fait and acrimony^ then that of other animals, who befide 
the guts have alfo thofe conveyances ^ for whereas in thefe , the (alt and lixi- 
viated ferocity with fome portion of choler , is divided between the guts and 
bladder, it remains undivided in birds ^ and hath but a iingle defcent , by the 
guts, with the exclufions of die belly. Now if becaufe the Dove is ofamilde 
and gentle nature, we cannot conceive it ihouldbeof an hot temper- our 
apprehenfions are not diftind in the meafure of conftitutions , and the fe- 
verai parts which evidence fuch conditions. For the Irafcible paflions do 
follow the temper of the heart , but the concupifciple diflraAions the crafis 
of the liver. Now many have hot livers , which have but cool and temperate 
hearts • and this was probably the temper of Pari^ ^ a contrary conftitution to 
that 01 Ajax ^ and both but (hort of Medea^ who feemed to exceed in either. 

Laftly , it is repugnant to experience ; for Anatomical enquiry difcover- 
eth in them a gall : and that according to the determination of ArifiotU , not 
annexed unto the liver, but adhering unto the guts : noi' is the humour con- 
tained in fmaller veins , or ob(curer capillations , but in a vefcicle or little 
bladder, though fome affirm it hath no bag at all. And therefore the Hie- 
roglyphick of rhe ^Egyptians , though allowable in the fenfe , is weak in the 
foundation : who expreffing meeknefe and lenity by the portraft of a Dove 
with a tail erefted , affirmed it had no gall in the inward paixs,. but only 
in the rump , and as it were out of the body. And therefore if they con- 
ceived their gods were pleafed with the £icrifice of this animal, as being 
without gall , the ancient heathens were furely miftaken in the reafon , and 
in the very oblation. Whereas in the holocauft or burnt oflFering of Mo fes^ 
the gall was caft away: foras Jf» Maimon inftruftcth, the inwards whereto 
the gall adhereth were taken out with the crop, according unto th6 Law : 
Which the Prieft did not burn , but caft unto the Eafi , that is , behind 
his back, and readieft place to be carried out of the Sanduary. ^ And if they 
alfo conceived that tor this reafon, they were the birds of Venus y and 
wanting the furious and difcording part , were more acceptable unto the 
Deity of Love : they furelv added unto the conceit : which was at firft venereal : 
and in this animal may be mfficiently made out from that conception. 

The ground of this conceit is partly like the former-, theobfcure (rtuation 
of the gall , and out of the liver , wherein it is commonly enquired. But this 
is a very injuft illation , riot well confidering with what variety this part is 
feated in birds. In ifbme both at the ftomack and the liver , as in the Capri- 
ceps . in fome at the liver only , as in Cocks , Turkej^ and Phafiants ; in others 
at the guts and Liver, as in Hawks and Kites , in fome at the guts alone , as 
Crows, Doves, and many more. And thefe perhaps may take up all the 
waies of fituation, not only in birds, but alfo other animals-, for what is 
faid of the Anchovy , that anfwerable unto its name , it carrieth the gall in 
the head , is further to be enquired. And though the difcoloured particles 
I in the skin of an Heron , be commonly termed Galls , yet is not this animal 
' deficient in that part /but containedi it in the Liver. And thus when it is 
conceived that the e^'es of ToAr^ werecurtdby the gall ofthefifhCallyonimus, 


Book 5. 

dnJ Cmmaa E k 

or JcOT-^iMf wMriJWf , commcoded to tbK etfcft by Dijfaniln , although dwc 
Mit were not m the LItct , yet there wcrr no reafoQ to iltiutn :hat prob-i- 
bility. And wtnifoevcr nmmal it wat, it may be reieivird qiihutiE ciccpti- 
on, when to delivered , iltcmxTTJcd couf>le as a ccOimoay ot' fuiurcconcurd, 
did cod the gill of itie ritrific? behind the Altar. 

A ftriA and bicritl acccption of a loofcand cropidl eiprcUion was a fecoiul 1 
grouiMl hereof, [or while Totne affirmed 11 had 00 gsli uurodmg unly 
[hereby noevidence of anger or fury; ochcn have iroiiUnjeU a aniitomitallv, 
aad denied that port ut all. ISy whicti illation wc may inter , \xii chat iruiii la- 
crcd Tell, a Pigeon hatli no heart ^ atcording to tJat cxprcilJuo, FaRm 
tfi Eftrnim pcm Coiumid ftA/iHa mmt^ihMi Car. And (b froui liKlclicruCi 
Scripture wc may conclude it is do mild , but a fiery and funoux animal , 
according to that of Jtrtmy , FjiU r/} tirra ■>! drfnUiuium A f/Kie int Ctlmv 
tie : and again , Revtrtdmur Ad itrrAm iMtivuMu m)ir:t a fatir x^*^ C$/Mm- 1 
i£. Where notwithftanding the Dove is not Uterally intendej ; but thereby are 
implied the SdijUntMij . whofc Queen Stmirjimu wa* mlled by that namc; 
and whofc fuctcffor* did bear the Dove tn tbeir ftandard. So ii it prover- 
bially fiid , formic* fma bilu Imcfi , hubit & mufcA fplrfttm -, whereat we 
Itnow Pfailofophy denietli thcfe pini, nor bath Aiuttemj difcovcrcd tbem in 

If therl'ore any affirm a Pigeoa bath no gfdl , iniptying no more thereby 
then the lenity of this animal , we ftiall not comroverc hm afHrmatioo. Tbiu 
may wc make out die aflcrtions of ancient Writer* , and fafcly receive the 
expreffions oi Divines and worthy Fathers. But if by a tranfition from Rhe- 
torickto Logick, he Chall contend, it bath nofuchparior humour-, hcrom- 
miitoth an open fallacy, andfuchas was probably fird commiited concerning 
J^jS Mares-, whofc4Wiftnc6 tropically exprefled from tbeir gcnerauonby the 

nd^ might after be groHy taJtcn, and arealiruihconcei^nl intbaicotKep- 




of tin Btvtr. 

THat aBever toefcapctbc Hunter, bitesoff his icfticksor ftones, isa Te- 
nent very ancient -, zi>d liath had thereby advantage of propagation. For 
ihcfamcwe lindm the Hieroglypiiicksof dw t^?//ifi«/ in the Apologue of 
%y£fop, an Autltor of great Antiquity, who livcam the beginning ouhe/'fr/;*Bl^. 
Monartfay, and in the time of Cjrni : the lameis touched by AriftotU in his! i^ues of 
Etbicks, Mtfcriouny ddivcrcdby»'*/M»,r/(B7,andi'(i/*»»»«i with the fame we what utf^ 
meet within fuvtiuli, whobyanhandfbmeand Mcincal exprcJHonmore wel- 
HMulyeograA^ltinour junior Mcmortet • 

imitstm Cdfiors , ^m* fr 

Sunuchiim ipfifMcit, cnfitns tvuitre damns 

TtJiicMlorum, Mf* medecMtum intiRiftf ingMtn, 
ic bath been propagated byEmblcmcs^ and fome fuive&ceo fo bad Grammari- 
ans, as to be deceived by the Name, deriving Csfivr i c^firdudo;, whereas, the 
proper Utincword it fiitr, and Cajior but borritwcj from the Greek, Cut 
called ^MM/i f^fuf, that is, AnnhU vmncofum, frotn bit fwaggy and protni- 
aenc bdly. 

O 1 Hercio 

L 91 

Enquiries into Vnlgdr 

Book 3 


Herein therefore to fpeak compendioufly , we firft preTumc to affirm , that 
from a ftrid enquiry, we cannot Biaintain,the evuilion or biting off any pares ^ 
and this is declarable from the bed and moft profelTed Writers *. for though 
fome have made ufe hereof in a Moral or Tropical way , yet have the pro- 
feffed Difcourlcrs by filence dcferted, or by experience rejcAedthis aflrrcion.' 
Thus was it in ancient times difco'vered , and experimentally refuted by one 
Sefiim a Phyfitian, as it fiands related by Piinj *, by Diofcoridcs^ who plain- 
ly affirms that this tradition is falfe • by the difcoveries of Modern Authors, ' 
who have exprefly diicour fed hereon, as AldrovAndus. , Mathiolns , Gtfmrtu^ 
BeUonius v by OUhs Muf^nuj^ Peter Martyr mid, others -, who have defcribcd 
the manner of their Venations in America •, they generally omitting this 
way of their efcape , and have delivered' fevtrail other , by which they are 
daily taken. i 

The original of tlie conceit was probably Hicroglyphicall ^ which after he-' 
came Mythological unto the Greeks, and fo fet down by ^^jlp ^ and by pro- 
ccfe of tradition , ftole into a total! verity, which was bat partially true, that . 
is in its covert fcnfe and Moralit^\ Now why they placed this invention up- 
on the Bever (bcfide the Med:call and Merchantable commodity of Cafi^remm^ 
or parts conceived to be bitten away) might be the fiigacityand wifdome of. 
that Animal •, which from the works it performs , and efpecially its Artifice 1 
in building, is very ftrange 5. andtarely not tabc matched 1)y any other. Omit- ; 
ted by Plutarch de folertU anittMlinm , but might have much advantaged the \ 
drift of that Difcourfe. I . 

If therefore any affirm a wife man Ihould demean hirafelf like the Bevcr,J 
who to efcape with his life, contemncch the lofs oi his genitals ; that is , in ' 
cafe of extremity, not ftridly to endeavour the prefcrvation of all, but to fit j 
down in the en joimcnt of the greater good , though with the detriment and ; 
hazard of the leffet ^ we may hereby appMhend a real and ulefiil Truths In 1 
this latitude of belief, wc a' e content to receive the fable of Hippomanes, | 
who redeemed his life with the lofs of a Golden Ball ^ and whether true or 
i falfe, we rcjeft not the Tragedy of Ahfyrtusy and the difperfion of his Mcm- 
' bers by Medca^ to perplex the purfuit of licr lather. But if he (hall" pofitive- 
ly affirm this ad, and cannot believe tlie Moral , unlefs he alfo credit the Fa- 
• ble •, he is furely greedy of delufion , ^nd will hardly avoid deception in the- 
' ories of this Nature. The Error therefore and Alogy in this opinion, is worfe 
i then in thelaft-, that is not to receive figures for realities, but expeft a ve- 
rity in Apologues ^ and believe , as ferious affirmations , confefTed and ftudied 

Again, If this were true, and that the Bever in chafe makes fomcdivul- 
fion of parts , as that which we call Caftoremm •, yet are not the lame to 
be termed Tefticles or ftones; for thefe Cods or Follicles are found in both 
Sexes , though fomewhat more protuberant in the Male. There is hereto no 
derivation of the fcminal parts , nor any paflage from hence, unto the VefTels 
of Ejaculation : fome perforations onely in the part it felf, through which the 
humor included doth exudate : as may* be obferved in fuch as are frefh , and 
not njuch dried with age. And laftly , The Teftidcs properly fo called, arc of 
a lefler Magnitude, and feated inwardly upon the loins : and therefore it were 
not onely a fruitlefs attempt , but impoifable aft , to Eunuchate or cartrate 
themfelves: and might be an hazardous praftice of Art, if at all attempted by 

Now all this is confirmed from the experimental Teftimonyof five very Me- 

I morable Authors : Bcllomus , Gefrcrns , Amarus , Rcndeletists , and AiathU^ 

lus ; who receiving the hint hereof from R^ndel^ius in the Anatomy of 

two Bevers , did finde all true that had been- delivered by him , whofe words 

- . are 

BaoE 3. 

Md Cm^M 1£ A R Q a 3. 

:irc ilie& id bis l«irn4il book ir fifntin: fiiti lit Mgjtiatiiu ^^jh:/ lumrti 

b^hmt . nt*nitfitr mucum , sv» Anfrriiti mx^kiVm^m, wAcr tui tji ntf/tt*!/* in 

muriiw , 1* Jatfiau fadrMdum^ (r> tvitmrcj irjtn mta (ma , ft J JclticM/i mtm- 

ifr4KJt ftHitSt , ii» tjntntm mtiHt fiatilt fim mfAtm t qmbuj txaiLir li^mr 

fin^in & (ertfM4 . qttim if ft CAJl.'r ftfc^ »d^<f W Umlii & txt^ir , f.Jtes 

Xtlitli slev , carftru fdrttt titinit ; Hn tumtT,-i ''ttptj hui /j^t hi-v maxiast 

ettiif^itUT , IMA Mb iUu hhSm tft «J mrMta!,im vfA nfijmi dntjni ijiui iiumar i« 

maitMl* mutmm dtrivttnir , .-^ f.T.u imiu.iu.- ^ t-n-.r.-U r^r-cj .-/.'.j i';iu' r.- 

fnifKittr^ fifiitm tum'Sft- ^ 

fiu (m.tn4t. Tht-fi whrcli 

ly Jitovcr tllc iiiipropntT>, ■ 

cod or vifiblt bag about die j;ro.n . bcttip n..: ii.c Ultulr 

ucx\ part , but rather a tollcjftuin of fotne (uprifluQrts 1' 

from [licU-Jy , cfpccially tbe p^n? of nutritions- nnm their 

ncSj^ anil ai 1: dotli ui i.:ii--'. " ' '"." ■■.''' ,,1 ,,■. 

ftntirc (iJour -, pTOtceJi[ l' tU~ii . 

wlicrcof [tiislmniormay Iw 

N!o(l ilicrctorc ol' tlic '..■■ul..,.- uttMH 
tfxcqjiiiig Jry?ii»/ , have millinArrtood ihi^ 
Tcflicl« of the never , ai DufaAMs ^ G^t.'- 

have plcafcd 10 name ir. Tlic Egyptiam. -li,. .,..,^v, m 1.^ ^ ^ - . ,.,^., 

Hieroglyphick, wbcn ilicy cxpreffed the pumlhmcnt or aJuliery by ilit 
Bcvcr depriving bmilbU ot tus idl«lc>i which was amongll them ihc pe- 
raUy of fudi incoiiciRciuy. N(>r is '^lint pahaps, too tiriiflly to be dIj- 
fcrvcd , whcti be perltribcih the ftoncs of the Otier , or River-dog ,, as (ijc- 
cpjancous unto Cap'titm. Biit uioftir.cxcurahlc of all is Plinj whd haviitfi 
bcforehim inofwplatf thccxpcriniem of ^f^iiwagainrt it» fcrs d(nvn m ano- 
ther, that the Bevcrs of Psumj, bite off th«r idtidei, anil in the fime plj« 
afticctieth the hU of the Hycfia. Which was indeed well jiwncd with i[je 
Bcvcr , nt havuiB alfo a b^g in i^oft parts ; if thereby we midCTtlard th< 
Hyena odorata, or Civet cat, as is delivered and ctaphiwilydcrcnbcd by C«/?f//«/.. 

Now the ground of ihi^ millaKc might be tnc rcfcfnbiance and (iciiation of 
ibcfcmmors about thule part*, wherein we obfcrve ihelclTidc* in other ani- 
tnsU. Wtiiih nutwittidandtng if np well foiuidcd ilbtion ^ for tbc teOUlet 
ace dciiRcd by their oRice, and. not determined by plate or lituacion^ they 
having one office in all, bm diffcreui featJ in many, for bcfidc that no fcrpent 
or hflus oviftarom, havciny Donei at all^ diac neither biped norauAdruped 
oviparous luve any cstcriorly, or promineniin tlicgioini 6nic alio iliat arc 
viviparoujiiontaiuthcTeparts wiihin, asbedflc this ainmui, the F.Icphani;, and 

If any therefore Oiall term thefc tellidcs, intending mcraphorically , aiid* 
in no ftrift atccption -, his language is tolcraWc, and offends our cars no 
more llicn Uie Tropital ratncs of plants: when we read in HerbaU, of 
Dogs, Fox, and Coat -Hones. But if he infiftcih tlKreon, and mamainwh 
a propriety in this language: our dilcourfe hath overthrown his affcrtion,' 
nor will Logidk permit Iiis ilUtion -, That is, trom thing* alike , locondudea 
thing the [ante-, and from an acddcmal convemrnce, that is a fimilitude ra 
place or Hgure , to infer a fpcutical coogruity or fublbntial connirreocc in' 

Hjenj efyn- 

9A \ 

Bfkjuirits i»U Vulgar 

Book 5. 


faom the erofs 


Chap. V. 

of the BdJ^er. 


THat a Brock or Badger hath the legs of one fide (horter then of the other, 
though an opinion perhaps not very ancient , is yet very general ^ recei- 
ved not onely by Theories and unexpenenccd believers , but aflented uoto by 
moftwho have the opportunity to behold and hunt them daily. Which notwitbr 
{hmding upon enqmiry I find repu^uuit unto the three Detenntnators of truth. 
Authority, Senfe and, Reafon. For firft, Albertm Magnus fpeaks dubioufly, 
confeffing he could not confirm the verity hereof 1 but AlJrovMMdm plainly af^ 
firmeth, there can be no fuch inequality ob(erved. And for my own parr, upon 
indifferent enquiry, I cannot difcover this difference, althougn the regardible 
fide be defined , and the brevity by moft imputed unto the left. 

Again, It feems no eafie affront unto Reafon ^ and generally repugnant nnto 
the courfe of Nature *, for if we furvey the totall fet of Animals, we may in 
their legs, or Organs of progre/fion, obferve an equality of lengthy and parity 
of Numeration •, that is, not any to have an odd leg, or the fupporters and Mo- 
vers of one fide not exadly amwered by the other. Althougjh the hinder 
may be unequal unto the fore and middle legs, as in Frogs, Locufts and Gra£- 
hoppers^ or both unto the middle, as in fome Beetles and Spiders, as is determi- 1 
nedby Arifiotle de incefuammaliMm. Perfeft and viviparous quadrupeds , lb 
(landing in their pofition of pronenefs, that the oppofite joints of Neighbour^ 
legs confifl in the fame plane ; and a Tme defcendinc from their Navel interfeiS^s 
at right angles the axis of the Earth. It happeneth often! confe^ that a Lob- 
Oxr hath the Chcly or great daw of one fide longer then the other •, but this is 
not properly their leg, but a part of apprehenfion, and whereby they hold or 
ieix upon their prey •, for the legs and proper parts of progre/fion are inverted 
backward, and ftand in a pofition oppofite unto thefe. 

Laftly, The Monilrofity is ill contrived, and with fome difad vantage •, the 
fhortnefs being affixed unto the legs of one fide, which mi^t have been more 
tolerably placed upon the thwart or Diagonial Movers. For the progreffion of 
quadrupeds being performed per Diamctrum , that is the 'crofs legs moving of 
refting together, fo that two are alwaies in Motion, and two in flation at the lame 
time; the brevity had been more tolerable in the crois legs. For then the Moti- 
on and ftation had been performed by equal legs ^ whereas herein they are borii 
performed by unequal Organs, and the imperfection becomes difcoverable at eve- 
ry hand. 


Book ;. 

Mini Cimmta E n a o p.:3 . 


Cm A p. VI. \ 

of the BtdT. j 

THat aBcaibiingiforth h«r young mfofmoUE and iinftiitj^cli, wlildi ihi 
ftiflliontth iiftcr by licKtngtlwni over, is an omnum not only vulgar, and' 
common wiihusat prcicm ; but hncbbecn of otd ddivercd by Ancicnr Wri- 
ccfi. Uponihi»fountla:lonit was an Hieroglyphit< wi(h tlic '■i ^piiAm : Art' 
JlmiU fcemi lotoimtcnariK it : Sfiiffus^ Pfmy and t^li»n dircdiy affirm ir; 
AaiOvid fmootlily dclivcreth ii 

Ntc catttlm fdrlM ^Ht-m rtJJUir Mrjk rttcKii 
Srd mtilc vivM csrp rjt, lamhiUi maitr ifi Mrrut 
Vmii , c5" <» (trmdm ^HaUm CHfit if/U rfdmir. 
Wliicti opidion ni>twidif(aiuiiQg i$ chic onety rrpugnanl untO (iic Icnfc oi cvv- 
ryuDc tbac ftiaU cnquite Into it, but cbe exad aul dclibcnilc cxpcrimuic oi 
thrw Aiuhcniick plulofophaj. The firll of Ai*ti»»itn in bit G>mmcnt on ZHaf- 
ttrijfj ^ wbofc words are to this effect. In the Valley of y/»«rji4 about TViw, 
in a BeeurwbicliiIicHumcrs eventcratcd or opened, I bclicid the young ones, 
with all tbcirf».t'[!di(\iDd : andnot wuhout fhapcascuany conceive : giving 
more credit unto ^rt;?M/e and f/iy, then experience and their proper fcnfcs, 
Of die fame alTuranre was fnUm Scatiitr in hit Excrciiations, VrfAm f*tui 
imf»rmes fetiut tjieere , ijHam pdrfre, fi vn"* Mctml , qtui pfitA liKi}» e^jjii > 
QhU hujit/ir falntl* MiihvTiliHs ^t^ hAhnuUm rx Lsc bijiarU cogn»fi:ti^ In no» 
firit Aifibnt vaunrts ftt^m ^rfam ctf;rt. tiiftHa m ftuiu flant farmains intHi 
invtnws tfl . And Ufily, j^fUrtvanJut wiio trom tbc tcftimony of his own cies 
aifirmcth, iliat Li the Cabinet of (bcScnatcof BohohU , there was prefcrved in 
a Glaiia Cub dilfcftcd out of a Bear perfedly formed, and compleat in every 

It is CDoreorer injurious QDCo Reafon, and much impugoeili the coiirfc amf 
providence of Nature, to conceive a birth Iliould be ordained before there is a 
formation. For the tunformauon of parts is nccefTarily rctjuired, not oncly 
unio ilic prc-recjuifiics and provitius conditions 6f birth , as Motion and Ani- 
manon : but alio unco the parturition or verj* birth it fclf : Whe.ein not onely 
die Dam, butlheyounglingspUy ibcirpart*i and thccaufcandaft ofesdufi- 
on proceedeth from them both, for the cxclufion of Animals is not meerly 
pa/Tivc like that «>f Eggs northctoiaUfttonof dclivcrytobeimpuKduntocbe 
Ktotlicr : bfit the ririi attempt bcginnecb fironr tUi In&m : which at itte aC- 
comphOiL-d pcnod attcmptctbtu change hu Manilon : and iVu^ling ro reine 
forrh. (liLvcririTiarTd lircaks thofr patc« which rd'traii)«lhiiflbeloro. . -.i^r. 
Bdidt ( What fcw take noiitir of) Men hereby do in an high oieafw-eari- 
litie the works of God , imputing that unto the tongoeof a Jieafi, tvhtcfa it 
tbe Unmgeft Antrice in all the ad^ of N^aare : tluc is ilu: ftirmjtiori.ofltlie' 
Jntum in die Wonib -. njr ouely in Maokinde , but all viviparous AaiaiAb. 
Wherein ibc plallirk or formative faculty, from matter appearing Hufliogc- 
ncoDS, and of a liatilaiy fub(Unce, er«%ediBon«, Membracn, A'cin^antlAr. 
tcriet: and tuit of thciccontrivcth every piri in natnber. plgcv and i\%mo, 
according toibe law of Us JfcticSi. Which is fu lai ftumbcmg fallnofii^ by 
iiny outward agenti thai once omiKed or perVorted by> s Itip of eI< iRWVti 
Pbuiits , it i». noc reducible by any other whatfocver. Add ihtrclwic Afiri 
Mr flajnutvrramt*^ though it originally rci'psc{ed the gciurapon 9f 



Enquiriei int$ Fiflgdr B 6 d t ^« 

man, yet is ic appliabie unto that of ocher Animals • who encring the Womb 
in diftind and fimpie Materials , return with diltindion of parts , and the | 
perfeft breath of life. He that (hall confider thefe alterations without , mi^ j 
needs conceive there have been ftrange operations within ^ which to beliold, ic i 
were a fpeftablealmoft worth ones bong-, a fight beyond all; except that Man I 
had been created firft, and might have feen the mew of five dales after. j 

Now as the opinion is repugnant both unto fenfe and Reafon^ fo hach it pro- 1 
bably been occafioned from fome flight ground id either. Thus in regard the 
Cub comes forth involved in the Chorion, a thick and tough Membrane obicilr- 
ingtbe formation , and which the Dam doth after bite and tear afunder^ tl^ 
b£olderat firft fight conceives it a rude and infbrmous lump of fleJOb. and im- 
putes the enfuing (hape unto the Mouthing of the Dam ^ which addetb nochiiig 
thereunto , but onely draws the curtain, and takes away that vaU which con- 
cealed the piece before. And thus have fbme endeavoured to enforce the £unc 
from Reafon-, that is, the (mall and flender time of the Bears geftation, or go- 
ing with her young ^ which lafting but few daics ( a Month fbme fay ) the ex- 
dufion becomes jprecipitbus , and thi young ones confequently inibrmous^ 
according to that oiSoKtms , TngefimHs Ses Mterum lihroi urfi- unietvadi m 
pracipiMs ftcMnditas infrrmes creei partfis. But this will overthrow t^ geb^ 
ral Method of Nature, in the works of generation. For therein the coiifbr- 
niatioh is not onely antecdjeiit , but proportional uiito the excfofioii • inH if 
the period of the birth be (hort ^ the term of conformation will hk as fiiddeU 
alfo . There may I confefs from this narrow time of geftltioh enfue a Minority 
or finalneb in the exdofibn ^ but this however iilferreth no ihformity , aikl it 
ftill recdveth the Name of a natnril and legitimate birth ^ wfaerfeis if we affirm 
a totall informity, it cinnot admit fo forward a term as an Abdrtment ^ for thitt 
fuppofeth confoirmition. So we mnft call this confiant and intended ad of 
Nature; a flip or effluxion, that i$ an exchlfion before conformation : befinri 
the birth can bear the name of the Parent^ or befo much as propdrly ddled an 

Chap* VIL 

of the Bdfilisk. 

M Any opinions are paflTant concerning the Bafdisk or little Kingof Scr. 
pents , commonly called the Cockatrice : fome affirming , others de* 
nying , moft doubting the rdations made hereof. What therefore in theft 
incertainties we may more furely determine : that fuch an Animal there is , 
if we evade not the tdUmony of Scripture , and humane Writers , we cannot 
dftly deny. So is it bAA^Pfrlm 91* Ss$fer sffidm & BafUifcum MmkuU^^ ' 
wherein the vulgar Tranflation retaineth the Word of the Septuagint ^ ufing ' 
in other places the Latine expreflion Riwmlm , as Proverbs zi^ Mordtbu m 
celtikr^ C^ Jic$n Rtgnlus veneM d^fmtdet , and ferewy 8. Ecce ego mmmm 
vt>bis firfentes Regnlos^Scc That is, as ours tranllate it. Behold I will fend 
Serpents , Cockatrices among you which will not be charmed , and they 
fiuulbiit you. And as for humane Afidiors , or fAch as have difcourftd 
of Animals/ or Poifons, it is to be found almoft in all : in Diofc§ridet^ 
Galen, Plinjy Sotinus^ k/EUoh, %/£tiHs^ AvUen^ jinUpms^ Grevims^ and 


Book J. 

J Disoy mo'i- III AiijUih t I'mifirf^ 

Md CammM E x r u k '. 

hcJ r.o n,.:r,i;iiii 

biic .?.-flA-, 

for t^isoi' uu:- 

'-♦I6ti5 tlusLuckiitrai i 

uirc; 4r«l railfcr an Hi. i 

Sci ttirfli in il[S:rcii[ I-jlli. ,1 

nnm widi iIk lieiil of an ilJivli , is/'i^.;i: Jvnh JclivcrcJ , inJ u.5 wiihoJ- j 

dnioa of legi the Her.iJ>l<t and I^iimerf HiU defcnb>.- it. Nor wiu it only 

oi oltl « ryinbollical «r.d sllow-iiblc mvcniion , bui ii now become » n>.intial 

coiurivaoce ct Art, And artilinal inipolturc^ wliereoi bdida oilterf , .Vr^/i- 

jCrr liatli oUicn notice : Sttfitijli fts-mtMt mtmiti fnnt vuhi CiiUin.Hrv fimihiu 

XTftdihm hiHu^tueiHe i$umjdffrmiUi fhtttrtirrUftrftHitbui , tnfi m.uuia nK.i{i 

h verlKt candid.: ^dtiSipm^'uRtlittm; that is, mracoMimonly louiiicrtcicFlia 

4w*m ol' « Baiilwk , with aiKirbrr liKt:iLCoii, and wtihcwofrwi wtirtraitlity 

differ not fioiiiodierSwpenu, tutio a itf.'ijtc fpfvlr iipoD tieir croan.' Now 

alitiougli in Ibiue manner it mi^lii ht iKi\\niin(e\t<A m Iminui Cucks ^ and By' 

ifii; Serpent* 5 yet i» n TOOiinoaly contrived out of the ikmt of Tbomlurlis, 

Suits or Maids, is Mdrn'^ud hadi obfcrvcd; siid ilfo EHijiliually ddcnbed i*)^'v*«i^* 

in!ii»ettc1tcn(bot>k ot'li(fap4. 

Nor is only titc esiilcniry of this animall cooGdcrablc , tut rnanj' things tk- 
livCTcd thereof, iwriKularly itf |M)ilbn and its gcacraiioit CoDCcrimig the 
tiril, atcordingiu tlicdoCtnncut the Anncott , iricn lliil alHrm, thuit kitlcth 
at 1 dillar.i:.- , {tut It poilunccb bytb« t^c , and by prfinJiy of vjl'Dn, Now 
tb.ic deictenoas ii may be at fcinii: difbincc .ir>d dHlru(!iire vrltbout Cutpotiil 
conriillit'ii , what unccrtaintj' foever ihert be in tl:c ctfcS , tba-t ij pohigh 
jlDprobobibfy to the rcbEum. I or tf plngucs or poDilenDat Atoiiies have bwa 
wnveynl to the air frum diffETCit Regioiu^ if inett«t adiilanri-bive infecrcd 
each other ^ if tbclhadows of fomecrwsbfr noxious-, if TiTftiiai deliver ihor 
opium at a diltante , and fiupmebcyoodihcmfclves; wc cannot rcifonably de- 
ny . tlut ( bciJde our grofi and reitraiocd poifons requiting lonciguit^' unto' 
tbcir a^huni} there may proceed from fubtiller fcedt, more agrle cailtutitons 
' whKh cooicmn thofc l.nivs , and invade ax dilUncc unes{t<:dcJ. 

That thii vcneraiiou (faootech troni ti>e eye , and ttui thn way a ftaftlUk 
nay anpotfbn, although thai much be not agreed apon by ADtburt , fomc 
Imputing It unco the breath, other!; unto the bite, icii not arhiiig iinpuirtHe. 
~ r eyei rccicvc o&nfive imprciiionv , from ihcit objcifits, and may liavc in- t/Uotbd A 
,flueiKe»deiiruftivc to each oilier- lor the viJiblefpcocs of thine? HoSc not tti.|)(>(eiH 
Our fenfci iininatenully ■, bu; lb'ea:i)ing in ctvponl rates , do t arry rflili ibcm 
lie qualities of tbeobjeftfrom wficncc cbey flow, and the o<eiJuuu diroiigli 
prbicli liMry piff. Tbiis tlirou^ a gr«en or red g^^f* aJl things wt bshold 
^ I" appear, 


inquiries $»t0 Vulgdv 

Book f 

How tfic Bafi- 
Ikk kils ac 

The tcncraii- 
on of the 




appear of the fame colours •, chos fore eyes aflfeft thofe which are found-, and 
cbemfelves alfo by reflexion •, as will happen co an inflamed eye that beholds ! 
it. felf long in a gla(s •, thus is fafcinadon made out *, and thus alfo it is noc | 
impoifible , what is affirmed of this animal ; the vifible raies of their eies carry- ,- 
ing forth the fubtileft portion of their poifon i which received by the eye of man, \ 
or beaft, infedecb firft the brain, and is from tnence communicated unto the heart. ; 
But laftly , TUt this deftrudion (houid be theeffeA of theiirfl: beholdci- ^ '• 
or depend upon priority of afpe Aion , is a point not eafily to be granted -, an4 
very hardly to be made out upon the principles of Arifioiie, Alhazen, VueUo, 
\ and others -, who hold that light is made by Reception , and not by extra- 
miifion •, by receiving the raies of the ob jeA into the eye, and not by fending 
any out. For hereby although he behold a man firft , the Bafilisk (hould ra- , 
(her be deftroyed , in regard he firft receiveth the raies of his Antipathy, and : 
venemous emiflions which objeftively move his ienfe ^ but how powerful! 
fbever his own poifon be , it invadeth not the ienfe of man , in r^ard be be- 
holdeth him not. And therefore this conceit was probably begot by fuch as 
held the opinion of figbc by extramiffion ^ as did Pythagtfroi , Fl4t$ , Empe^ \ 
docks J Bipfarchtu , Gdle», Macr$tit$Sj Proclus^ Simflicims , with moft of the ; 
Ancients , and is the poftulate of Euelide in his Opticks ^ but now fufficient- i 
ly convifted from obfervations of the dark chamber. I 

As for the generation of the Bafilisk, that it proceedeth from a Cocks egg' 
hatched under a Toad or Serpent, it is a conceit as monftrousas the brood^- 
fdf. For If we (hould grant that Cocks growing old, and unable for emiifion, \ 
ama& within themfdves fome feminal matter , wmch may after conglobate into ! 
the iotm of an egg, yet will this fubftance be unfruitfiill. As wanting one princi- \ 
pic of generation, and a commixture of the feed of both fexes, which is requir* i 
ed unto produdion, asmay be'obfervedintheeggsof Hensnotrroddcn^ and as 
, we have made trial in fome which are termed Cocks eggs. It i$ not indeed 
Ovum cenu- . impoifible that from the fperm of a Cock, Hen, or other animal being once in | 
siniMi, or the putrefcence, either from incubation, or other wife, fome generation mayenfue^ j 
laft ^M>^^ jj not univocal and of the fame fpccies , but fome imperfeft or monfbrous pro- 
onc.^*^^ duAion ^ even as in the bodv of man from putrid humours, and peculiar waics 

of corruption ^ there have fucceeded ftrange and unfeconded (hapes of worms • 
whereof we have beheld fome our felves, and read of others in medical obfer- 
vations. And fo may ftrange and venemous Serpents be feveral waies engender- 
ed*, but that this generation (hould be regular, and alway produce a Baiilisk, is 
beyond our affirmation, and we have good reaibn to doubt. j 

I Again , It is unreafonable to afcribe the equivocacy of this form unto the '. 
I hatcUngof a Toad, or imagine that diverfifies the produAion. For Incuba- 
: tion alters not the fpedes ^ nor if we obferve it, fo much as concurs either to • 

- the fex or colour : as appears in the egg$ of Ducks or Partridges hatched un- . 

- der a Hca : there being required unto their exdufion , only a gentle and con- j 
t tinned heat : and that not particular or confined unto the fpecies or parent. ^ 
' So have I known the (eed of Silk^worms hatched on the bodies of women : 
: and Plinj reports that Livis the wife of AugufiMs hatched an egg in her bo- 

- fome. Nor is only an animal heat required hereto, but an elemental and artificial 
I warinth will fuffice ; for as Diod^ms delivereth , the Egyptians were wont 
I to hatch their eggs in Ovens ^ and many eye-witndfes confirm that pradice unto 

this day. And therefore this generation of the Bafilisk, feems like that of Cd^ 
ftor and HeJeus :- he that can credit the one may eafily believe the other : I 
that is , that thefe two were hatched out of the egg , which f^pner in the 
form of a fwan, b^at on his Miifares />^. 

Theoccaiionof this conceit might be an Egyptian tradition concerning the 
bird Ihii : which after became transferred unto Cocks. For an opinion it 



4$dQmmw £ 


was of that Nit>"0 , lint [Jii; ibiilwdif^ uptin ■ ^ foad 

f« iiiijuirtswd that uvall luntfpiKios , or * . ihft 

tluy lotnt-iinici cJtr«: foribin Sccpcatinc ftuj c- i\aks 

IwaAlc thfiT I'gg* . r.cir wviiid ilicy cixjurc chobicil in iJ; ii[u"in ila-i.. ji.; Iiow 
aulctcft ciir>r liar was huMcia , the tUily inaibatioD of Duct^^, k'tiiiieiLt , d|iil 
tDaoy oclicr idtilie ; and the Suak nught (uvc infMnutfd (Ikcm > wiuLli bird 
cbey iiaoourcil and theriflif d , la de{lr»y chcU ^crprnu- 

lUu which much proini^<d tc , wfu ■ a {nilapprdir/iruifi idJioty ^cniuuEC uipy 
on i!sp T.ntin-r rrallsiion in Efjy ^ i . Ov.t /tifiilim '-a^riort , f^ ttiM At 

■ .,/(, 

i: . .aof 

: ^ > r ' uus , and the JUgnliu t*r Bx- 

*\:il' I 'sJowinaCociatnct imhciMt, 

allij fccni [Q couiitenaiice it , Cbap.14. i^/L«' 
ti m rjl wrj^Affrcjij^vrk I«», <^ Ttftiutrtivf^"^* 

t^r:.. ■ ^ ■ . _ ^ ■ -J fj'"' Jifnhi-n.- lilf^rtm whkb OUIS, CoOWWIhI 

£roui:4i)ly rt:iitlt:[ah , Uui i>: the S:: ![ cook tbriJi a Cocka- 

iriccjiuid his triuc ftudl be 1 fiery W: 'ii Trtn^i&m^ ■ r^Jtti 

StrfcMtit praJii Hxmurrhttu, dr ^ruiii,.. . __ ^.^-^ whertin the Words 
arc diifaeoc , but the fenlc is lUll iLc liuuc ^ I'cr difrao are ^gurauvdy ior 
tended Zv<^.i/> and Bztthiju ; fnr though the I'hililUncs Itad dcAped the QU- 
nor Serpcnc V^^idh , yet from hii ftock , a fiercer Snake IhoulJ anle, that 
would nwre terribly fling them, and that wai Ei.nlnM. 

But the greatril pTDOiotion tthach received ^m arnifandeTiUtidinguf the 
Hicroglyphi(.3l intention. For being conceived tobe the Lord and King ofScr- 
pcDEs, 10 awe all others, nor to be dcflroyed by any; the jfigyptans here- 
by iropljwl ttcrnity, and theawfuUpower of the fuprerac Dcitie: and there- 
fore delcribcd a crowned Afp or BajiUii upon the heads of their Gods. A» 
inay be obferveJ m the Bembioc cable, and otber Egyptian inotiaineQts. 

c«*p. vin. 

of the HTaife. 

SUch a Story u the Bafilisk is that of the Wolfe concerning [iriortty of w- 
fiOQ, that a nan becoracshoarfcocdumb, if aW^fe fiave the advantage 
firftioeyebim. And this isin plain languagcaifirined by i'/wj' : JuUdiia ut 
ettJitmf, LMfrrmtn vifms rjl naxiitj ^ vtcem'jM htmim, ^Mtm friiu ctmtmfi*' 
TUr dJimm; foitit made out what is dol)vcrodby7'i>n>ni>Mr, and aitcrbim by 

yir^U ~— fpx qu«J, M^rrim 

fsm fugit iffd, iMfi AieerimviiUrr frmri. 
Thus if the Proverb Eo bcunderllood, whenduring iiK(lircourfe,tf thspartr 
or fubjca intervencth , and there cnfucth a Itidtfcn lileoce, it 11 uiiially bti, 
LufmirJI in [dbmU. Which conceit bcingalrcadyeonvicted.noc only by ^'r<i. 
£{rr, HinUnms^iDAo^m ^ but daily coanuaUcAnBott every where out oif Eng- 
UhA; weQullaDC ftirdicr refute. 

P 2 The 

100 I 

Enquiries into Vnlgar 

Book 3. 

The ground or occafional original hereof, was probably the amazement and 
fudden filence the unexpected appearance of Wolves do often put upon Tra- 
vellers-, not by a fuppofed vapour, or venemous emanation, but a vehemenc 
' fear which naturally produceth obmutefcence ^ and fometitnes irrecoverable 
filence. Thus birds are filent in prefence of an Hawk , and PUnj faith that 
dogs are mute in the fhadow of an Hiarna. But thus coiild not the mouthes of 
worthy Martyrs befilenced ^ who being expofed not only unto the eyes, bat the 
mercilefs teeth of Wolves, gave loud cxpreflions of their faith ^ and their holy 
clamours were heard as high as Heaven. 

That which much promoted it befide the common Proverb, was an expreffion 
in Theocritus^ a very ancient Poet, » ^3t7?» x^iwy ««/V<, Edere non foterU vocem, 
LjcHs efl tibi vifm ^ which Ljchs was Rival unto another •, and fuddenly ap- 
pearing flopped the mouth of his Corrival : now Ljchs fignif^'ing alfo a Wolf, 
occafioned this apprchenfion •, men taking that appellatively, which was to be 
underflood properly, and tranflating the genuine acception. WhicH isa hillacy 
of i£qui vocation, and in fome opinions begat the like conceit concerning Ro- 
mulMsMd Rtmnsy that they were foftered by a Wolf ^ the name of the Nivfe 
being Lttfa *, and founded the fable of Eurofa, and her carriage over Sea by a 
Bull,becaufe the Ship or Pilats name was Tamths. And thus have fome been flare- 
led at the Proverb , Bos in UngM •, confufedly apprehending how a man fliould 
be fatd to have an Oxe in his tongue, that would not fpeak his mind ^ which was 
no more tfa^n that a piece of money had filenced him : for by the Oxe was ondy 
implied a piece of coin fl^ped with that figure, firfl currant with the ArheniMs^ 
and after among the i^^^yi/. 

Chap. IX, 

of Deer. 

nr He common opinion concerning the long life of Animals, is very ancient, 
^ efpccialiy of Crows , Chou^is and Dc<fr ., in moderate accounts ex- 
cecding the age of man ^ in fome the daics of Nejlor , and in others fur- 
mounting the years of Artephius or Methufclah Irom whence Antiquity 
hath raifed proverbial exprelBons, and the reall conception of their dura- 
tion, hath been the Hypcrbolicall expreflion of many others. From all the 
reft we fhall finglc out the Deer ^- upon conceiiion a long-liv'd Animal, and in 
longevity by many conceived to attain unto hundreds ^ wherein permitting eve- 
ry man his own belief, wefhallour fclves crave liberty to doubt ^ andourrca* 
fons are cbefe enfuing. . 

The firft is that of Ariflotle , drawn from the increment and geftation of 
this Animal , that is, its fudden arrivance .unto growth and Maturity , and 
the fmall time of its remainder in the Womb. His words in the tranilation of 
Scdliger arc thefe ^ Be ejus vitd hngituSne fdMantur ^ nt^M enim am ge- 
fiatio am incrementkm hinnuloTHm ejtifmoJi fum , m fraftent argtmentum loit- 
cavi animalis., that is, Fables are raifed concerning the vivacity of Deer; 
fbr neither are their geftation or increment, fuch as may aflbrd an argument 
of long life. And thefe faith S^aliger^ arc good Mediums conjunctively ta- 
ken , that is, not one without the other. For of Animals viviparous fuch as ' 
live long, go long with young, and attain but flowly to their Maturity and ' 
flature. So the Horfe that liveth about thirty, arrivetb unto his flaturc about 



mJ Ctmmen £ ft ft tr it s . 



iix. ^-wrs, and rcmainetlt above r-n ' ^^ lb tire CumcH 

that livcihumn fifty , gMth Wiil» v -.fti*, and ccai* ; 

edi nnc £(j ^)W Dcture frvi.'n; nru! ; . 'i art riu.-idfcd , 

iorvfh in ynimg above .1 ywr , an.i .irn.'aii ^l■,^<• , .■ ■ ■ i ■ 

(.Be ciinn^ify^ dw Sheep anil Goat, wljwti lire inn 

1»U( rive mimcttw, amX atuintotlK-ir pcrfcvtiMn r.t n-..- 

tionijohlcrvahlc tiiC.i«,Harcs,TnJComc(. Ai '■ 

womb biJt eifibt moRCth*, and i^ coiiiplwt at I: : 

wpcarnot cxprec lolivc sn hti-t^i-fj , mri' 

more tlwn chim' - ' ■ i,i:t 

ammationi, tlut i .'jnin' 

tborow.ilucrs, If- : ^ypa- 

turcin cvn-^' kiml : ana hkui^vj iJtiitv..iii}; .imi;ii •.■; ;r,rrrcnii: uom Pieh 


Tlieothergrotinddut briiipitjIorglilrintoquHHon; isriifiniinodcrrtwftla- 

ciiy,antl almoU uuparallddcxccfsol vctKty, v-'luclic;: ■ -' 'bcob- 

fcrved in tliii Animal: antli* fuppofcdtolhonrntbe li' ^ ,-i3fid * 

Sparrows. CotamlyaionreflcuandiiRdrmaWttticmy ). ; J thai | 

Dot onlyatifigniurlicoHnpItxional Jdirciindiroiwcuui... . ; ;j ... .icauJe 

iottic(re«niMtaei, oritcnwi pcrfonnantethercol'' ForiisDughwcconlemnot 

witb that Pliilofophcr, who chinJij a fpcrqi-iirai cmilRotl unto tlic weigdt of ore 

dragm, li ffquivakrntumo ihccffut-on of (jitj-oumrt of bloody yctamfrdcring 

the ocolutton and languor eiirmn;; zkat aa in fume , tlte eKtenuacionaod imr- 

cyur inoilicrs, and (bevifihlcaccclcrationirniatccthof igeintnoft: wtomnoc 

but dunk itmuih abndgcdi onrdaics. Aktmagh ivc alTo ojrccdc chatthis cn- 

ilulionisDaniral, diat naturtit fdf will tiid away hereto wtibimt etthcr aft 

nr objcvl ■- And alikiugli K b« placed «iiong ilic fit nod-mturaU, that ii, 

fuch as ncidwr naturally conflinKiW , nor meerly ddburt^vc. do prrfcrveor 

deftroy according unto drcumflantc : \\tdo we (cnllbly obfcrve an imporency 

or pjtal pri\au[in thereof, prolonfieth life ; and they live longefl in every 

kind tlat cicmfc it nift at all. And dns (| true not on!j' it Eunuchei by ns- riinadi« ai 

cnrc, but SpadoM by Art: for caftrited arrimali in ctery fpecics are longcf jclJtJota 

lived then tliey whicti retain ibiir virilities. Rir tbe flencr^tion of bodies is not ;u'« gcwnd- 

cffijfted asfome conceive, of fouls, that ic, by Irrndiaiion, or anfwcrably im- jr -""ii" 

totbepiopagstionoWight, without its proper dtiifjnqtLon : butiHcreina tranf-j '""^ 

fniJUoiJismadcmate.'iallyfromfornepartf, and Idnllylromcveryone: and-tJie 

propagation of one , is iii a (Irict acccption, fomc mitioration of another. And f '«m'l>e 

thtrdorc atfo that axiomc in Philofophy, tint the generation of one thing, is)'"'" "^P"*- 

die corruption of aiwtlicr; akhoughit facrublbnti.illytruc concerning the torini""*" 

and niaticr, Isslfo difpofitivdy venrtcd m rhceffidi^nr or producer. 

As for more fenfible arguracnti , and liith as relate unto experiment : from 
iheft VIC hare alfo rcafon to doubt its ags , and prefiimcd vivacity : for when: 
terig life is natural, the marks of age iirc lire: and when they appear, the 
journey- unto death annor be long. Now the age of Deer (a5^ri/?M//long 
I ago obfcrved) is bell conjefturcd, by view of the horns and teeth. Trom 
I the horns there is a particular attd annual account unto fix years; tbey'iri- 
fmglirtt plain, and fo fucccflivdy branching: after whitli the judgement of 
' llicir yelTiby paritcalar marts becomes uncertain. Butwhen itcy grow old , 
' ihcy grow kTs branched, and firil do iofe their euvinr-t , or frcfu?ixcKh : 

ithat is , thrir brow Antltrs , or lowefl furcationj ncit the head : which Ari- 
fietU faith the young ones ufc in fight : and the oU as ncedlcfs, have them not 
•c «11. The fame n'l ly be atfo collertt-d irom the lofs of their 'I eeth , whereof 
in old age the)' hive few or none before in cither jaw. Now ihcfe are inftlll- 
ble narks ofa«e, aiid when iliey appear ; «re nuUl wuteft a dcthnation: 


Enquiriis im$ Vulgar 

B oo c 3( 

^falm 90, 

Hlfbr, immiL 

which nQtwichftanding (as men inform us in Eniland , where obfcrvations may ; 
well be made J will happen between twenty anochirty. As for the bone or ra- ; 
tlier induration of the Roots of the arterial vein , and great artery , which is 
thought to be found only in the heart of an old Deer, and therefore becomes more 
precious in its Rarity ^ it is often found in Deer, much under thirty ^ and we 
have known fome affirm they have found it in one of half that age. And there- . 
fore in that account of P/m/, of a Deer with a choUar about his neck, put on' 
by AUxander the Great, and taken alive an hundred years after, with other rela-, 
tions of this nature, we much fufpeft impofture or miftake. And if wx grant , 
their verity, tbe\' are but fingle relations, and very rare contingencies in in- 
dividuals, not afiordinga r^ular didudion upon the fpecies. For ux>ugb Vljf- 
fes his Dog lived unto twenty, and the Atheni4f Mule unto fourfcore ^ yet do 
we not meafure their daies by thofe years, or ufually (ay, they live thus long. , 
Nor can the three hundred years of John of times, or Nefior, overthrow the af- ■ 
fertionof Aiofcs^ or afford a reafonable encouragement beyond^his feptuagenary 

The ground and authority of this conceit was firft Hieroglyphicall, the o£fjf^ \ 
nans exprefling longevity by this Animal-, but upon what uncertainties, aodl 
alfo convincible faldtics they often ereded fuch Emblemes;, we have elfvhere 
delivered. And if tlut were true which ^ri/7or/r deliversofhis time, and P/i»; 
was not affiraid to take up long after, the i^^gjftidm could make but weak ohfer- 
vations herein ; for though it be faid that fy£ncM feafted bis followers with Vc- 
nifon, yet ArifiotU affirms that neither Deer nor Boar were to be found in Mri* 
CO. And how tar they mifcounted the lives and duration of Animals, i% evident 
from their conceit or the Crow, which they prefume to live five hundred years ; 
and from the lives of Hawks, which ( as ^y£lian deli veretb ) the ^gjptidns do I 
reckon no lefs then at feven hundred. 

The fecond which led the conceit unto the Grecidns , and probably defcended 
from the ny£gjftUns.'^zs Poetical •, and that was a pdTage ofHefiod, tnus rencbred 
by Anfinius. 

Ter tiiut deciefque n$vem fuper exit in unnos^ 
fnfia fcnefcentMm qms imflet viU viromm. 
Hos novics fuferat vivendo garrnU comix^ 
Et qnater egreditur cormcis fecnls cervus^ 

Alipcdem ccrvum ter vincit corvus. 

To ninty fix the life of man afcendeth. 
Nine timesas long that of the Chough extendeth, 
tour times beyond, the life of Deer doth go. 
And thrice is thatfurpafTed by the Crow. 
So that according to this account, allowing ninty lix for the age of man , the 
hfe of a Deer amounts unto three thoufand, four hundred, fifty lix. A conceit 
fo hard to be made out , that many have deferred the common and literal^ 
confbruAion. So Theon in Aratus would have the number of nine not taken 
Ikiftly, but for many years. In other opinions the compute fo far exceed- 
ctb truth, that they have thought it more probable to take the word Gcma^ 
that is, a generation confifling of many years , but for one year , or a litigle 
i revolution of the Sun •, which is the remarkable meafure of^time , and with- 
in the compafs whereof we receive our perfedion in the Womb. So that by 
thisconibruAion, the years of a Deer (hould be but thirty fix, as is difcourfed 
at large in that Tract of Plutarch^ concerning the ceiTation of Oracles •, and 
whereto in his Difcourfe of the Crow, Aldrovandus alfo indineth. Others 
not able to make it out, have rejected the whole account , as may be obier- 
ved from the words of PUnj^ Hefiodm qm frimns dliqmd dt Ungdvitjue viu 
pradidir , fAbnlofi ( rcor) mnlude homiHttm^voreftrtMi^ cemici novem Mfifiras 



£«.» OH I, 

•ilmir/r.- ■ ^utctmu, iJ triflieAtnm-^nis, & ftUiH* faint- 

iit I Andihis Iiow flcnderfocifcr, wai proinbly ilic 

igcll ^' : ' ; iii'ltbrtlrislongivptycFf Aniniaisi cbMmaJeriw- 

fhvjlitf Mp('lii(]jii; wiih Nature concrnung the long lift of Ouws ^ thai bcgac 
tbu Bpillincot' Deer la Offi^tu, ood that tiprctlioti of Jitvtttjtl 

Tljfthii-4 grounjwa* l*liilQfi>ptiirJll,andf.mntlrJupcin a prnbaWc Rcafon in 
Niturc, tluf is. [he defect of a Gall, wlin:fi[ait (in thj; (>pinion of Jrip^iU 
ioiPfntj) thn Ammil wnrrrrd, ami wjs (oncttveil i noTc aAd reaArn of tbar 
long life L . Iu[»pci«th bfiln fame fcw men, whutv-ivc 

nwjliiipr! ' lirrtdercdoe m i)k tcnty conccfoing 

E^^oim^J . iruc, . -I Deer Imtim Gall mtlic Liver like 

ttuuiy Ofiicr .'titfi: .ii.. yzi i.-iinic [tmi pircmclieguc!!, ti\s diTctjverableby oiflr 
and lolour ; anJ l'/fi»; lioili well corrcia biir<felf. w[*n bating affirm- 
ed before ic tud r<a G.UI , heatrA-riich, (bmeboldit tobeintfwenu , andrhac 
fbr i!Kir Ifitierncf'^ dog* wiil refiilc co cnc ih«n. It is xllb fleticieni: is ilie 
veriiy of fhc indaAion or connumcianon of cdicr AninnJj Cdnjomed bcfewith, 
asJuTuiPiilJbrwGalli iliaiis, tt Phny accounteih, tijai^ >/«/i,&c. Horfa, 
MuJes,Airci,I>c<r,Co.-ils, Boars, Camdr, Dolphins, biiTc no GalL Conco-jung 
Hoffct.nhjimitlidLere u herein vrciiiivedecbinnl before ^ u for Goaa wc tioa 
not thcni wiiliouc it , vhii GaUthcCamd Inib, j^n/'V/rdccbief b : that Hogf 
alloiavcit, iTcnnifiirin^ and that not in any obicure place, but iniheLirer, 
even is it is fcatcd in man. 

Thnt ibcret(]rc the Deer is no (hon-iiv'd Animal, wc will acknowWge : cfaac 
comparaiivcly^anilinronielinfetong-liv'tlwewillconcedc^ and thus much we 
(htll gcani il' wc commonly mount it i dain by chircy lix or fouity : for diereby 
it will exceed all other curnigeruus Animak Hut that u atcaineth unto hundredf. 
Of the years delivered by Authors -^finte we have no anthcnrick eipencncc tor it, 
fuKeH'cbsve rnfun and common experience againll i;, (ioce the groiuids Kte 
falfeand fiibnlouswhith docdablilli it ; we Xnownogrouad to ttfTcnf. 

Concerning Deer there alfo palTctli another opinion, that itic htalcsthercof do 
j^cnrty luli: their pizzd- ior menobTervingthcdecidenceof their boms, dofiUl 
Upon the like conceit of (bis part, that itanoualty rottethaway, and racccHive- 
ly tencwech again. Now the ground hereof, was furdyche ohJcrvation of this 
pm in Deer after immoderate ^'enery , and about ibc end of their Ruct, 
wiiid) rometimes becomes fo rdaxed and pendulous, it cannot bequiiereinA- 
ed : and bang ot'un bclct with ftiet, ii is conceived to rot, and at laA to fall &om 
ibcbody. But bcien experience will conindiAns : for Deer which dthcr die or 
ore kilted at that nmi;, or any other, arc alwaies found to hive that part enore. 
AfxIrealbnnl&)WilU»creftu5:forrpermacical parts, or fiichftt are framed frem 
^3x feminal pvitrcipleiofrarnits,alchougblionK^eneomor fmiiUry.will not admit 
a Regeneration , ninth leis wilt they receive in integral] rcftauration, which being 
cirganical andinilruiDcntal Venibcrs, conftllof many of thofe. Nowtbifjun, 
Of AAimul or plitit, cnntaineth no: only of fanguineou!. and reparable panidos : 
botismadeuptif veins, nerves, artcricj, and in Ibine Animals, oi bones : whofe 
repantion isbe^'ondicsownfeniliry, and a fruit not to be expected from the 
frofii^g pari it fdlt. Which faculty were it tommumatcd onto Animxjf, 
whofeori^iiuharc double, as well as unio pUmt, wl»fe feed a within them- 
{iA\u- we miglitabaiethcAnof '7'4/i<ir>]n«f, andthenew in-archingoTNofc). 
And ilvercfiire ilic phuncic! of Poet* have been (b modeft , as not to ftt do*n ftich 
rtfnovaiions.cvcnfrnmthepowcTSofilicir deities : (bribe mutilated ihouldcr 
of /'<-/o;>rw*? pieced out with [tory: and dutihe Itmb* oi Hiffmlhmi were ict 
together, not r^neratcd by t^EJiitiafitu, tstheuimoit aflenion of I'ociry. 

' Cu A »• 


104 1 

Enquiries into Vulgar 

Book ^. 

Whence ic is, 
that forae 
creicnres pre 
fage the wea- 


I Commonly 
miftaken for 
the true Hal- 
ciiiP., ours be- 

- ini richer the 

; Ifpiua. 

Chap. X. 

of the King'fi(her. 

^ Hat a King-fiAier hanged by the bill y ihcwechin what quarter the wind is^ 
by an occult and (ecret propriety, converting the breall to that point ^ 
the Horizon from whence che wind doth blow, is a received opinion, and ve- 
ry ftrange; introducing natural Weather-cocks^ and extending MagQetical|K^ 
litions as &r as Animal Natures. A conceit fupported chiefly by prefent practice, 
yrt not made out by reafon ot experience. 

Unto Reafon it feemeth very repugnant, that a carcafs or body dilanimated, 
fliould be fo af&cted with every wind, as to carry a conformable refpect and 
conftant habitude thereto. For although in fundry Animals, we deny not a^kind 
of natural Meteorology or innate prefention both of wind and weather, yet chat 
proceeding from fenfe receiving impreflions from the Hrft mutation of the air^ 
they cannot in reafon retain that apprehenfion after death *, as being affections 
which depend on life, and depart upon difanimation« And therefore with more 
favourable Reafon may we draw the fame effect or fympathie upon the Hedg- 
hog ^ whofe prefention of winds is fo exact, that it ftoppeth the North or Sou- 
thern-hole of its Ned, according to preriotion of thefe winds enfuing ^ which 
fome men obferving, have been able to make predictions which way the wind 
would turn, and been eftecmed hereby wife men in point of weather. Now this 
proceeding from fenfe in the creature alive, it were not reafonablc to hang up 
anHedg-hog dead, and to expect a conformable Motion unto its living conver- 
fion. Al:J though in fundi'y plants their vertues do live after death , and we 
know that Scammony, Rhubarb and Senna will purge without any vital afli- 
ftance • yet in Animals and fcnfible creatures, many actions are mixt, and depend 
upon their living foirm, as well as that of midion ^ and though they wholly 
feem to retain unto the bckly, depart upondifunion. Thus Glow-worms alive, 
project a luftre in the dark, which fulgournotwithftanding ceafeth after death., 
and thus the Tropedo which being alive ftupifics at a diftance, , applied after 
death, produceth no fuch effect ^ which had they retained, in places where they 
abound, they might havefuppUed Opium, and ferved as frontals in Phrenfies. 

As for experiment, we cannot make it out by any we ha»ve attempred-, fur 
if afingle King-fi(her be hanged up with untwiiledfilk in an open room, and 
where the air is free, it obfervesnot a conftant refpect unto the mouth of the 
wind, butvarioully converting, doth feldom brcaft it riglit. If two be fuf- 
pended in the fame room , they will not regularly conform their brcafls , but 
oft-times refpeft the oppofite points of heaven. And if we conceive that for 
exaA exploration , they (hould be fufpended where the ayr is quiet and un- 
woved, that clear of impediments , they may more freely convert upon 
their natural verticity •, we have alfo made this way of inquifition , fuloend- 
ing them in large and capacious glaffcs clofely flopped ; wherein neverthclefi 
weobferveda cafoalUation , and that they relied irregularly upon converfion. 
Wherefover the)' reftedj remaining inconverted •, and poffefling one point of the 
Compafs, whiKt the wind perhaps iiad paffed the two and thirty. 

The groQnd of this popular praAice might be the co.nmon opinion cob- 

cerning the vertue prognoftick of thefe bir£ ^ the natural regard they have 

' unto the winds , and they unto them again i more efpecially remarkable in 

' the time of their nidulation , and bringing torth their young. For at that 


Itime , wliich liappcretli ibout the bnimall Solflirc , it liarh hctn ohlsrvcd 
even unto a proverb, lliat tlic Sea u cairn, and (liewindi do ct-aft, nil die 
young one? arc cicluJed , and tiirlihc thar uelt , wlutli (ifwtCEfi upon the 
iw , anj by tlic rougtmd's of wind* might oilarwifc be ovcrwlidincd. 
But Itowfar (lercby to iiiflgnille their piediAionwc liivenorcrtainnile, Ibr 
wi:eclieroutof"any paiTttuUr prcnoiion tliey chufcio (it atthmiaje, orwbe-i 
tlier it b« tbii* lomrivcd by eimcurrciKe ot' iaul« , xnd providence of N«- I 
ture, Ictunng every iycxkt mifc-ir produflicn, b not y« dcternimcd. Sore- 
ly many tilings till out by the delljin of tlic general iiwtor , and undreamt of 
conmvameot Nature, wliitS arc not imputable urn y the imcntiDnorhnow- 
tedgc of the partitular Ador- So iboogh the feminalicy of Ivy be aJmoft in 
every cjnh, yet thar itanfctb and growctb not, bni where it may befuppoft- 
cdi we cannot aliribecKcliraeuBioibedtftinfiion of tljcfcL-di or conceive any 
Icitnce therein which fufpend-t and coodruonato in eruption. So if, as ptinj 
ai:ci riat^rch Keport, the Crotoddes of -^fyft, fa apcly lay their Egg*,ihacthc 
Natives tbcrtby arc able r.j know how high the floud will attain -, it will be hard 
lomaXeoui, how ibcy nwulddivmc thecxicni of the in-oiidation, depending 1 
oncaufcsromanymilcsremute-, that it, the meafitrcof (howersin t^tkieoui ■ I 
and whereof, as AthMufint in the lite of y/itfAnwfdcUvcH, ttiedevil himtrlt up- 
on dcniand coqM make no clear prediAion. So are there likewife many thing* 
in Nature, wbith ate the fore-runners or lign* of future cffcds, whcre:o they 
neither cimcur in laufality or prenotion; but are (ecrctly ordered by tlic provi- 
dence uf mufii, and concurrence of adions collateral lu ilicir lignations. 

It wasallo atultomcof old to keep thefc birds in cheds, upon opinion that 
they picvcnied Motlis ; wiittbcr it werenotfirrt hang'd up in Roymt to fudi 
effeilts, ii ivot bej'ond all doube. Or wlieiher we niiltaiic not the poilure of fuf. 
oenfion, hanging itbythe bill, wlwreasweftioald do it bythc hack, that by the 
bill it might point out the quarters of the wind ; for fo hath Kircherm defcribed 
the Orbis and the Sea Swallow. Butthe clJcftcuftotDc of hanging up thefebirdi 
was founded upon a tradiuon that tlwy would renew their fcatticrs every ywr 
asthoughihcy were alive : In expectation whereof tour hundred years ago vf /- 
ktrtui Maihm* was deceived. 



TWm there are Griffins in Nature, that is a mist and dubioiit Acimal ._ 
the fore-part rcfembling an Eagle, and bckind.ttie fliapeof aLion, with 
ere^ed cars . four feet , and a long tail, many affirm, and moll , I perceive, 
deoynot. The fame is averred \>'^<ytlUm,Si)tin>ii, MtUiU'SHmtiotMj^coMa- 
renanccd by the Name f(>mi;[imes tbuad iaScnpture.aQdwasan Hieroglypliick 
of iIk ^EfjfiUnj. 

Notwiiulbnding wc find mod diligent enic|Qirerjcobeofacotitrary aHeriion. 
For belide that Albrrsut and Plinj havedifallowedii, thclcarncd AUmyandKi 
(EUh in a la:^e difcourfe rejected it ^ M^ktM MicbtviMt who writ of thofe 
Nonbern parts whcrctii men place thcfc Griffins , hatb politivdy coocluded 
againlUt-, and if cxaminedby the Dochineof Animals, the invention is Mon- 
firous, oor much infenour unto the figment of Spbynx, Chimxra and Harpies, 
Q for 


Enquiries intp Vulgar 

Boo X 3^ I 



For chough there be fome flying Animals of mixed and participating Natures, that 
is, between bird and quadruped -, yet are their wings and legs fo kt together, 
that they feem to make each other ^ there being a commixtion of both , rather 
then an adaptation or cement of prominent parts unto each other •, as is ob- 
fervable in the Bat, whofe wings and fore-legs are contrived in each other, for 
though fome fpecies there be of middle and participating Natures, that is , of 
bird and beaft, as Bats and fome few others, yet are their parts fo conformed and 
fet together, that we cannot define the beginning or end of either ^ there being 
a commixtion- of both in the whole, rather then an adaptation or cement of the 
one unto the other. 

Now for the word y^^ or Grjfs fometimes mentioned in Scripture , and 
frequently in humane Authors, properly underftood, it (Igni/ies fome kind of 
Eagle or Vulture ^ from whence the Epichete Grjfus for an hooked or Aqui- 
line Nofe. Thus when the Septuagint makes ufe of this word, TremcUiHs and. 
our^Tranflation hath rdndred it the O/Tifragc ^ which is one kind of Eagle. 
And although the Vulgjlir tranflation, and chat annexed unto the Septuagint re* 
, tain the word Grjps ^ \#hich in ordinary and fchool-conftruftion is commonly ; 
I rendred a Griffin ^ yet cannot che Latine aflume any other. fenfe then the Greek, ' 
I from whence it is borrowed. And though the Latine Grjphes be altered fome- ' 
what by the addition of an h, or afpiration of the letter ^> yet is not thisunufa- ' 
all ', fo what che Greeks call ^^»«*-»', the Lacines will call Trafhdmm^ and that per- \ 
(on which in the Gofpel is named< K;^Umti> the Latines will render C Iff has* 
And therefore the quarrel of Ori^m was in juft, and his- conception erroneous, 
when he conceived the food oi Griffins forbidden by the Law of Mofes : 
that is. Poetical Animals, and things of no exigence. And therefore when in 
tbeHecatomsand mighty Oblations of the Gentiles^ it is delivered they facri-' 
ficed Gryphes or Griffins ; hereby we may undcrftand fome ftrongcr fort of 
Eagles. And therefore alfo when its faid in Virgil of an improper Match, or j 
Moffus marrying Njfa , JungefHur jam gryfhts eqms •, we need not htmc after ( 
other fenfe, then thac ftrange unions (hall be made , and different Natures be 
conjoined together. 

As for the teftimonies of ancient Writers, they are but dorivative, andter-; 
minate all in one Ariftcns a Poet of Pr$conefHs ; who affirmed that neer the '; 
Arimafpij or one-eyed Nation, Griffins defended the Mines of Gold. But this 
as HcroJotMs delivereth, he wrote by hearfay • and Michovius who hath ex- 
prefly written of chofe parts, plainly affirmeth, there is neither Gold nor Grif- 
fins in that Countrey, nor any fuch Animal extant •, for fo doth he conclude, 
Eg$ vero contra veteres authoresy Gryphes nee in ilia feptentrionisy ncc in aliis orhis 
fartibHs inveniri affirmarim. 

Laftly, Concerning the Hiero^yphical authority, although it neercft 
approacheth the truth , it doth not infer its exiftency. The conceit of the 
Griffin properly taken being but a fymbolical phancy ^ in fo intollerablc a (hape 
including allowable morality. So doth it well make out the properties of a ! 
Guardian , or any perfon enturfted •, the ears implying attention , the wings * 
celerity of execution, the Lion-Kke (hape , courage and audacity , the liooked 
bill, refervancc and tenacity. It is alfo anEmUone of valour and magnanimi- 
ty , as being compounded of che Eagle and Lion , the noUeft animals in their 
kinds-, and 10 is it appliable unto Princes , Prefidents, Generals, and allheroick 
Commanders •, and to is it alfo bom in the Coat-arms of qany noble tamiUes of 

But the original inTefition feemes to be Hien^ypbical , derived from the 
I ^£Xpiteiii> Md of an higher fignification. By the myftical conjundion of Hawk j 
and LydiisiniptyiQg either the Genial or the fyderous fun, the great cdericy chere- 
w^ ati4 (6e ftrec^th abd vigour in its operations. And tt^refore under Inch 
* Hiero- 

^] B o c ^ *"*' Cnrmon E s ii o k i . 

HicToglyphkJt* , Ofyru vvn defcntcd ; and tn ancient Coins , wc m«c with 
Gfjpfiiu confoinily with Jfofb's . Tnf§Au and Charitii wheel* , and the nu/- 
hlc Gtypbim at Sc. Ftttri to Ramr , as learned mm conjctfturc , were firft 
rrandaied from ihe Temple ui AfntSt. Wlicchcr Ivoeby were not alfo rayfti- 
tally implycd ific fldivity of the Siin in leo, the power of God in the Sun . 
or the influence of the CalcOial ofyris , by M*prl>ji the Gcniui of Xi/m , 
mi^ialfo be confidcrcd. Andthcn tbctarned A."»V/i<rw, noman wcrclikdy 
CO be a better Otdifm - 


C II A r . XII. 
of the Piwmx. 

THat there is but one Pboniix io ibe world , which after tnany hundred 
yeart bumetti it felf , and from the allict thereof arifcth up anijther, isi 
conceit not new or aliogetber popular , but of great Antiquity ^ not only de- 
livered by humane Authors, bat frequently cxprcffed by Imly Writeri, by 
Cjrii , Efifhatd^ and others , by Amhnfr, in his Hcxameron , and Teritit. 
'\a his Votm itJnJicK D«mini, but more agreeably unto the prclenifcnfCi in his 
excellent Tn A, itRtfitrreSitHt csrais. ISim dico alittn* tritntu fuultArtm, At ftir- 
tularitMt fiimfpiin . dt pvjlmtate monfirmfiim -, 9*1 {cvuiiffHm liOmttr fm»t- 
TAiu rtwvdt , n4t*h fte deeeJenj , iitxjiK ftKfeJtm ittrum Phamx. Vbi ;4j» 
mm$ .itirmaifff t t]"** ifij-mi, <f/iw it^m. The Scripture alto lectntto &- 
vourii, patcitularly that of ^0^21. In the imcrpretactoa of Sf<U, Dittb^tm 
im tajmla tHn m^ridr , ^ ficut Phanix mMinplic*h Ma : tai Pfai. Ji. lOun^ 
f-rmt <e'»'£ tt-'.'""' ■ *"' /"J**" "* Phamx fUreht , as TirtuSnut renders 

All which notwittiftanding, we cannot prefume tltc csiftcncc of thts Ani 
mal- nor dare we affirm there i* any Phcenii: in Mature, For , Ijrrt there 
wants hcre-.n tbedctinitivccontirniaior and idt of things uncertain, that is, ihc 
fcnle of man. Vor iIiourIi many Writer* have miKh enlarged hereon , yet is 
tliere not any ocular dcftriber , or fuch as prcfumcth 10 conlirm it upon 
afptiSion. And therefore Hendatm that led the ftorj* unto the Grttkj , pbio- 

I ly faith, hcDcveractaiiwdthedgbrof any, bmonlyiotbcpidure. 

I Again, IVimitivc Autiiors, and from whom the Hream of relatiowis deri- 

l.vuivc, deUvcrthemfelvesvcry dubioufly ; andciihcrby a doubtfrillpareotbe- 
i[U , or a timctoui Djotlufion ovenhrow the whole relation. Thuj HtroJetm 

I io his Euterpe , delivering the ftory hereof, preicnlly interpofctli, vW {liri »« 
y\y,-n< I that IS , wliith account feems to me improDaWc. TutUm in his ftA- 
ittU affordctlu larger ftory i how the l>hcmi!tw3s firft feen at Htlitp^lu'm \he 
rdgnuf Stfaftrtt, inen mthcttignof Am^fn, after in thcdaksof Pfltm^, the 
third of the MacedoniAn racfi but at lilt dius dctcrmineth , Std AntiitMrM 

i$ifemr4 ■, tf- m/awiii Jat/ma rffr himc Vhanittm, nrtjHt Arahiim i unk tYtiidert. 
Pliny loakes yet afaircr ftory^ that the Phcenix new into i^lJfi iniheO>n- 
fulftup of QwmM fUtKiMi , that it was brought to Rome in dte Cetiibrfliip 
of Cldudim, in tlw eight hundred year of the City , and leftifiedalfoin their 
records^ but aft*t all cuncludeih , Snl ^lu/aifii nfm»dMiiu6it, As weiead it 
in lite fair and ancient impreifion oi' BnftU , as AidnvmidM t liath quoted' St , 
[ f ml at tr i* tutmd in the mannfcripi Copy, asf>4/fvib.(jff^;'ivi tutballonotcd. . 

Q^2 More- 


"io8 I 

Mnquiries int$ Vulgar 

Bqq K 3 



Moreover , Such as have naturally difcourfed hereon , have fe diverfly ^ 
contrarily , or contradiAorily delivered chemfelves , that no affirmative from 
thence can refbnably be deduo^. For mod have politively denied it, and they { 
which affirm and beueve it. aflign this name unto many, and mifliake tviro or three ; 
in one. So hath thf t bird been taken for the Phcenix which liveth in Ardbia^ and 
buiideth its neft with Gnnamon ^ by Herodotus , called CinM4mulim^ and by ; 
Arifiotle^ CimtamomMs ^ and as a &bulous conceit is cenfureed by Scdiiger. ! 
Some have conceived that bird tobethePbcenix, which by a Perfidn name with 
the Gretks is called Rhjntace •. but how they made this good we find occafi- ■ 
on of doubt •, whilft we read in the life of Artdxerxesy that this is a little bird 
brought often to their tables, and wherewith ParjfAtU cunningly poifonedthe 
Queen. The ManucoUdU or bird of Paradife , hath had the honour of this ' 
name, and their feathers brought from thtMoluccas^ do pafs for thofe of the , 
Phoenix. Which though promoted by carity with us, the Eajhcn travellers will 
tiardly admit ^ who know they are common in thofe parts, and the ordinary 
plume of JanizAries among the Tttrkj. And laftly, the bird Semenda hach found 
the fame appellation, for fo hath Scaliger obferved and refuted ; nor will the fo- ' 
litude of the Phoenix allow this denomination ^ for many there are of that fpe- ' 
cies, and whofe orifilluUry bill and crany we have beheld ovf frlves. Nor are ! 
m^n onely at variance in regard of the Phoenix it felf, but very difagrceina in I 
the accidents a(crU)ed thereto : for fome affirm it iiveth three hundred , lome \ 
five, others fix, (bme'a.thouiand, <Hi»rs no lefi then fifteen hundred years • fome 
j^y it liveth in t/£tbi0fid^ others in AtmUm, fome in ty£mr, others in IndidjuA . 
jfome in Vtofid -, &>r £uch muft that be whidi is defcrtbed by LaEiantins ^ that is« ; 
which neither was (indgoi io the combuftion of Fluuton^ or overwhelmed by tht 
inundation of Dettcaiiin. i 

Laftly, I^bny Authors who have difcourfed hereof, have (6 delivered tbem- 
ielves, and with fuch intentions, we cannot irom thence deduce a confirmation. ' 
Forfome Imve written Poetically, as ^tMd,jliii»rxMii, Ldtlamim^CUndian^ and, 
others : Some have written MyilicaUy, as P4riirr//#/ in his book deAz^th^ix^\ 
li£fi9 & lines viu ) and as feveral Hermeticai Pbilofophers, involving therein ! 
the fecret of their Elixir, and enigmatically exprcffing the nature of their great j 
W<M:k. Some have written Abetorically, and conceffively , not controverting ! 
W afluming the queftion, which taken as granted, advantaged the iUatton^ So ' 
bave holy men made nfe hereof as far as thereby to confirm the Refurredion •, 
for iiiifcouriing ^ith Heatfaenswho granted^he ftory of thePhcenix, they induced 
the kefurreOion firom pdnciples of their own , and pofitions received among 
thcmfelves. Others have fpoken .Emblematically and Hierogly phically -, and to 
did the ^^gjftigns^ unto whom the Phcsnix was the Hierogly phick of che Sup. ' 
And this wa^ probably the ground of the whole Relation •, fucceeding ages ad- ! 
4ttig ^Hilous accounts, wmch hud together 5uilt i^ this fingolarity, which every 

As for the Texts of Scriptutc , which feem co confirm tlur concdt , duly 
fcrpehded, thef ^add not thoreunto. For whereas in that of fob , accord*- 
iog to theSeptuagint or Greek Tranflation w€ find the word DhaDoiic , yet 
can it have no Animal fignification ; for therein it is not exprefled ^7^if, 
W siA«;tf« ^tAviWi the trunk of the Pahn-tree , which is alfo ^led Phoe* 
qix ^ and therefore the conftruftion will be very bard , if not applied tinto 
foott vegietahle Nature. Nor caniive fiifcly infift upon the Greek expneiion at 
eXi^ kic though the Vulg^ tranflates it PaIwu , and fome retain the ;wH:d 
Qbmiic^ othersdo renderitbyawordof adifEerenc £enfe-, ibrfo hathTVij^-^ 
tiffs ddivercd it : Dicebdm qiod MpfdffidfiffffffeMft^exfirMbo, & ficfttsrettAfifMl- 
ti$Mi^Se^\ fo faaththe(/rir£tM9iul.ourscranflacedit, I £iidl ihalldicinxiiy 
Neft, andfliall imklciply my diies^ asithe &nd. A&forithat in the Jiook ofPliilois, 


Booi: 3. 

Mud CwtmM Ju K «. A s . 



f'lr fufiui Mt Ph^mx 
lyamilliiJicupund'i- I 
a Pjlm-trcc. Whii..'' ■ 
fernng a common u 
oiton i purging ) l- 
at fiinjiklivcti, iln. 

Nor duwc oiicly a.'rj-jjn riK-v^i'.' 
qudiionablc wbkfi arc jlqibed tU7ci 
rauoa. A* for lU unity 01 tofiroai 
JIM oacly rcfiygaint irnio P!"'' ' ";• 
»fiirm», weiK wctiEof c»ery 1 
wiLeicxr, Every foKlri/tri 
the AtJi.cwoaxult^vc-" U ■ ' 
that o'ciuuj, wenc 

diifliOfiof God Cljr; 

fuHacJmuliiply, .u. 


11 itiid TV /-f «;yM« rtfiuli*: ii. 

r(\v»qff- I 

I lie riiitiiix ii>r i[i iii^icJiCiJt 1 
1 oi' tite PiIin-trec,from whcct e. 



.rnaiettt alj lidli- ic initingahtJicUene- 
jiKin. God blcflbl thcTTj, Uyifig, Be iViut- 
in i!ie la.'-, and let Ti'wl omitii^Jy in ilie 
cariii i And ajjaip, liring loftltwaii tlicc, ci-ery living thing, tluiihcy may 
brrcd abu^iiiintly intbecartli, and i*c fruiitull and nuiiuply upon the catth] 
viindi tcxmt arcj^oiappliabWuDtoiticI^biwaiK ^ wbcreof liierc it hut one inths 
woilil, and nu more now living iJicn at tbt df ll bcnrdi^oD. For the ptodudiuo 
of odc.Ikiii^ the dcflrurtionof another, aUliuug)) ihcy prwlucc and generate; 
tliey cDCTtrjfe HOC :, 3rd mull Gut t)c f^id 10 oitiltipiy, who do 001 tranfcoid aa 

As forlot^vity, that it livcth a tlioufaod yesrsoc inorc^ bc£de tbac'froni 
imiicrfcdobJcrvanons and rarity o^'appcvancc, no ccofbroiulcMicanbcniade^ 
[berc iniy be probibly a nuDbkcin tlic cosipote. For tlic tradition being vcrf 
ancient and probably /Egyptian, the Gneki who difpcrlnl the fid>lc, migltt 
fumm up the uaonni by their own numeration of years ; wlKrns tbe coi^ 
ccirmiglithavc its original in iiHwtof ttiortercornpiue. focit'weliippofe our 
prcTcnc talciuatioii, iJic Pbccnixnow ui luiure vi'tW be ilie i\u from tncCrea' 
tion^ but in ihv middle of iisyeaif; Kidit'iiicTfii^^wrpEoplKcyfuctccd, QuU 
conclude ics daic^, not in i» own, bucihc la(l and general Qioia, without alt 
boprof Kcviviftiofl. 

Concerfiiiig iu generation, Una witboui alt conjuodiOD it b^ns and tie 
fcniinaw^ it (elf, hereby wc introduce a vegiublc iicoduttior in AoinntJs , aod 
unto fcnfiUi: natures , transfer the propriety of plants ; tbar i-; to multiply 
wiihiu theinfclvc», Uie Lsw of t|>c Creation J-ct the csrdi bring forwi 
gr^r*, die berb yiclding£n»l , and the trccyieldiog friuc. wbofe l£cd h in its feU' 
Wbitb a icdecd die natural ivay of p>lam» , who JiaA^ing no dilhnctioo of feX, 
ajid the power of [he fpecics comainod io_CVcry i»«l»*i(4*«w, be^tand propa- 
ate tbeinfelves wuiiout coiDmiui(>n .^ Ofld rliervlbre ihdr fruiu proceeding 
total limplcr rool5, arc opt (o lUiUke , or diduigoinuiblc Irom cadi other, as 
ate iheoff-fpricgsof fenfible ctcaturo aoO proliiicatJon» dcfccRdingfromcloii* 
ble originals. Itot Animal generaron Is sctoimplilhcdby more, andtbecon- 
lUTTcncc of twn uxci 15 ro«juirt»l to the conUitutton ul' one- And iheicinre 
futlt at have nn tliftiiwnon of fex , engender not at all, KArt^ctU concaves 
ofl:^, and telb;ix>U5 Aniinalii. Aod ibougb pUm<3iiiBUilsdo moitiply, they 
doit iMt by D]pLila!kuj), but inawayamdogous unto pliitts. So Hcmusfhra- 
Jitei aldiijugb ihi-y iaclude die part« oi both fexes, and may be fufiicicndy 
potent in either; yet unto a tonccptiou rc()uit« « foparaccd lex , and can- 
not impceigiiaiiitliiimfclves. Aqd loalfu ihoa^j4ilam indoilcd allhutnaoe na- 
ture , or v/u ( as ivaic opinson ) aaHerpfffiirMiitf , yethad he nopower i» 
ptopagawhimlclf, and tiitxdoct GodJlkiJ, Uisjiot gotld thai roan vtXi\M be 



Thu the 




110 \ 

Enquiries into Vulgar 

Book 3 




alone , let us make him an help meet for him ^ chat is , an help unto generati- 
on •, tor as for any other help , it had been fitter to have made another man. 
Now whereas K>me affirm that from one Phcenix; there doth not immediatly 
proceed another, but the firft corrupteth into a worm, which after becpmetha 
Phcenix, it will not make probable tnis production. Por hereby they confound 
the generation of perfect animals with imperfect/anguineous with exanguious.ver- 
miparous with oviparous, and ered Anomalies, difturbing the laws of Naf^ure. 
Nor will this corruptive produftion be eafily made out in moftimperfeft genera, 
tions*, for although we deny not that many Animals are vermiparous, begetting 
themfelves at a diltance, and as it were at the feoond hand (as generally Infeds, 
and more remarkably Butterflies and fiUuworms) yet proceeds not this genera- 
tion firom a corruption of themfelves, but ratHer a fpecifical and feminall dif- 
fofion, retaining flill the Idea of themfelves, though it ad that part a while in 
ocber (hapes. And this will alfo hold in generations equivocal , and fuch as are 
not begotten from Parents like themfelves -^fo from frogs corrupting, proceed not 
Frogs again *, fo if there be anatiferous trees , whofe corruption breaks 
forth into Bernacles, yet if they corrupt, they d^enerate into Maggocs, which 
produce not them again. For this were a confufion of corruptive and ieminal 
production, and a fruftration of that feminal power committed to animals at the 
creation. The probleme might have been fpared,Why we love not our Lice as well 
as our Children ? No^hs Ark had been needlefs : the graves of animals would 
be the fruitfiiUeft wombs ^ for death would not defhroy ^ but empeople the work! 

Since therefore we have fo flender grounds to confirm the exiftcnce of the 
Phcenix -, fmce there is no ocular witnefs of it ^ fince as we have declared , by 
Authors from whom theftory is derived, it rather fhnds rejected ^ fince they 
"who have ferioufly difcourfed hereof, have delivered themfelves negatively , 
diverfly , or contrarily •, fince many others cannot be drawn into Argument, as 
writing Poetically , Rhetorically, Enigmatically , Hieroglyphically •, fince holy 
Scripture alledged for it duly perpeneded, doth not advantage it^ and lafUy, 
fince fo flrange a generation , unity and long life , hach neither experience nor 
reafon to confirm it ^ how far to rely tfh tms tradition , we refer unto con- 

But furely they were not wcll-wifhers unto parable Phyfick , or remedies 
eafily acquired , who derived medicines from the Phoenix ^ as fome have 
done, ana are juftly condemned by Plinj ^ Irridere eft , viu remeiia fo/l mil- 
lefimum Mmum reSturd monftrare ^ It is a folly to Hnd out remedies tnat are 
not recoverable under a thoufand years*, or propofe the prolonging of life by 
that which the twentieth generation may never behold. More veniable is a 
dependance upon the Philofophers ftone , potable gold , or any of thofe Ar^ 
canaV, whereby Pardcelfm that died himfelf at forty feven , gloried that he 
could make other men immoctai. Which , although extreamly difficult , and 
t ant urn non infefible , yet are they not impoiGble ^ nor do they ( rightly under- 
ftood ) impofe any violence on Nature. And therefore if ilrictly taken 
for the Phoenix, veryfbangeis that which is delivered by Plutarch^ That the 
brain thereof is a pleafant bit, but that it caufeth the head-ach. Which notwitb- 
flanding the luxurious Emperour could never.talle ^ though he had at his Table 
maity a Phoenicopterusi , yet had be not one Phoenix • for though he expeAed 
and attempted it, we readnot in LamfriJius that be performed it ; and confider^ 
ing the unity thereof, it was a vain defign, that is, to deffax>y any fpecies, or Mu- 
tilate the great accomplifhment of fix daies. And although fome conceive, and 
it may feem true, chat there is in man a natural poflibility to deftroy the world 
inonegenera^tion, that is, by a general confpire to know no woman themfelves, 
and difable all others alfo : ycc will this never be effeded. And therefore Cdim 
after ; 

.t/td_ Cetfim^a E a n. o a * . 

Boot J. 

xfur he lud tutted jibtl, were tlicre no Qtlicr woman living, couM not have nltb 
JriUoyciJ £w -■ wlikb a rtjiuralpowfl locffctft.yettliewecti- 
(loii thereof, the piovidencc ol God wuuld have tdillcU ■■ (or rliar would luyc 
inipol~(;Janoiht;rtreaiionu]ionhiin,itii4if)ttdvciauiui{c<i a ii\Oi'Mi\Ki\>oi jUa^. 

<tH AP. XIII. 

of-Fn^i, Tetit AndT»adfi$nt. 

COmernJng tie vtneroous nrine of Toads, nf the (lone milic luads heaj , 
anj of rfic gencrancmtit' Frofj^, tonrcptitins ate cntm«ii»i whith re- 
qiurc coollilnaiion, Antllir'', linii toad piffcth, aniiiliii way ditfafeth its 
mc, IS gCDcraiiyrwiavciJi not only with hi, butalfo in odierpartsi for 
cti Jw/'^rr obicrvpi in bs Comment, Avcrf>im tirinjm rtiUrrr tt cmht 
:ti(tru permfcufitmritnis^u frrftuifum efi -^ iUid Mdti:i4m Iiithsiro apal- 
', datnTtMd conmjuniciucs Its vcnooij nut only by unnc, but bythchu- 
[uy, sDiifUvcrot'iuniouib: which ntitwidillanding liriftly undcrlSood, will 
(not coniit\ with truiii. 1 or lofpcaK properly, a Toad pi/Tcch not : nor do tlicy 
'ootium [hole iiritury, part? w tuthate found m other Animal*, to avoid that (i- 
roiis extreuon : fortdoughnwoocly birds, but oviparous ((uadrupedsand Ser- 
pents have hidncysand. Ureters, andfotnchilhesalfo fcladdcri : v« forihc inoift 
and dry est raion ihcy have but one vent and tomaion place of extlu[ion : sod 
with the fame propriety of language, we may afcnbc th;it adjoa unio Crowj 
and'Kitc*. Awl tiiis isnotonely vcriticd in Irogs and Toads, but may be en- 
quired in Tonoyfcs : whether that be Itriftly true, or to be taken for a diflinrt 
and IcparatemiCTion, whcnv^fj/iw/f afiirmctb, that no oviparou; Animal, tluK 
is, whicheiiherfpawn«hor,layctIiF,ggs.dothUrmc,csccptthe Tonoyfc. 

The ground or ocalion of this cxprclUon might from benccarifc, tljat Toiiflj 
urefomctimcsobfcrvcdio cxcludeorfpirt out adarka/id liquid matter behind: 
which wc have obfcrvcd to be true , and, a venemous condition there may be 
perhaps therein, but it cannot be tailed their Urine: not bciaofc it is emilic4 
avcrlly or backward, by both Sexes, but bccaufc ic is coofoundcd with the iito 
leflinal cxtrctions, and Egeflions of the bcHy. 

As for tlie Uone commonly called a Toad.lU)nc, which U prcfumed to ^ 
found m the bead of that Animal, we iirlt conceive it not a thing impofUbt^. : 
nur \i theieany fubdantial rcafon, why ina Toadtlicremay iioibe foundfiich 
hard and Ia[>idcouscoiicrecioni. t<jr the like we daily obffrvc m ihe heads of 
Vif)ve«,3iCod$, Carps, and I'earches: thcliJieallomSnaiU , a fuftandexolTv-oiu 
Animal, whcrcoi m ibc naked and greater fort, as tljoiigli flie would riwiyjte, Nature nccr the head hath placed a flat wliite 
(lone, or rather icitatcoHs concretion. Which ihougli ^/i-aiMix* affirms, 
that after diflcdion of many.hclbundbut inlome few ; yet of ibc great gray 
Snails, I havci:o: met with any that wanted it : and the fame indeed ti» palpable, 
that without dilTcction u is dilcovcrablc by the hand. 

Again, tlioughii be doc impolllble, yet it is furdy vety V\.VK : as we are 
induced tobclicvc from fomc enquiry of oiir own : tirom [lie trial of many who 
have been deceived ^ and the frullraccd (earth of f*r;«, who upon the «- 
ploremcnt of many . could fcarcc hndc one. Nor Is it only of rarity , but may 
be doubted whciher it be of cxificnty , or really any fuch (lotic m the head 
ot aTojd at all. lor altliough I^fiMtrits andqueUujry inquirers affirm it , 
yet [he writers of mineral* and natural fpcculaiors , ate ot another belief: 
conceiving the ftoucs wl^ch bear ibis n^me , to be a Mineral concrciio;i : 
aor ro be knioA in animals, but in fields. And titcreforc Bxslm refers it to 
Af it' 


Enquiries into Vulgar 

B oo K 3 

Vi Mineral 

jtf»/iei CMlceo- 
kr'umi. Se^.j* 

Animals^ fuck 
as live in both 
clemenrs of 
land and wa- 


Afteria or fome kind of Lapis JieBar id ,^ni plainly concludech , referiuntur in 
airis^ quostameuMlii in annofts ^ac qui Mu inAruncUnctis^ inter rubQS fentefqtte 
dcUtuerHnt , bufoHis cafitib us ^nerMrifertinaciter affirmant- 

Laftly , If any fuch thing tnere be, yet muft it hot for ought I fee , beta- 
ken as we receive it , for a loofe and moveable (lone , but rather a concre 
tion or indurarion of the crany it ifclf •, for being of an earthy temper, liv- 
ing in the earth, and asfome fay feeding thereon, fuch indurations may fome- 
times happen. Thus when Brafavolw after a long fearch had difcovered one, he 
affirms it was rather the forehead bone petrified , then a ftone within the cra- 
ny ; and of this belief was Gefner. Which is alfo much confirmed from what 
is delivered in Aldrovandns , upon experiment of very many Toads ^ whole 
cranies or skuls in time grew bard , and almoft of a ftony fubftance. All 
which confidered, we muft with circumfpeftion receive thofe Hones, which 
comtnonly bear this name , much lefs believe the traditions, that in envy to man- 
kind they are caft oat, or fwallowed down by the Toad-, which cannot con- 
fift with Anatomy y and with the reft , enforced this cenfure from Bcstius^ Ah cq 
tempore fro nugis habui quod de Btrfonio lapide^ ejufejue origine traditur. 

What therefore beft reconcileth thefe divided determinations, may be a mid 
die opinion •, that of thefe ftones fome are mineral , and to be found in the 
earth •, fome animal , to be met with in Toads , at leaft by the induration of 
cbeir cranies. The firft are many and manifold, to be found in Germanj and 
other parts-, thelaft are fewer in number, and in fubftance not unlike the itones 
in Craps heads. This is agreeable unto the determination of Aldrovandus , and 
is alfo the judgement of learned Sfigelins in his Epiftle unto ^iPignorius. 

Concerning the generation of Frogs , we (hall briefly deliver that account 
which obfervation bath taught us. By Frogs I underftand not fuch as arifing 
from putrefaftion, are bred without copulation, and becaufe they fubfift not 
long , are called Temporaria ^ nor do I mean the little Frog of an excellent 
Parrat'green, that ufually fits on tr^s and Bufiies, and is therefore called Rm- 
nuncHlus viridis^ or arborius •, but hereby I underihind the aquatile or water- 
Frog ^ whereof in ditches and ftanding plalhes we may behold many millions 
every Spring in England. Now thefe do not as P/iVr; conceivetb, exclude black 
pieces of fleih, which after become Frogs - but they let fall their fpawn in the 
water, of excellent ufe in Phyfick, and fcarcc unknown unto any. In this fpawn 
of a lentous and tranfparent body, are to be difcerned many fpccks, or little 
conglobations,which in a fmall time become of deep black -, a fubftance more com- 
pafted and terreftrious then the other -, for it rifeth not in diftillation, and af*^ 
fords a powder, when the white and aqueous part is exhaled. Now of this 
black or duskie fubftance is the Frog at laft formed ^ as we have beheld, in- 
duding the fpawn with water in a glafs , and expofing it unto the Sun. For chat 
black and round fubftance , in a few dales began to dilate and grow longer, after 
a while the head , the eyes , the tail to be d^cernable , and at kft to become 
that which the Ancients cd\kd Gjrinusy weaPanr/g/f or Tadpole. This infome 
weeks after, becomes a perfcft Frog, the legs growing out before , and the tail 
wearing away, tofupply the other behind -, as maybe obfervedin fome, which 
have newly forfaken the water : for in fuch, fome part of the tail will be feen , 
but curtaird and (hort, not long and;finnv as before. A part provided them a 
while to fWim and move in the water, tnat is, untill fuch time as nature ex- 
cluded legs, whereby they might be provided not only to fwim in the water, but 
move upon the land-, according to the amphibious and mixt intention of na- 
ture, that is, to live in both. So that whoever obferveth the HrftprogrefTion of 
the feed before motion , or (hall uke notice of the ftrange indifnndion of 
parts in the Tadpole , even when it moveth about , and how fucceffively the 
inward parts do feem co difcover themfelves, untill their laft perfeAion ^ may 
' e afily 

R-,,Bt>qs J, 

*i»d CmMit E% 


ifily difccrn tlie bigli cunotily of nanin; in [(kA: iuferiourauiuteU, uj vhu < 

lobgrinf uruntomokeaFrog. ; 

And becaufc nuny afHrnt, and foine <l<tiver, ttncinret'anti: Itnih lun^ afiJ 

iteailietii. a Irog msy be eifily drowncJ-, ''■ ■'• •'•■ '■■';>n be probable, I , 

'ittnocclic capcn'mcnt anfw^blc; ioihW r.niintlor ivaier, I 

livtsl altnvli Ilk diin. Nor ii '\i uiily ' ^ in wiicr, but 

[jfiicttit alio ac IiikI ; &ir it will live lung,,.... ... .... , ,.„J licarc bcuorj 

loiv lung ic iviU live in tbe feed, ut wticU)^- tUc ipawo ui iIjh year bcuig pfc- ' 
ia\ti, will not arilr iti£0 trvgt in cbe ocst , iniglic alio be ci^^iiircJ i oad \ 
Wcirc pi(.i..!rtJi.)Crii;. . I 

■V a 


Cm *?. XIV. 
0/ the Saldm*ailtr, 

T^i a Salamander is ableiolive tn ddmcf^ to endumnJ f m out fiti^ 
isanalTcrtiun, not only of great Aniit|uiiy, but <onlinnw by treiiucntj 
and not contctni'tihJt! tdHnjony. The t^-Hufiiaas bave drawn it into iheil 
Hicroglyphicliii ArifiatU fccmcth to embacc it-, more plainly NicMnder 
SHT-fDHs Samtmmnit, ofAio and PUnJ , wfio afn^m rhccaufe of ^i> eflvA ; 
An Animall ( faith be } fo cold fhat it exiJnguiuWtb the Hre like [ce. All 
wtucli notwithrtanding, there i« on tbc negative,- Autliotity and experience ^ 
Jfar/m/aPhyfitian-, as Wijtjdelivcrcilt. denied tins effcft •, DhfioriJrt atRrmed 
it a puint.oV fully ro beli<^ve it -, G^im dm it cnJurech ilie (ire a while , but 
continuance «tonfiimed therein, lot ciperimemail tonviftion, Mdthiolitt 
irnictb , be faw a Sjilamandcr burnt in a very Ihort Uine ^ nnd of the k\e 
Tcrtion is Amaiat L:t{it,mtir ; and inolV plainly fimm , wliofc words iu W* 
'tiietoglyp!i.<:ks ate riteiV; Whereas it in ronfiiionly laid , tbac a Saliiaiaridei 
^ cuinguiiiie:li fjrc, we Imvc found byexpericnce, itiatiif fo far fr^mKjucndi' 
' ing hot tuals, that ic dicth immcJutly ilieiein. A* tor t^e contrary afler- 
I lioo oi jir.fiiilv, ii iibuiby Ivearfav , ascouinion optmonbclicvci[i,//««iM 
I ( IU mum } i^KfM inf recent , turn txtm^nit ; and tbcrcfiirc there was no abfur- 
tUtyin tjH/cn^yfilica asa Sepiical. medicine he commended tbc aftiesof a Sala 
ma der; and Afj^iei^at .in vain (Vow tiic power of this tradition , at the 
, burningoftownsorboiifescxpcd a relief from Salamander*. 
j TIic ground of ilus optnkm, mi^it bcfomc fennWcrcfrftanccof fircobferv- 
ed in die Salamander: wbidibeing, deiemiincih , cold in ihcfoiirth 
and mc;vt m tlic tbird degree , and having alio a mucous bumidlt)' above and 
[ind?riJii'(J.rt, by vcriuc thereof it may a while endure tbc flame; wbith being 
conl"unicJ^itt,i:i teiiU no more. Such an humidity th'^rt; isobfcrvcdiq Nicwp-v 
or W3tci-Li;j,rd!^, ef|xci*lly if their skinibj pfrtmatid or (vitked, , 'ji|Hm('itl 
l/ogi and ^iimis enaurctlic finnie i thus will wlut« of eggs, viirw^s orglaf-i 
licflc^ euinginlh a coal: tlws sec ungutncs iiiavic wlutli protctS a while 
from the tire: ntid ttms belide ilu: Hirfim iberc iie Uicrilorifsof oienthat 
have pifi'd unniutlittiu-.iugh lire- And tlierciuie fouic truth wc allow in ibc 
, tradituto ! tni::i .lACfrdinp itiHo 0'*/o», tlji it nay ioi' « tiui^rcliftafiame , 
or as J.../, . ':. i.A\\ iir put out a toal: for thus iiilkIi willmany 
Bunud h- i\m ic p;,Trevae4andliiCiin ihru dL-!irurtivee!c- 
ment.iiii ... iCE. Nor do we reaftiiuMy conclude, bctaufc for 
i ^aax It enuui ein are , ii lubdueUi and <»tinguti1ietli (be fdinc , becaufe by a 
I R , wtd 




Geiim u 

Enquiries into Fnlgar 

Boo K 3 

decermine which is the head ^ and therefore fome obferving them to move 
both waies , have given the appellation of heads unto both extreams , which 
is no proper and warrantable denomination^ for many Animals with one 
head , do ordinarily perform both different and contrary Motions ; Crabs 
move fideling^ Lobfterswill fmimfwifUy backward. Worms and Leeches will 
move both waies ^ and fo will moft of thole Animab , wbofe bodies confift of 
round and ammlary fibers, and move by undulation, that is^ like the waves of 
theS^a, the one protruding the other y by in verfion whereof they make a back- 
ward Motion. 

Upon the fame ground hatharifen the fame miflake concerning the Scolopen- 
dra or hundred-footed Infea, as is delivered by RhoMiinus from the fcholiafl 
of NicMider : Dicitstr i NicMndro^ clu^^ik, $4 ffi Mcefhaitu dut hiceps fifimm 
vero^ qncmMtn retrorfum ( ut fcribit Ariftotttes ) arrehit , obferved by Aldro-^ 
vMnitu^ but moft plainly by MnffetHj, who thus concludeth upon the text of 
Nicander : Tdmen pace tanti amhoris dixerim , tinicnm iUi duHtdxat CMfUt /r- 
cet pari facilitate^ prorfum capite, retrorfum dttcentecandayiitcedaty efttodNican* 
dro aliifiiue impofmjfe dubito : that is , under favour of fo great an Author, 
the Scolopendra hath but one hiad, although with equal facility it moveth for- 
ward and backward^ which I fufpeft deceived Nicander and others. 

Chap. XVI. 

Of the yifer. . 

T Hat the young Vipers force their way through the bowels of their Dam, 
or that the mnale Viper in the ad of generation bites off the head of the 
Male, in revenge whereofthe young ones eat through the womb and bdly 
of the Female, is a very ancient tradition. In this fenfe entertained in the Hie- 
roglyphicks of the Egyptians j affirmed by Heroditus, Nicander, Plinj^ Plu- 
torch y L/£iiaH^ Jerome , Baftl , Ifidore , feems countenanced by Jriftotle , and 
his fcbolar Theofhrafius : from hence is commonly afligned the reafon why 
the Ronfdns punilhed Parricides by drowning them in a fack with a Viper *, 
and fo perhaps upon the fame opinion the men of Melita when they faw a Vi- 
per upon the hand of Paul , £iid prefently without conceit of any other fin. 
No doubt this man is a murtherer ^ who though he have efcaped the Sea, 
ytt vengeance fuffereth him not to live. That is , he is now paid in his own 
I way , the parricidous Animal and punifhment of murtherers is upon him. 
And though the tradition were currant among the Greeks , to confirm the 
£ime the Latinenameis introduced, Vipera qnaft vi pariat- That paffage al- 
fo in tfie Gofpel : O ye generation or Vipers, hath found ezpofitions which 
countenance this conceit. Notwithfbmding which authorities, tranfcribed re- 
lations and conjectures , upon enquiry we nnd the fame repugnant unto expe- 
rience and reafon. 

And (a&^ it feems not only injurious unto the providence of Nature , to 
ordain a way of produftion which fhould deftroy the producer , or contrive 
the continuation of the fpecies by the defhiidion of the Continuator ^ but 
it overthrows and fruftrates the great Benedidion of God, which is expreffed. 
jGrpd bleffcd them, faying. Be fruitfoll and multiply. Now if it be fo ordabed 
^t fome moSk regularly perifli by niultiplicadon , and thefe be the fruits of 
frudifying in the Viper^ it cannot be iaid that God did blels,but curie this animal, 

Book j. 

Mad Ctmmstt Errors. 

tit I 

in thy belly (VjIi [fiou go. andduftflialtilitiUfaiadilij'tifc, wajnotlbcrrtt 
[jtnrflhracDt tuwmbe Scrptui after diir lall, .is encrraro, he fruicJulland xavAu- 
«(y, was before. Tim wcte [OtonfiiunilchcMalniiruonsot'tjii*!, andtranfliitc 
ilfcecarfettf tlieWonmo upon llic Serpent ; tliai b, i» diiart fMritt, in forrow 
[flair ttiou bring li.rth-. wbuli bting proper unrothcWtmun, isvcrified bdtjn 
'"kbe Viper, whiifc deliver) nnfc only aiioinpanieJ witii pain, but ajfb with' 
death ic fdf. AeiI bttjy . it overthrow* the carcfull couriir , ami pir cnoill ijrovl- i 
(ion of* nature , wdereby the young cmet nftvly ciduHed are follaincd tyibc 
D«m-. and protctced tinidl they grow up to* liifficiency ibc dicmfcivn, AQ i 
wliich 15 pcri cried in this eruptive generation: lor the Dam bcinp ddlroycdj^ 
the youngling* arc left to thcit own portection : whwh is not cimeeiiaElc they c«n 
at all perlotm , and whereof iliey afford uf a rcmiirktbte lonHrmancc mimy 
daics iu'ctt birth. Vor the young onejfuppofcdtokeak throw the belly ofthc 
I Dam, wJI upon anyfrigtitlbr protection run into it ■, for tbcn theoldoner^ 
ccives them m at lier mouth, which w.iy the fnght being paft, ihcy will re- 
turn again-, wliich is a peculiar way of rcfiigc ^ and akboughuicon (Ixange, 
u avowed by frequcii: cxpcncnce and undeniable tcflimony, 

A) for i))C cji[<ehinent, although we have thrice aiemptcd it . it batli ttOt 
well fuccecd.-d j fur ihougli wc foJ them with null; , bran, chcefe, (^. 
the lemales alwaics died before the young ones wei-c mature for this erupti- 
on i but rcit futficientiy confirmed in the expcrimenu of worthy enquirers. , 
Wherein to omit the ancient conviction of ApoBsniut , we (hall fet down 
fomc firw of modern Writen. The firft , of j1m*im Lufitmas in his comment 
upon Diopwidcf , FiMnWi mt viftrtJ fy^iMHtts itK-litfAi fixitUttit fsrtrt , 
iftu iitde tx fMTtn nee mtrttu , lUf vifceritu/ perforMU manferimi. The fc- 
cond is that of ScMtiirr , yifo-At *h hnfAtitniilnn nurx fttci^nf HMMirafff}- 
mii rMimpi M^ftt tmenrt fxlfum'ifft fcimm , ^m in t^nermit CMmrini cir- 
cmliinru Hj^Kta thttd vidmUt , riMiM vifirtSM , f*rtmt [aIvm. The lift and 
molt plain of FnmciTcm SMpnmnminia^ a StumP) Pbyfitian of AUnU dt 
Hfnsret , whofc words in his third de Amm*mihMi Sn-iftur* , are thel'c : Cum 
wreftr mt & ftr alitt lute *pf» diftiiujilfrm fervMtA Ftpti-iiiA prt£eiiit , &c. 
tliai ii , when by my fell" and others i had cnquircdtbetruibhcreof, includ- 
ing Vipers inagbls, and feeding tlicm with thccfc and bian-, I undoubt- 
edly found that the Viper was not delivered by the twrlng of her bowels-, 
but I beheld them excluded by the palTagc of generation , near the orifice 
of the fcidgc. Wlicrcto we might dtb add the ocular confirmation of Ljf 
cH/tA upon Dicfitridti , ferdinmdMi ImfirAlHs , and that learned Phyfititt 
of NtifUi , Atrtltmi SrvtrinMi. , 

Now altlujugh the Irsdition be untrue, there wanted not many grounds 
which made it I'laulibly received. The 'firlt was a fivoliraWe indulgenccand 
Special contnvaiKC of nature 3 which was the conceit of Hn-odottn ', who 
out deliTercth hifi;fclf. Tcirfiill Animals, and fnch as fcrvc for food^ 
i cure hath made more fruitful! ■, but upon the offcnliveand noxiousJcind , (he 
j bath not conferred Imiltty. !)o the Hare ihnt bcromcih a prey unto man _ 
UDto bcafb , and fowls of the air , k truttfoll even tofuperfztatton , but the 
Lyon a fierce and ferocious Animall (lath young ones but feldom , and alfo 
boc one at a time ^ Vipert indeed , although dcHruAive , are fruitliill -, but 
left their number Oioola rncrcafe', providence hath contrived another way to 
abate it : fur in copulation ihe female bites olT the head of the male and the 
young ODFJ deftroy the mother. But thit will aOi conlid we 
oave declared bci'o.c. And if wc more nearly confidcr the condition of 
Vipers and noKioui Animals, we (hall difcovcr an higher provifion of nature: 
bow although in their paucity (he hath not abridged tneir malignity : yet 
lia^fhc notorioufly cScAcdit by their fcccflion or Utitaocy. [-Or not only 

other j\f\ft- 

* Enqf^iries tnu Vulgdr 

Book J 

found ibme' 
timet upoa 
the inrOaxxtt^ 
four lines un- 
to the vemcy 
and fix from 
thence unto 
the bead. 

ofTenfive infeds, as Hornets, Wafps, and the like *, but fanguineous cordcaced 
Animals , as Serpents , Toads and Lizzards , do lie hid and betake chem- 
felves CO coverts in the y^inter. Whereby moft countries enjoyning che im- 
munity of Ireland and Candle ^ their arifeth a temporal fecurity from their vc- 
nomes ^ and an intermiflion of their miichiefs , mercifully requiting the time 
of their activities. 

A fecond ground of this effeft, was conceived the juftice of Nature, where- ■ 
by (he compenfates the death of the father by the matricide or murder of the 
mother ^ and this was the expreflipn of Nicander. But the caufe hereof is 
as improbable as the ef&d ^ and were indeed an improvident revenge injtbe 
vyoung ones , whereby in conCequence , and upon defed of provilioo they 
inuft deiftroy themlHves. And whereas be expreflcth this decollation of the 
male by fo full, a term as ^rrviu'rW, that is, to cut or lop off, the aft is burdly 
conceiveable ^ for the female Viper hath but four cpnfiderable teeth , and I 
thofc fo difpofed , fo (lender and needle pointed , that they are apter for pun- 
fture then any act of incifion. And if any like action there be , it may be 
only fome fall retention or fudden compreiiion in the Orgafmus or fury of: 
their luft ^ according as that exprefGon of Horace is conllrued concerning > 

( LjdU and Tflefhus. She pner furens^ 

Imfrejfit mem^rm dente labri^ notam. 

Others afcrjbe this effed unto the numerous conception of the Viper ^ and 

ibis was the opinion of ThecfhraJ^ns. Who . though he denieth (he exeHon '■ 

or forcing through the belly ,^ conceiveth nevertheleft that upon a full and i 

plcntifull impletion there may perhaps fuccced a difruption of the matrix , 

as it t)[appeqeth fometimes in the long and (lender fifli jicuj. Now although 

in hot Countries , and very numerous conceptions , in the Viper or otljcr 

Animals , there may fometimes enfue a dilaceration of the genital parts • 

yet is this a rare and contingent effect , and not a naturall and confUnt 

way of excluHon. Tor the wife Creator bath formed the organs of Animals 

unto their operations , and m whom he qrdaineth a numerous conception 

in them he hath prepared convenient receptacles, and a futable way of exclufion! 

Others do ground this difruption upon ^heir continued or protracted 

time of ' delivery , prefumed to laft twenty daies^' whereat, excluding ^ 

one a day , the latter brood impatient , by a forcible proruption anticipate 

their period of exclufion ; and this was the affertign oiF Plinj • Cateri tarS^ 

tdtis imfAtientes frorumPum latera ,. occua farentc ^ which was occafioi^ up. 

on a miftakc of the Creek text in AriftotU ^ iu.!^ i\ i, fjua, iu%2^ ypff cr, 

77Jt7H </« ttXho^ h €/)U)(nr, which are literally thus tranflated , Parit nmtm mu 

diefecHndHm unnm , parit oMtem f lures qnum vigtnti , and may be thus En- 

g^imed , She bringeth forth in one day , one by one , and fometimes more 

then twenty ^ and fo hath Scaliger rendered it , SigiUatim parif , ahfojjtit 

una dieyinterdum f lures quam viginti: But Plinj whom Ga^ foUowetb, hach 

differently tranflated it , SinguUs diehus fingulu parit , n$$mero fere viginti • 

whereby he extends the exclufion unto twenty daies , which in the textuary 

fenfe \s nilly accomplifhed in one. 

But what hath mofl. advanced it , is a milUke in another text of Arifi^U 
which feemeth directly to determine thi$ difruption, 7/^7^ ^u^a tyiJ'tt^^ v^tigt^ 

hath thus tranflated, Parit catnUs akvolntos memhanu , qtu tertio die rtimff^^ 
tur , <vemt inurdHm ut qui in utcro adhuc funt abrops membranU pr{ir^mpap$i 
Now herein very probably Pfinj , and many fince have been mift^^^ % 
the difruption of the membranes or skins , which inchide the young gyo^ ^ ^^^n^ 
ceiving a dilaceration of the maf rix and belly of the Viper ; atS c^mibKlMc 
from a cafuall dilaceration , a regular and coofla^t diiruptioji. 

" ' As 

Book. }. 


Aj fi)t the Liiliiif word PiftrM. whicliin tli« Erymoluc:!; ^•l //.-^■'-' prymor- 
ciii ibij cooteit , more properly it may imply vii'i^.-'^^ Jor wltcms otlwr 
Scriwnf! Uy ^'S^*. '^'^ ViiKrcxclitdcth linng ;tniniiN , nn.! c!i-i'ifti tlieC:?- 
m/u be aUbviviparou*, ami we Jmvc foi.i;i.l f. ' " ' , ■,>{ ihc 

CVn^M ornow-woon; y« may tlteVipcr cm for 

the nutacion or Erymtilogx is roc oI'nectliiL -, and 

thercftiit thoupli amntall DC<lclIuC(^l fri>m*»jnij, vii. .iri:i -.■..■ mv y .iTiinod- 
oashcljiii.', ana plant? will challenge 3 right chcrem .nwdlniftnllhlc trcjtturc?. 

Asioiichingihc'rcMot'Scnpcurc, ar^compellacionof [he I'Ltrifiu, byOc; 
neration of Vipins ^ aliJioitgb conAruftiombcmsdeheTcul' contiirtiiiihlctotli!* 
Tradition-, and It maybe plautibly expounded, ih« out i)t ,i viptruu* cundi- 
tutn, ihi^confpci-cdagainfttJwir I'roplins, anddeftroycd (lieirlpriiiwljttrtoti, 
yec{a5/j#i/Miwiobfcrvnh jGrtrvy and ptMiw. do maKcamRlia- conftrurti- 
ya ; apprebeflding thereby what n ufually implied by tim Proverb, Afali cT^t 
tMlumiVMrn; rhsni.orcvilliurcjiii,ancviUBcncratii>n , n poilcrity noc unlike 
tbeirmajimty-, olmirrhieioui progenitors, a venemous and aeilrudivc progeny. 

And lafUy, concerning ihe Hicro^yphical account, actordinf; to i!ie Vulgar 
conception let down by Otiu ApSa, the Authority tJiercof is only EmblcmAtl- 
cil', for were che corKepciun trueorfklle, to tiKir apprdtcnfloni^ it experflnl 
(itiailunpi«y. Which Itndly taken, and coially received lor truth ^ mi^t ptt- 
bps begin, but fordy promote iba conccptioiL 

Chap. X V II. 

Of Hutt. 

npHe double fcK^ of (ingkHaKt, orctiat «veryHaR»bottitr,a]eandremile, 
•* bdJdc the vulgar opinion, was the affirmative of ArchrUiti . of Plut^nh, 
fkiUfiraini^MA many more. Of the fame britcf have been ine Jcwilh R^b- 
thr: 7 be (flnic is lilawifeconlirmed from the Hebrew word-, which, although 
there were noficglemalcsor that kind, hath only obtained a name of the femi- 
nine gender. Aiatfo Irom tticfymbulical foundation of hi prohibition in the law, 
and what vice* ihcreimc figured-, that is, not only punilanimity and timidity 
from iti temper, feneration or ufury from itsf«undity andfapcrfctation-, but 
from this mixture of feitcs, imnaturalveoeryanddcgencrouseficmination. Nor 
tre there hardly any whoeithertrcatof mutationormisrionof fexes, whohsve 
noc left fotoe mention uf tliis point -, fome fpeaking potitivcly , otliers dubi- 
oofly, andmoftrciigning it unto tlw cntjuiry of the Kcidcr. Now hereof to 
(peak dilHoitly ; the)' mull be male and female by miiracion and fucceiTlotl Of 
Irtcs ., or dfc hy compofi^ion, misturp or uni6n thereof 

As for tic mutation of (exes, or iranfition Into one another, wecannotdeflV 
It in Hares, tt being obfervablc in Man. Fw hereof hditle Empedoclet orTt- 
nJiAi, there arc noc a few cxainpies : and though ^cry few , or rather none 
whicbhavccmafculaicd or turned Women, yet very many who from an ertcem 
or realityof bcingWomcn haveinfiillably proved Men. Somcatthe firftpDmt 
of their meaflruoa« eruptions, ItHnc in the day of their marriage, others many 
yearsaftcT : which occai.oncd difputcs .« Law, and cunielUtions concerning a 
reftorc of the dowry. And that not only mankind, but miny other Ammab -. 
may fufira* this tranfciion, we will not deny , or fiokl it ac all impollible ■■ although 
rronfefsby rcitboof tbepollickand bacKwanlpoliuoaofcbeicaitfline pans .(a 

Cut of Scse^ '1 


inquiries into Vulgdr 

B OO K ^ 


in idea 5Wcdi- 
e?n£ Pbilofo^ 


quadrupcdes, they can hardly admit the fuhftitutiun of ^protrufion, effcdur 
I all unto mafculine generation^ cxceptitbcin Retromingents, andfuchas cou- 
'pie backward. ^ i 

Nor ihail we only concede the 'fuccellion of (exes in fome, but ihall not i 
difputethetranfitionof reputed fpccies in otiiersj that is, a tranfmutation, or . 
(as Paracel flans tcniiii) Tranfplantation of one into another. Hereof in per- | 
feft Animals of a congenerous feed, or near affinity of natures , examples arc i 
not unfrequent, as Horfes, Afle?, liogs, I'oxes, Phaifants, Cocks, &c. but j 
inimpeifctt kinds, and fuch where the difcrimination of fexesis oblcure, thefe J 
transformations are more common : and in fome within themfclves without | 
commixtion , as particularly in Caterpillcrs or Silk-worms, wherein there is j 
a vifible and triple transfiguration. But in plants, v/hercin there is no dtlhnfti- 1 
on of fcx , thefe tranfplantations are conceived more obvious then any^ as| 
that of liar ley into Oats, of Wheat into Darnel^ and thofe grains which ge- 
nerally arifc among Corn, as Cockle, Aracus, iiigilops, and other degnerations j 
which c^imcupin unexpected fliapes , when tl\ey want the fupportand maia- 
tenanccol tRe primary and m«(ftcr-forms. And the fame do iome affirm c-jn- 
icerning other plants in lefs analogy of figures^ as the mutation of Mint into 
ICrefles, Balill into Serpoile, and Turneps into Radiftics. In all which , as 
Severinus conccivcth , there may be e({uivocal feeds and Hermaphroditical 
principles , which contain tlie radicality and power of diflferent forms ^ thus 
in the fcjd of Wheat there licth obfcurely thcfeminahty of Darnel, although 
in a Tecor^dary or infcriour way, and at fome dillance of production ^ which 
neverthclcfs if it meet with convemenc promotion, or a conflux and confpi- 
ration of caufcs more powerfull then the other ^ it then beginneth to ediric 
in chief, and contemning the fuperintendent form , produccch the fignnturcs 

Now therefore although we deny not thefe feveral mutations , and do al- 
low that Hares may exchange their fex ^ yet this we conceive doth come to 
pafs but fometimes, and not in that viciilicude or annual alternation as is pre- 
fumed. 1 hat is, from imperfcdion to perfection , from pjrfertion to imper- 
feftion •, from female unto male , from male to female again , and io in a cir. 
cle to both without a pcrraanfion in either. Yor befidc ihe inconceivable 
mutation of temper , which (hould yeady alternate the fex ^ this is injurious 
unto the order of nature, whofe operations do rcil in the perfedion of their 
intents ^ which having once attained , they maintain their acconipliflicd ends, 
and relapfe not again into their progreflional imperfccftions. So if in the mi- 
nority of natural vigor , the parts of feminality take place ^ when upoii the j 
encreafc or growth thereof the mafculine appear, the rirft detign of nature is | 
atchicved, and thofe parts jnre after maintained. 

But furcly it much impeacheth this iterated tranfeftionof Hares, if that be 

true which Car^n and other Phyficians affirm , that Tranfmutation of fex is 

only fo in opinion^ and that thefe tranfeminated pcrfons were really n. en at 

firft .^ although fuceceding years produced the mamfello or evidence of their 

virilities. Which although intended and formed , was not at firll excluded •, 

and that the examples hereof have undergone noreall or new ti*anfexion, bm 

were Androgynally born, and under fome kind of H^rmafhroditts. For 

j though Galen do lavour the opinion, that the diftin<?iive parts of fexcs are 

I only different in Pofition, that is, invcrfion or protrulion •, yet will this bard- 

I ly be made out from the Anatomy of thofe parts. The tefticles being fo 

■ feated in the female , that they admit not of protrufion-, and the neck of 

• tlie matrix wanting tliofc parts which are difcoverabic in the organ of virility. 

j The fecond and molt received acccption, is, that Hares are male and female 

! by conjundioo of botli fexes ^ and iuch as are found in mankind , Poetically 

t caUed 

t " ■ 

Book ^t 

^ Cammtn EBAoac. 

nllcd Ha'tiiaf)iirodicci •, l'iipp:)rcii lo be formed from tiie c()iiality, nr ta-tivith- 
rff of citlicf lecd i dnyingiboticttion the paruotMansntJ Woman -/Jlcboiigh 
wiihgrcuvariccy m pcrlcction. {iccan*! utility ; not oncly « jinJl^Ucoma- 
vcd.witliacunflintimpuccncyinoiic^ tmc » UtcrObtcrvcrs affirm, roR>K(mci 
with ability of cither vencry , And tlicrdbrc tlit providenctfi'l" foinc Lzvn have 
thougliE good , Oat at tti« ycirs ut' nMEuxity ttxry Huiuld elwt one lex, xiid tl»c 
error* tn ihcothci Ihould fuficr a fcvcrcr puiiifluncnr. Wijcrcby cr.dca>(jiiring 
ro pccvcntinamuncniy , they iinnwarei aijoyncd pcipctual clialtity ; forbc- 
ingcxetutivem both jaru, and coivrtned untopuc, they rclltjiocd s naturii 
power, and ordaiiicd a partial virginity. PlMt and tome of t]ieilabbin« pro-^ 
cccdcdlnEhcti wlio conteivedibc firflMan an Hernjaphiodiie ^ and Mdrcm^ 
£jTi tliclcarnedi'fw, in ibtncfer.fctmhaljowcd it; atiifmingihai AdAmiWQoe 
fuppollcum wiiiitMii divtlTon, contained both Male and lemnlc. And tberctnic 
whereas it is faid in titc lexr . That God created nun in his own Image ^ m ilu: 
Image of God created he him , male and female crcaa-d he tlteni ; applying the 
fitiguUr and plural imto A<i»m, it migbc dcaurc, that in one fuUlaiice, and in 
lumfelf tie included boibfcxci . which w<u after divided , and the tcnalc called 
Woman, Tfi« ('pitiion of AnJhtU cxtcndctJi farther , I'roai wliofc alTcnion all 
men ftiould be HcnilaphroditcSi far aflirHung thai Wumcn do r.oc fpcma- 
lixe , and confer a place or recepuck rather then cflcntiai prinoplcs ol gene- 
ration , be deductively inchidcs ootb fcxcs \r\ mankind -, for from the faiher 
proceed not oncly malo and fenuies , but from him alfo muft l-lcrma- 
pbroditical and malculo-lcminine generations be derived, and a commistionof 
both fexei arifc from ibc feed of one, But thc^cboolrotm have dealt with that 
Ici more hardly i^cn any otiier -, who though ihcy kave not much difputcd ilieir 
geticrabon, ye^nave they ctmtrovcrted their Rcfurrcciion , andraifen aqucrie, 
whether any at the lad day Ovoaldar ifein thtfexof Women ^ umay be oblervcd 
io the fupplemeni of Aqmittu, 

Now aswcmuftackuowledgethis Andrngynal condition in Man, ih tan wr 
not deny the likedoih happen in beafts. Thus do we read in PU<ij , that A"fr«,t 
CJiarior was drawn by four Hermaphiodiiic^l Marei , and CdT^tm affirms heal- 
fobeheldoncat Antwttf And Uilis may we alfo concede, that Hares luvc been 
of both fexes, and lonve have ocularly conhrmcd it , but that tlit whole fpc- 
ciesoriiind Ihouldbc biftJous ordoubirfcxed , we cannot affirm, who have 
found the partsof male and female refpccciveiy diltindandiin^le many wbiTe> 
in we luvc enquired : And the like fiicccfv tud BKchtnus in fucb 3s he difTected 
And whereas il is conceived, , that being an harmlc^ Animal and delegable 
food unto man, nature bath made [item with duuble-fciet , thiit a:Aive]y and 
natlivcly petfurming they might more numciouily mcreaie ; we forget an 
higher providence ot nature whereby fhcefpcoally promotes the mulciplitation' 
of Hare*, whichisby fuperfctationi diac is, a conception upuna coniepiion,ot 
animpioveraeniof afccondfruitbctbrcthc (irll be excluded-, preventing hcxtr. 
bytlicofual intcrmiirionand vacantttincofgenciation; which iiv»ycommon' 
and frequently obfervablc in Hares, mentioned lone ago by y^n/sr/^, Htrodniit, 
aM Piiny \ »nd wc have often obfLTVed, that afrcr Sic ttrft call, there randinfac- 
ccJCvccoDtepuofls, and other younglings very immature j! and far ftpnrtbcir 
tcrmof cxclulioo. 

Nor need any man to qudtion ttiis in Karcc, for the iamc wc obferve doth 
fomccimc happen in Women ^ for although it be true , that upon conception 
([ic inward onfice of the matrix cxaftly dofcth, fo that ir commonly admii- 
leih nothing after ^ yet fallah it out loroctitne , tllat id the art of coition, 
the avidity of that part diUteth it lelf, and rcceivcth a ieoond burden ■, winch 
If it happen to be ncaciniimc unco the ^rlU.ebcy commonly do both pro* 
ecied uiKo perlcdion, uul have IrgttiinMe dduftons , periodically riu;cee(Un| 

mtnuid I 

(Mflible b 
itiai unig a 
(KtfeS bin 


Enquiries int§ VulgMr 

Bo6 t 3. 

each other. But iftheruperfetation be made with confiderabie incermiiBon, the 
latter moft commonly proves abortive *, for the firft being confirmed , engrofTeth - 
cbealiment from the other. However therefore the project of f^/i^ fcemvcry! 
plaulible, and that way iniallible, when (he received not herpaflengers , before 
ihe bad taken in her lading, yet was there a fallibility therein : nor indeed any | 
abfolute fecurity in the policy of adultery afcer conception. For the Matrix • 
(which fome have called another Animal wittiin us, and which is not fubj^fted un- ' 
to the law of our will) after reception of its proper Tenant , may yet receive a : 
fhange and fpurious inmate. As is confirmable by many examples in Plinj •, by I 
Ldrijfda in' HippocrMtes *, and that merry one in PUmus urged alfo by AriftotU : \ 
that is, of Iphicks and Hercules , the one begat by fupher^ the other by Amphi^ \ 
tryon upon Alcmdna ^ as alfo in thofe fuper-concepdons, where one cnilde was ' 
like the fkther , the other like the adulterer , the one favoured the fervant, the 
other refembled the mafter. 

Now the grounds that begat , or much promoted the opinion of a double ! 
fex in Hares, might be fome little bags or tumours, at firft glance reprefenting j 
fiones or Teftides, to be found in both fezes about the parts of generation ^ whicb j 
men obfcrving in either fex, were induced to bdieve a mafculine fex in both. But 
I CO fpeak properly , thefc are no Teftides or parts official unto generation , but 
glandulous fubftances that (ton to hold the nature of Emunftories. for herein 
may be perceived (lender perforations, at which may be expreffed a black and fee- 
culent matter. If therefore from thefewefhall conceive 9 mixtion of fexes in 
Hares , with fairer reafon we Amy cdhdude it in Bevers • whereof both fetes 
contain a double bag 6t Tumour in the groin, cehmnonly called the Cod of Cc- 
y?ir, as we have delivered before. # 

I Another ground were certain boles or cavities obfervable about the Hedge ^ 
which beii^ perceived in Males, made fotne conceive there might be alfoafoemi- 
nine nature in them. And upon this very ground, the fame opinion hath paffed 
upon the Hyzna, and is declared by Ariftotle^ and thus tranllated by «f r^/i^f r -, 
Qjicd autem aiunt utriufyMe fekHs hdhere gefHtMHd, fdlfumefi^ ^uod videturejfe 
feemimumfuk CMtuU eft ^mile figurdfttminim^verum pervium nan eft *, and thus is it 
alfo in Hares ^ in whom tbefe holes^ although they feem to make a deep cavity, 
yet do they not perforate the skin •, ncAr hold a community with any part 6f gene- 
ration : but were (as PHnj delivereth) efteemed the marks of their age,tbe number 
of thofe dedding thdr number of years. In which opinion what truth there is we 
(hall not contend •, for if in other Animals there be authentick notations- if the 
cbarafters of years be found in the horns of Cows, or in the Antlers of Deer -, if 
we conjecture the age of Horfesfrom jo^ffts in their docks, and undeniably pre- 
fame it from their teeth • we cannot affirm, there is in this coAcdt^any affront un- 
to naftire ) although, who ever enquireth (hafl find no affurance thereifi. 

The laft foundation was Retromingency or pifGng backward •, for men ob- 
ferving both (exes to urine backward, or averfly between thdr legs , they 
might concdve there was a foeminine part in both -, wherdn they are de- 
ceived by the ignorance of the juft and proper (ite of the Pizel , or pare 
defigned . unto t& Excretion of urine ^ which in the Hare holds riot the 
common pofition , but is averfly feated , and in its diftention encKne^ unto 
the Cocdx or Scut. Now firom the nature of this pofition , there cnfueth a 
neccflity of Retrocopulation , which alfo prortioteth the concert : for fome 
obferving them to couple without afcenfion^ have not been able to juige of 
male or foemale, or to determine the proper fex m dther. And t6 fpeak ge- 
nerally, this way of copulation is not appropriate unto Hares , nor fs there 
one, but mtay waies of Coition : itcordkig to drrers (hapes and different 
conformarionf^ For fome couple laterally or (idewife, as Worms : fome 
circularly or by complication, t^ Serpents : (oAie pronely , that is by con- 


Boot J. 

And Cotnmut £ r it ti n « . 

tafttonof rficventnll jwrtsinboili, as Ape*. PornlpiRK, Hcvlgedog?, Wllfc^' 
HE are tcrUKcl Mollw, asEheCtiftlc-Jillidnc!U]tPiir[ilc , Iomemu;ty. tint is, the 
(hikalMfidingthc female, or by apfilitssion or' Uit ventral parL^ufc'ic one, un- , 
[<ttlic[n)[litJc(>artsiif ihcoEheTjtinUjItQnadtup^ii!, Siincavciiij'j niill Cnj- 
IbteoiisAniniil), Lohllos.Shtinipt, and Crcvifn, anJ >Il(i flctro/ningrnt*, .u j 
Paiilheri, Tygert, and Hurt*. Tlwt \s tbeftmlUnt Law of iljcir CoJtian, tiiii I 
tbe^'obfcrvcandtranrgrefinoci (roelytlic viiioijiy of nianlmhaiiej tbc vlric-j 
ric%hcr-of., nor cofltcniwitbailigrtliifn from firx ur fprti«, hath iubtf own 
IdnJ run rhorow ihe.\n(«raliMflt vencry ^ snd boailoboIJ, ntit ooet^' to aft^ 
tnit rcprtfci't to view. iJ;cl!rcc\il.iriv:i:cn>t luil. ' 

of Mela. 


THst Motes ure blind and hive tio eyes, though 3 coinmiir. opinion, i» ftift. 
vcdwithniuth vanety; (bmeafRrmingoncly they havcno fight, aiOWV- 
«tw , the Proverb TitlpA C<mr, ind ttw word «tii«*>i«, or Talfit*!, ufiiui 

Hfffc hi ni amide the fame witli ChJiai : ronietlattbey have cycs.butrw light, 
Kthe text o( Ari J} et/t(Kn\i to 'mp\y -^ fomc nathcrcycs nor fight, isAthniMs, 
/*/i«!7, and ' fir «uigir ofsnioni fome bo;fiey«andfiGhr,asJf,i/»;(ft', Al^evM- 
Jjtf/.andfonicotberi. Of which opiiiiora llic lall with fomcrdu'idton, is oiofl 
conforum unco truth: for ibat they havccyn in their bead b nianiJcft unto any, 
chat want) ihem not in hiiown; aiidaredifcovcrabic, rH)t oncly m old on«, but 
ai we have obfervcd m y«ing and naAcd conceptions, taken oOt of the belly of 
the Dam. And hj- that cKactly enquires into the avity of their crjnie^ , fhay 
perhaps difcover frnnc [nopagation of nerves commnnjcaied nnto t^e^c parts. 
Bat tliat the humor* together with their coats are alfo diftind (tbougli Valt^ 
fcctntoaffirmit) iriinfteodeth ourdifcovery-, for fcparating tlwle little Orbs, 
and including them in mugnifyingGIaflcs, wc difcerilcd no move then Arijlotlc 
mention.*, * i.-i«',ufr ^^Cf-a^t^^ that is. a black humor, nor any more if they, 
br'^'oken. That tlwrcfore they have eyes wcmufl of neccllity affirm ; but that 
hc) be cooiparativdy incomplete we need not to deny ; So CWfw affirms the' 
pi-tt rS generation iri women are impcrfed, in tefpwt of thofc of men , at 
1 thcc\«of Mol« tn regard of other Animals J SoAriJlotU tcrmsiHcm '^nuittj^^ 
whic^ GMt^t trandates Ot'l-tfii , and Scaligtr by a word of impcrfir'ftion {n- 

1 Now as that they have eyes Isnfanifcfi unto feiife, fo riia: the)' have fight 
I WK incongruous unto reafon-, if wc call not In qucftion ilic providence OJ 
' thrt provilion, that is, to alRgn ihcOrgani, and yet deny the Office, togttm 
' t^en^ey« andwithlwildall manner of vifion. lor as the inference is fair, af- 
hrmatively deduced from the aftiontotltc Organ, that tticy hav? evesbecaufe 
thtyfcc-, fo iiii (^Ki from the Organ to the sftion, that they have eyes, 
tbcrdbre fnme light dcfignedj ifwc take the intention of Nwtu"e h every 
fpccttfs, and except the cafual impediments, or morboGtics in individuals. 
Butas their cyetarc more imperfen then otiters, fo do wc conceive of (bw 
, l\-y\K i:r ziX of viUoHi fw they will run againll thmg*, and budling fot- 
' ivards fall trom high pbc«. So that tl>ey are not blind , aor yet dii^inift- 
Jy fee; then: is in them no Cecity , yet more then a Ccciitiency ^ ihcy 
ive Fght enough to difcern the light , though not perhapi to diilinguifh of 


Enquiries int§ Vulgdr 

Book 3 

objeft s or colours •, fo arc they not ex^ftly blind, for light is one object of vifion. 
And this (as ScuHger obferveth) might be as full a fight as Nature rirft intehded ^ 
for living in darknefs under the earth, they had no further need of eyes then to 
avoid the light •, and to befenfible whenever they loft that darkneis of earth,' 
which was their natural confinement. And therefore however Tranflators do > 
render the word of Arifiotle or Galen^ that is, imferfeQos, ohUfos or inchoatos^ it ; 
is not much confiderable 1 for their eyes are fufficiently begun to finifh this adi- ' 
on, and competently perfect for this imperfect Vifion. { 

And laftly, although they had neither eyes nor fight , yet could they not be 
termed blind. For blindnefs being a privative term unto fight, tliis appellation 
is not admittible in propriety of fpeech, and will overthrow the doctrine of 
privations^ which prefuppofe pofitive forms or habits, and are not indefinite; 
negations, denying in all fub jects, but fuch alone wherein the pofitive habits are ! 
in their proper Nature, and placed without repugnalicy. So do we improperly i 
lay a Mole is blind , if we deny it the Organs or a capacity of vifion from its crca- • 
ted Nature *, fo when the text of John had faid, that perfon was blind from his ! 
I nativity , whofc cecity our Saviour cored, it* was not warrantable in Nonnus to | 
i £iy he had no eyes at all, as in the judgement of Heinfiut^ he defcribeth in his 
[ paraphrafe ; and as fome ancient Fathers affirm, that by this Miracle they were 
created in him. And fo though the fenfe may be accepted, that Proverb mulk be 
candidly interpreted, which nuiketh fifhes Mute ^ and calls them filent which have 
no voice in Nature. 

How this conceit isereAed uponamifapjMrelyeofion or iniflake in the fym- 
tomcs of vifion •, men confounding a.bolifhment, diminution and dcpravement, 
and naming that an abolition of fight, which indeed is but an abatement. For: 
if vifion be aboli(hed, it is c^led cacitM^ or blindnefs ^ if depraved and receive 
itsobjeAserroneoxifly, Hallucination^ if diminiihed > hehttt^do vifns^ caligdno^ 
ordimnefs. Now ixulead of a diminution orimperfeft vifion in the Mole, we 
affirm an abolition or totall privation •, inftead of a caligation or dimnefs, we con- 
clude a cecity or blindnefs. Which bath been frequently inferred concernmg 
other Animals ^ fo' fome affirm the Water-Rat is blind, (oSdmrnomcmznA Ni- 
cdnder do cajl the MuPAraneus the (hrew or Ranny, blind : And becaufe dark- 
nefs was befoire light, the KyEgjftidns worfhipped the fame. So are Slow-worms 
accounted blind, and the like we afiirm proverbially of the Beetle ^ although their 

2 es be evident, and they will flye againft lights, tike many otlier Infects^ and 
Ottghalfo Arifiotle determines, that the eyes are apparent in all flying Infects, 
though other fenfes be obfcure , and not preceptible at all. And if from a di- 
minution we may infer a totall privation , or affirm that other Animals are 
blind which do not acutely fee, or comparatively unto others, we fhall condemn 
unto blindnefs manv notfoefteemed^ for fuch as have corneous or horney q'es, 
as Lobfters and cruftaceous Animals, are generally dim-fighted ^ all Infe As that 
bsLVtMntenna, or long horns to feel out their way, as Butter- fl yes and LocuUs ., 
or their fore- legs fodifpofed, that they much advance before their heads, as may 
be obferved in Spiders ^ and if the Eagle were judge, we might be blind our fel ves. 
Theexpreffion therefore of Scripture in the&ory ot fdcei is furely with circum- 
fpection ^ And it came to pafs when facot was old, ana his eyes were dim , quando 
caligarMm cculi^ faith feromc and Tremellinj^ which are expreifions of diminution, 
and not of abfolute privation. 


Booe 3, 

anil Cmmut E n n o 11 5 . 

Chat. XIX. 
0/ L4mfrit3. 

\ 7 \ / Httlicr Lampric^ 

nfi'tnrd WvK rrriJT of cv 

icd, ivc liuill rdt-rii unto 
An cirytn>[icermng«fc». 

iliesppcarantc d' divers CJviric* 
^ ' ! ' I ' I ilicnt-j and is 

ivii i'..ii uiii'i Jiij -Tiii'.i.vr, U-,.i I-., .-.ji.". v-.L i. in^i., .i....j^*,ii]j; .(.(lie liivifioaut' 
thrbaiiii itwercaiupcrtiuou: and innrci^aal act Ci* pUtc Aud Tctdc U* lutny 
in otic pUnc -, for the two cxirctinH would fuSticmly pjrlfjrm ilttoilit-coi'llglic 
WJEhout[hehd[>of tiicinitriiitdiatccyo, and !*-l...!.i - ^11. 1: ...-lii -. .-r-. joynwi 
togcrhcr. for [hcvihbieUifebf tbcobjcc? u- ■ lod 

ilic Oiiddlc eyes, alihoudi tiiey bdwld the £ujil- : VJ^id 

romucfulictcol'aiilicfc i I'o wcicitnoadvami^ , _ 1.^^ ^ :l4iJ,ei;e 

between tliolij two be hull aireidy ^ aiji^ the jetton at' .r4<j£«f t>t}V# iDureica&D^- 
hic £li«n [lilt i for though he had many cy«, jftt were they pbtcd toai".umfe«iia 
aadpolitionsofadvancagc. , 

Again, Tbdc cavitieii which incncallcyei ate fcatcd oat of iIic head, and- 
whcrc the Gils of other fifli are placed i cootamuignt} Organs of light, nor ha- 
ving any communication with the brain. Now all feolc [irocecding fiom the 
brain, and tliat being placed ('af{7tf/r«ub(crvc[hj inthcuppccf^riot' the body, 
for the fitter fituation of thccyw^and convcnienty required unto figlw; it is not 
reafonaWcto imagine tha: ihcy arc any whcrcAHfc, or dcJirrvc that name which 
are feaied in other parts. Andtbcrefotc wc rcIiaquiHi as fabuloui what is, deli- 
vered of i'KrMo^'Wwj.ormcnwiiheycs.intlKjrbrcaft; and when it is fa^ by 
SaUmon, A wifcmonscyesarcin fus hwd, it is (o b"; taiien in a fecond fcnfr, at\d 
aAsrdeth no objedion. True it is that the cycsof Animals are feaccd with fomc; 
difrcrcttcCjbutatlwhaiCoevcrinthchcad, andctiat more forward (ben tlwcaror 
SolcoFhwring. In iiuadrupcdia, in regard of tlic figure of their Jseads, they 
arcptaLcd atroiiicdtllance j inlatirotlrouiai\d flncbild birds they are cnore IjBlt- 
I rally featcd i andtlwretbrewhcn they k»okmi«nily they turn one eye u^wnclic 
lolfica, and can convert their beads to fee before and behind, and to behold twtf 
'oppolitc points at once- But ataniorc cafie diibuiccarc ihcy lltiutaj inH(||nj, 

Elmtbe lame circumference with the car^ for if one fooc of the cumpf^tK 
ted upon the Crown, a circle deTcnbed tiicrchy will imcriiti't, or pau itvcr 
h tlK ears. , , 

I 'i lie error in this conceit confifts in the ignorance of tliefc cavities, and their 
proper ufein nature; tin' this is apartitiiUr difpofure of parts, and a peculiar 
contormaiion whereby dietirhuW and Uuces fupply the dctat of GiU , und arc 
sflillcd by tlic conduit in the he:idj fdr like cetaccoui MintAls and Whales, the 
Lamiinctiadi aiidula, fpoutor pipcat the back pait of the head, whereat it 
fpons out water. Nmc is ttoncly (ingularmthi* tomiation, but alio in many 
ochcr , as IB defect of bones, wlicreof it bath not one ^ and lor the fpinc or back- 
bone, a cartilaginous fubHancc v/iihout any fpondylcs, proteffcs or protuberance 
whatfncver. As alfo in the provilion which Nature tuth made lor the heart ^ 
which in this Animal is very fkangely fecured, and lict immured in a cantlage oc 
gril^ly fubJlance. AndUlUy, in the colour of the hver : whidi itiothe Maleof 
Uiexccllai[gra&-gta-n : but of a deeper colour inihel-enulc, and wilt com- 
muniaucafreftiiuiddaraUc vcrdurc- 
I Chap. 



To mkii off 

ihe nine cyts 
In 1 Limpile 
ia ictyc. 



Bnqmriii ititi Vulgtr 

Boot 3. 

Chap. XX. 

of Snajls. 

THac Snails have two eyes, and at the end of their Horns, befide the aflerci6n 
of the people, is the opinion of fome Learned men. Which notwithflanit 
ing Scaliger terms but imitation of e>'es •, which PUnj contradi As, and Ariftotle 
upon cOAfequence denies, when he affirms that teftaceous Animals have no ey& 
at all. And for my own part after niuchenq(uiry, I am not fatis/ied that cbefe 
are eyes, or that thofe black and atramentous fpots which feem to refrrefirnt them 
are any oculah* realities. For if any objeft tic prefented unto them , they will 
fometime feem to decline it, and fometime run againft it. If alfo thefe black ex- 
tremities, or prcfumed eyes be clipped off, they will notwithflanding make ufe of 
thefe protrufions or horns, zx\A poke out their way as before. Again, if they were 
eyes or inftruments of vifion;, they would have their originals in the head, and 
fifom tlience derive thcii? motive and optick organs ^ bqt their roots and firft ex- 
tremities arc feated low upon the (ides of the ^ck, as may be perceived in the 
whiter fort of Snails when they retract them. And laftly, if we concede they 
have two eyes, we muft alfo grant, they have no left then four •, for not onely the 
two greater cxtenfions above have thHe imitations of eyes, but alfo the two leflcr 
below : and if they be dextiroufly diffefted , there will be found on cither iide 
two black filaments 01^ membranous firings , which extend into the long and 
fliortercotnicleiiponprotrufion. And therefore if they have two eyes, they 
have^lfo four • which will be ttiohftr()us, and foej'ond the affirmation of any. 

Now the reafon why we name thefe Wack'ftrings, ej'es, is, becaufe we know not 
what to call them elfe, andtinderftand not the proper ufe of that pirt ^ which in- 
di^d ts very obfcure, and not ddivered by any •, but may probably befaidto af- 
(ift th(f protrufion and retraction of their Jiorns ^ which being a weak and hollow 
body ,- required fotne inward eftablifliment^ to confirm the length of their ad- 
vancement-, which we obferve they cannot extend without the concurrence here- 
of. For if with your finger you apprehend the top of the horn, and draw out 
thisblack and membranous emlflion, the horn will be excluded no more^ but if 
you clip off the extremity, or onely findge the top thereof with AquM fortis^ or 
other corrofive water, leaving- a c.onfiderable part behind ; they will neverthelefs 
exclude their horns, and thereWiih explorate their way as before. And indeed the 
exact fenfe of thcfa extremities is very remarkable j for if you dip a pen in Aqua 
fwtii^ oyl of Vitriol or Turpentine, and prefent it towards thefe points, they will 
at a reafonable difbnce, decline the acrimony thereof, retiring or diftorting tlicm 
co-avoid it-, and this they will nimbly perform if objected to the extrcams, but 
flowly or not at all, if approached unto their Roots. 

What hath been therefore delivered concerning the plurality, paucity or ano- 
malous fituationof eyes, is either monflrous, fabulous, or under things never 
feen includes good fenfe or meaning. And fo may we receive the figment of ^r- 
gH4^ who was an Hieroglyphick of heaven, in thofe centuric;s of eyes exprcfling 
the ftars •, and their alternate wakings, the viciffi tude of day and night. Which 
ftrictly taken cannot be admitted ^ for the fubject of fleep is riot the eye, but the 
common fenfe, which once afleep, all eyes muft be at reft. And therefore what 
is delivered as an Embleme of vigilancy, that the Hare and Lion do fleep with 
j one eye open, doth not evince they are anymore awake then if they were both 
' dofed. For the open e)*e beholds in fleep no more then that which is dofed ^ and 
' no more one eye in them then two in other Animals that fleep with both open ^ 

BotiK }• 

MdCtmnn Ekhohs. 

uforncliydifiafe, iind other '.n ' ^'' ^ > c-lidiaiail. 

Aj liir PolypliHTm-; , .nhlii i , ibc nionftrrtnty ii rfdC 

impodiW*. l^orilicsrt of \ ■ irir<.",'c . ird in tliedt- 

cepiioa aoi! :' " '^ . ! * ' ' ■ '.' ' ". '* 

double, or < 
viJivcconv , 

wbilii is i\Mi\f\rii iiiiH '■ni: cyv-, linn'ti.- liqinrili-u ur l-ii-\ ,)■,'.:.. ui'.:; kviniii 
enli3» ctie Oilier. *,o it bchnMingnCanillt!, Wi-proiruile ciiheriipATlrd or down- 
ward thcpupiUofoDctyr, ttitf obiVift will .ipp«ir di.iibic ^ bm if wt (hut tlwr 
otlicrcyi', anJ bcholJit wiili one, irwillthciiapparhut lirglc^ and if wtab- 
dweibtcycunio citlu-fioroer, theohjeci wttl not duplicate: for in clat pofici- 
uaihc<3Xtiot'ltieronef rt-mmntothefafTieptaivr, ai isdunonftlrateflmtlieopcicKs, 
and delitered by Gaim, in hii eoiiI) Di xfn pjnium. 

KeimoMiXiothertiTe lit nmtiim couM nlake thcmrdrct invisible, wlikh 
bdoogt no: to ihi* difcoiirfe ; but may fervc a* notiblc cxprcfliom of wife 
and pcudencmm , wtto Co contrive ihcir dffiirs, thnt niilvoiigb ilwir aiftions 
be nnnilell, ihnr deflgns htc aot difcovcnble. In iV.h acccption tticrc isno- 
ihing left (jf doubt . and OVw King renwinr-h Oill amongil ui ; for vulgar 
cyo bctvuld no more of wife men tbeci docti Uie Sun : tltcy may difcuvcr cheu' 
eueriour and outtvird waiH , bite tbeir Inuriour and iniffard pieces lie oocty 
fea, tint fees into tbeir beings. 

Chap. XXI. 
of tfte Camtltt/t. 

COncerningche Catnclcon there gcncralty pafTcth in oputioA chat it Evetfi 
ondy apon ayr , and H fullaificd by no other aliment : Thus much is 
ia pibun icnm affirmed by S»liMi, /'/ijy. and others , jKid by thi« pcriphralis 
it the feme defcttbed by Ovid. All which iiotwithflaftdiiig , upon tntjuiry I 
find the affcnion mainly contrOTcrtiWc , and very muih co fail in the three 
inducements ftl belief. 

And (irU foe Its venty , alihou^aflmcdbyronre, and traditionally delivered 
bywhcrs, yeii«i[ very cjucftionable. f or bdid* .^/ihm , who is fcldom dc- 
ii^AtTru1 tbcfea((:oBmj:v<n)?e;/?di(linfll)' treating hereof", Ilachntadcnomen- 
IttuO of this rciiiiukable propriety ■, which cither ful^aihg i[» verity, or prefum- 
i iu its lajlicy , I« furely omitted : for that he remained ignorant of this actouoc 
'ic-B nttcafily toncciveablc -, it being the common opinion, and flcncrally re- 
ceived by all men. Some have pofictvdy denied it , as Juj^M/liiiutNipliM ,Sle~ 
tdlii, l>i>UchjmpiU, FtrtmiMf, IJcftitf, with many more : futiers haVCexpcri- 
I rtcoully rclii[cd it , as namely fthMtritj lAttdiaj^ ft'fiA in cfie relation of ScaU- 
fffr, ubfcrvciifl Cimek-onto Itckupa f^y tronii his bri-ifl : Rtit BtHonim hath 
IbccotWB-cGKisfoclftriJycxpcrfmtnMll, not oJicly aflirnung they feed on Flics, 
I GWcpdlars, Dccttc* and other (nftcrs , hot dpolf esemcration he found theie 
; AotmaU in ibcir brilie* : whercco we might atfo add the experimental dctifions 
' of the worthy J*riiv/(/n»« and learritd F.MMiurif'ti-K^iiittj in that Chsmcleon 
which had beenoftt-n obfcrvcd to dnnk «'atcr, abd debght to feed on hfcal- 
worms. And alihough we have rot had the advantage of our own oblcrvaiion, 
y« havi we receivod the like eonfirmation from many ocular fpcttaiors- 
Aftuucfiing tb* vehihniliF)- or probable CCOdlOf this reUtion . leveral rea- 

; , (11 lo Im 

.11 u dan- 

Co m mint Iq 
0«IL L 


Enquims intt Vulgsr 


00 K j' 



Nature pro- 
vUcs no ptrt 
without its 
proper fundi 
on or office. 


fons there are which fcem to overthrow it. For firft, there arc found in this Ani- 
mal, the guts, the ftomack, and other parts official unco nutrition; which were 
its aliment the empty reception of ayr , their provifions had been fuperfloous* \ 
Now the wifdom of nature abhorring fuperfluities, and effecting nothing in vaio^ ' 
unto the intention of thefe operations, refpectively concrivech the Organs *, and 
therefore where we find fuch Inftruments , we may with Ah Anefs expect their 
actions , and where we difcover them not , we may with fafecy conclude the 
non-intention of their operations. So when we obferve chat oviperous Animsds, 
as Lizards, Frogs, Birds, and mod Fifties have neither bladder nor kidneys, we . 
may with reafon infer they do not Urine properly. But whereas in the fame kind 
we difcover thefe parts in the Tortoife , we cannot deny he exercifeth that excre^ ' 
tion •, Nor was there any abfurdity in Plinjy when for medicinal ufes he commend*' , 
ed the Urine of a Tortoife. So when we perceive chat Bacs have teats, itisnoc! 
unreafonable to infer theyfuckle their younglings with milk^ but whereas no| 
other flying Animal hath thefe parts, we cannot from them expect a viviparous 
cxclufion ^ but either a generation of eggs , or fbme vermiparous feparation, ^ 
whofe navel is within it felf at firft, and its nutrition after not connexedly del 
pending of its original. > 

I Again, Nature is fo far firom leaving any one part without its proper aaion, I 
that (he oft-times impofeth two or three labours upon one, fothe Pizel in Ant-j 
mals is both official unto Urine and to generation, but the firft and primary ufe ; 
is generation •, for many creatures enjoy that part which urine not,as tiflies,birds, i 
and quadrupeds oviparous. But not on the contrary, for the fecundary acti-| 
on fubfiftcth not alone, but in concomitancy with the other. So the noftrils are 
ufefiil both for refpiracion and fmelling, but the principal ufe is fmelling . iot \ 
inany have noftrils which have no liuigs, asfiflies^ but none have lungs or refpi-l 
ratioiiy which have not fome (hew, or fome analogy of noftrils. Thus we pcr- 
' ceive the providence of Nature, that is, the wifdom of God, which difpofeth of 
no part in vain, and fome parts unto two or three ufes, will not provide any 
without the* execution of its proper office, nor where there is no digeftion to be 
made, make any parts infervient to that intention. 

Befide the remarkable teeth, the tongue of this animal is a fecond argument 
to overthrow thi^ airy nutricacion: and that not onely in its proper nature, but 
alfo its peculiar figure. For of this part properly taken there are two ends j that 
is, the formation of the voyce, and the execution of tafte : for the voyce, it 
can have no office in Cameleons , for they are mute Animals ^ as befide fifhet , 
are moft other forts of Lizards. As for their tafte, if their nutriment be ayr, nei- 
ther can it be aninftrument thereof^ for the body of that element is inguftiUcy 
void of all fiipidity, and without any action of the tongue, is by the rough ar- 
tery or wezon conduded into the lungs. And therefore Vlinj much fbrgcts the 
ftri Anefs of his affcrtion, when he alloweth excrements unto that Animal , that 
feedeth onely upon ayr ^ which notwithftanding with the urine of an Afs, he com- 
mends as a magical Medicine upon our enemies. 

The figure of the tongue feems alfo to overthrow the prefumption of this all- 
ment , which according to exaft delineation , is in this Animal peculiar , and 
feemcth contrived for prey. For in fo little a creature it ts-at the leaft a palm 
long, and being it felf very flow in motion, hath in this part a very great agi«j 
• lity ^ withall its food being flies and fuch as fuddenly eicape , it hath in the 
I tongue a mucous and flimy extremity, whereby upon a fuddeo emiflion it in- 
viicates and tangleth thofe Infeds. And therefore fome have thought its name 
not unfuitable unto its nature -, the nomination in Greek \s a little Lion ^ not 
fo much for the refemblance of ft)ape,as affinity of condition- that is for vigt- 
lancy in its prey, and fudden rapacity thereof, which it performeth not like toe 
Lion with its teeth, but a fudden and unexpefted ejaculation of the tongue. 


Boot J. 

tadCimmui Eilito«i. 


This cxpodtion » fsvoured by fomc.cfnecially die old ^o(t upoo LrwkMtVi\mr < 
by lit the Ttadllitacu] oi' JemiDf and uk Scpcuaginc , this Amnial n IbrtNildcsi ^ I 
whoc ever ii be, it r«au as (calonahic inhxcof IfiJsrt, wbo dcrivct litis oome 
» CimfU &■ Lttii!^ is prtCuming Iicrcrn rcfanbiance with a Camell. 

A« lor the pullibiiity hereof, it u not airoim(|ueAtanihIe^ sod wife men. 
ireof opifiion , die bodi« of Aimnais cannot r«dvc a proper alirocnt from 
ayT-, lot bciiJe thiit lalic being (^Arijlnlt lertn* it) a kind ot touch ■, it ii 
required {he atiiccrt fhould be tangible , and fail under the palpable sffcihiooi of 
toucli i beltde alio that there it lome iapoc in all xlimcnu , as being tu be di- 
llinj^i/iilicd ami judgcdby the goU, whidt cantiot be admitted inayr i Bdidc 
ilidc, I fay, if we confider the niiure of aliment, andibe proper uleof ayr lo' 
rclpration, it will very hardly fall under ibenanK (wrcof, or properly attain ihc' 
-HCt ot Ducr.ation. ' 

And lirl t L-ooterning its nature, to nuke a pcrfeA nutrition into the body non- j 
riflied, thiieifretjiiircd fltranftHutaiionof tnc KUtrimejit, now where tlus con- 
vertiun or aggeneration ii oiadc , there isdifo required in the alimcm a taii>ilisnry <ioa. 
of niaEier,ar.dlucbaconitnutucy or vicinity unto a living nature, as by one an ' 
oi the foul may be convened into ihc body of the hving, and enjoy one common i 
Ibul. Wbichrtnnotbceffcdedbyayr, it concurring onely with our flefhiocwn- | 
mon pnnciplct, ivbicb arcai d>e Urgdt dtitancc trom life, and camnion alfo uatp 
inanimated cooitiiiKions. And tlxreJ'orc when it is laid by fn-nrltm, and a flerted 
by di* ers others , [hat we are only ncmnftwd by hving bodie*, and Cuih as arc fame 
way proceeding from them , that m, tlic fruits, cfferts,pans,or feeds thereof-, they 
have laid out an objed very agrccablcuntoaifiniulation ^ for thefc indeed arc rit 
111 rctavc a <]uic)i and immedLaiccun verlioD^ tiuldmg fomc community with oiu' 
fdves, and cuncaming approximate difpodtions unto animaiion. 

Sccoiuily, (a*»argued by -<ni/?s;/*a^nftthe rjihdgonAw) whatfoevcr pro- 
poly oourubeth before its aiUmulation , by the aAion of natural heat it rc- 
ceivclh a corpulency or iniraflation progrcfiionaU onto it* convctfion ^ which 
notwitliiUading lannot be efiedcd upon ayr j for the adion of heat doth not cwi- 
derife but raritic Uku body, and by attcnuaoon rather then for nutriiion,dirpofrth 

, Thirdly, (Which is the argiunentof Bifpttrattt ) all aliment received into 
the body. muU be therein a confidcrablc fpace retained, and not immediat ly cjpel- 
led. Nowayrbutmomemallyrcnaininginourbodies, it bath no proportionable 
fpace for its cooverlion ■, oncly of length enough to refrigerate the heart -, which 
having once performed , tell being it felf heated again, it flwuld futfocate that pott, 
It niakcth no Ihy , but hallttb bacA the fame way it paffed in. 

lourthly, The proper ufeof ayr attracted by the lungs, and without which 
there is no durable continuation in life, is fwt the nutntwn of pans, bacthe con- 
tempctation of ihaifcrvourintlic heart, aitdtfw ventilation of that fire always 
mainainedmthcforgeof lifei whereby although infomemaruicr it eoncurrcth 
unto nuiririon, yet can it not receive the proper name of nutriment. And there- 
fore by HiffocrMij it is termed AlinttntMrn jbh Altmrtiitim, a nounflimcnt and 
DO nounfliment- That is, in a Urge acception, but not in propriety of language ^ 
cooTerving the body , notnourifbingthefanie: not repairing it by aftimulatitKi, 
but prefervingitby ventilation-, for thereby the natural flimcisprefcrvedfrom 
estindion , and to the mdividuum fupported in fume ivuy like nutrition. So 
when itif&idbyttiefaiDC Author , PuSm^t cMnrATitmmrptri n/tmetimm iriihit, 
rchmm Mm«i4 i^m , it i« not 10 be talccn in a Ilrift and proper fcnfc , but tbe 
quautyintheone, tficfubnanceismcamintheother. For ayr in regard of oUr 
natural heat is cold, and in that quahiy contrary unto it -, but what is nroperly ali- 
mcnt , of wbu quality foerer, is potentially the lanir, and in a fublondal idni> 
liiy unto it. 
^ T . Apin^ 



Enquiries into Fulgar 

B OCR 3* I 

Wherein V*. 
poor is com* 
monly mifta 
ken for ayr. 

What tlic mat- 
ter of C ulina- 
ry or Kichin 
fire is. 

Why fire goes 
out common- 
ly wanting air, 

and why 

many ages in 
flime niihouc 

Again, Some are fo fifir from affirming the ayr to afford any nutriment, thai 
they plainly deny it to be any Element, or chat it entreth into mixt bodies as 
any principle in their compofitions , but performeth o(her offices in the Uni- 
verfe-, as to fill all vacuities about the earth or beneath it, to convey the heat 
of the fun , to maintain fires and flames , to ferve for the flight of volatils, 
refpiration of breathing Animals , and refrigeration of others. And alchougb 
we receive it as an Element , yeciincethetranfmutation of Elements and (imple 
bodies, is not beyond great queftion, fince alfo it is no eafie matter to demon* 
ftrate that ayr is fo much as convertible into water ^ how tranfmutable it is into 
fieHi, may be of deeper doubt. 

And although the ajnrattraded may be conceived to nourifh the invifible flame 
of life , in as much as common and culinary flames are nourifhed by the ayr about 
them •, we make fome doubt whether ayr is the pabulous fupply of fire , much 
lefs that flame is properly ayr kindled. And the fame before us, hath been deni- 
ed by die Lord of VirnUm^ in his Trad of lite and death, an'd alfo by Dr. fordtn 
in his book of Mineral waters. For that which fuhftantiaJly maintaineth the fire 
is the combuftible matter in the kindled body, and not the ambient ayr, which afl 
fordeth exlialation to its fuliginous atomes ^ nor that which caufeth the flame 
properly to be termed ayr, but rather as he expreffeih it , the accenfion of fuli- 
ginous exhalations , which contain an unAuoIity in them, and arife from the mat- 
ter of fuel, which opinion is very probable, and wiilfalve many doubts , whereof 
the common conceit affordeth no folution. 

As lirft. How iire is ftricken out of flints ? that is, not by kindling the ayr from 
the coilifion of two hard bodies ^ for then Diamonds fiiould do the like better 
then flints *, but rather from tbefulphur and inflamable eiHuviums contained in 
them. The like faith f^^^jrn we obferve in canes and woods, that are unftuous 
and full of oyl, which will yield fire by fiication, or coUifion , not by kindling 
the ayr about them, but the inflamable oyl within them. Why the fire goes out 
without ayr ? that is, becaufe the fugilinous exhalations wanting evaporation 
recoyl upon the flame andcboakit, as is evident in cupping-glaffes ^ and the ar- 
tifice of charcoals, where if the ayr be altogether excluded, the lire goes Out. 
Why fome lamps included in clofe bodies have burned many hundred years,as that 
difcovered in the Sepulchre of TV^/Zin the lifter of Cicero^ and that of OUbius many 
y ears after, near P4j«4.^ becaufe whatever was their matter, either a preparati- 
on:gold,or Naftha^ the duration proceeded from die purity of their oyl which 
yielded no fuliginous exhalations to fuffocate the fire ^ For if ayr had nourilhed 
the flame, it had not continued many minutes, for it would have been fpent and 
wafted by the fire. Why a piece of flax will kindle , although it touch not the 
flame ? becaufe the fire extendeth further, then indeed it is vifible, being at fome 
I diftance from the week, a pellucideandtranfparent body , and thinner then the 
ayritfelf Why Mctcils in their liquation, although they intenfly heat the ayr 
above their furrace,«ifenot yet into a flame, nor kindle the ayr about them • 
becaufe their fulphur is more fixed , and they emit not inflamable exhalations! 
And laftly, why a.lamp or candle burneth onely in the ayr about it, and inflameth 
not the ayr at a diftance from it ? becaufe the flame extendeth not beyond the 
mflamable eflluence, but dofely adheres unto the original of its inflamation-, 
and therefore it onely warmeth, notkindleththeayr about it. Which notwith- 
ftanding it will do, if the ambient ayr be impr^nate with fubcile inflamabili- 
ties , and fuch as are of quick accenfion •, as experiment is made in a clofe room, 
upon an evaparation of fpirits of wine and Camphire^ as lubcerraneous fires 
, do fometimes happen ^ and as Creufa znd Alexanders boy in the bath were fet on 
I fire by Naptha. 

Laltly , TheElementof a^T is fo &r from nouriihing the body , that fome 
have qucitioned the power of water ^ many conceiving it enters not the body in 



lilCp')WCTOr»Slllirj I. .J' ill- '-^pIV' 

lorbci'tlc [Iij' rci'ii.-u--flcui. lom- 

iifijit i.>!" ,' ■', ..■;J ii-t w ■■■-■. who 

■ -niorcj'c.l-j'M ArtiiiiaU, 

inciBl nutrition, Icrvjng 

I i ■ ■.iLinthcftymatii-, wliicfa 

,. ,sa itrnp.-iryiilijt'iigli IcN at<.fi!il!r civiue* incoiSe liver,' 

- ntoilo veins, and To inarofiJ lul>naPtctlirouEli(hc ctpillary tavi- 

. ry j-art-, whitb having pcrlbmicJ, ttisatteiwai-ti citlodedby Urine. 

1'n.rjL LTiMk-iouitepiiratinni. AnJiliisnpinion furdy iicfTefTcd cbc Ancienti ; jftrf 

wlicii ilicy rultigUy cununeiKlcil thai water whicb is fuddealy hw and cold, 

W'tiklitftWitLuutallfiitnui, the liglitcfl , (betbinnd) , and vhtch will foootft 

boil BeanioT i'ca(c,tbc)' tadfiocunriiterwonot' iiDtriiion ^ wbrrcttmo had tb^ 

had rtf^A , (tiL-y tcould have futvly commended ^rofi And lurbtd ftromc, in 

wlior.'t'jfUulinoailult, there might be contiincd rocne nQtrimeoc-. udnocje- 

! juiic w liinjHd wattr , nearer the limplicity of iti Elaneflt. Alihou^, I cooras, 

I oordtfticft waTeriamlfuthMfccm (iniplcuniofcnfe, arc tnuch compounded unto 

j realuii, osnuiy be obfcived m the c\3pontion oMarge (junnciiics of nritct^ 

i wbf rein bdidc a tcfreousrefidencerofneliJciJiatfofiiuna, u is alio obliarviUein 

' raiD water \ wliii.h appearing pure and empcy, i« fiill at leimnil principle! , ind 

( rarnciL Vital a;timc«ot plantsand AnimaUinit, which have nutperifhed in the 

I ItotatcirtuUuonot narurc-, ai may be difcovered fi-om frvenl Infcfts eenerared 

^U^ninwaier,from the prevalent fruAificationofpUnu thereby; and(bdidcchc 

^^Mdlplaaiof CfrMrtN.'JIfOm Tcgeitbleligurttiou, upoa^fldaofglifTct, To 


f~J All wbicb confidercd, fcverfcr heads wi'l be *pt enough to cbiKCivi! the opinJ- 
I oa of ihiJ Animal, cot much unlike thai of the Ailomi, or men without mouitu 
in Piiay; luubic untotlic rduionof ttieMareiinif^xiM, and their fubvenune- 
I oui concq)[iom , from t lie Wellern wind; itndin fomeway more unrea(baabk 
' liicnilw ligmentof Jf^f-iMw the timou* horfc in Amfit, which bong conceived 

I by flame and wind . iic\ er nified etjU. or fed on any grofTer provender tlien ayr , 
for ahti way of nutrition wai anlwerable tioio (be pnnciplet of his genencion . 
Which bcingnoi airy, butgrofsind leminallin ibe Chlmeleon ; Qmo iii con- 
fccvacioo tlicre it re<]uited a folid paflure , and i food congencrou't unto the 
I prinaplf! of iu nature 

I The groundi of this opinionare (nany , ihe ftrft 6bfervcd by Threfhrgftiu, 
wasihettiflstionor fwellingofihcbody , made in thii Animi) upon in^iration 
; or drawing, in iw breath ; which people Obfdrving , have thought it to frtd 
.uponayr. but ttut etfe*.'^ is rather occallooed upon the greatncfs of in lungi, 
which mthit Animal are very large, and bv their backward licuation, iSoid 
ft more obfcrvabtc dilatation ; and Uiougb tocir lungs be kii, the like inflation is 
alfo obfcrvable inToids. 

A Icconil is itie continual biatton or holding open tct niooth, which men obfer- 
ving, conceive tlic ifitrntioo thoeof t<J rtctive the Anient of ayr ; but thii ti al& 
jtyvaliunedby thcgreatoeliofitf lut^-, for repledoo whereof not having a fuf^ 
jUdent w r»Jy fupplybyiu odftrtlS} it ii nobrced to dilate and bold open ibe 

I \VKS. 

I The third ii the paucity of blood obfcrvcd in thtt Ammal, fcarcc at all to 
.bcfi>undbiit inthecye, ^daboot theb^t ; which dcfed bang obferved , in- 
, clined Ibmc intothoughcf, that the iyr was afufficicnt maintenance for (hcTe 
Iczinguioniparts. Butthri defc^ otrathcr paucity of bited, ii alfo agreeable 

unto many other AnimaU, wbofe Iblid nutriment we do not cortxuvert^ ai 
I Biay be ohrerved m other ibntof Uurdi , in Frogs ind divert FiHici : utd 
Itberri'on: on Horie-lccch will notreidilvf^fbnapoficveryfiffr, lodwc do not 

\ ' T Z • roa 


pliBii tnit 
anlinili coo- 
ubcd Id 1*1 !)• 

4. fijBI. 



Enquiries into Vulgar 

BabK 3- 

read ofmuch blood that was drawn from Frogs by Mice ^ in chat famous battel 
of Homer. 

Tbe laft and moft common ground which begat or promoted this opinion,ts the 
long continuation hereof without any vifible food •, which fome observing, pre- 
cipitoufly conclude they eat not any at all. It cannot be denied it is (if not the 
moft of any j a very abftemious Animal , and fuch as by reafon of its frigidity » 
paucity of blood, and laticancy in the winter (about which time the obfervations 
are often made) will long fublift without a vifible fuftentation. But a like con- 
dition may be alfo obferved in many other Animals • for Lizards and Leeches, as 
we have made triall, will live fome moneths without fuftenance*, and we have in- 
cluded Snails in glafles all winter, which have returned to feed again in the fpring. 
Now thefe notwithftanding, are not conceived to pals all their lives without food ^ 
for fo to argue is fallacious , and is moreover fufficiently convided by experi- 
ence. And therefore probably other relations are of the fame verity, which are 
of the like affinity ^ as is the conceit of the RhintMce in Perfia^ the Csmis Levis of 
America, and the AianucoJiiata or birdof Paradife in India. 

To affign a reafon of this abftinence in Animals, or declare how without a fup- 
ply there enfueth no deftructive exhanftion, exccedeth the limits and intention of 
my difcourfe. FcrtHnins Licetus in his excellent Trad , de his qui diu vivumt 
fine aUmentOy hath very ingeniouily attempted it ^ deducing the caufe hereof 
firom an equal conformity of natural heat and moiftnre, at leaft no coniiderable 
exupe^ancy in either ^ which concurring in an unadive proportion , the natural 
heat.confumeth not the motfture (whereby enfueth no exhauftion) and the condi- 
tion of natural moifture is able to refift the (lender adion of heat ( whereby it i 
needeth no reparation) and this is evident in Snakes, Lizards, Snails, and divers 
other infects latitant many moneths in the year • which being cold creatures, con- 
taining a weak heat in a crafs or copious humidity , do long fubfift without nu- 
trition. For the adivity of tbe agent , being not able to over-mafter the refi- 
fiance of the patient , there will enfue no deperdition. And upon the like grounds 
it is, that cold and phlegmatick bodies, and ( as Biffrocrdtes determineth ) that 
old men will befl endure fafting. Now the fame hannony and ftationary confti- 
tution , as it happeneth in many fpecjes , fb doth it fall out fometime in Indi vidu- 
als. For we read of many who have lived long time without aliment • and be- 
fide deceits and impoftures, there may beveritable Relations of fbme, who with- 
out a miracle, and by peculiarity of temper, have fkr out-faftcd EHm. Which 
notwithfhnd^ng doth not take off tbe miracle • for that may be miraculoufly 
effeded in one, which is naturally caufable in another. Some naturally living 
unto an hundred ^ unto which age, others notwithflanding could not attain with- 
out a miracle. 

Chap* XX 11* 
Of the Oeflridge. 

THe common opinion of the Oeftri(^ , Struthiocamelus or Spsorrow-Camell 
conceives that it digefteth Iron-, and this is confirmed by the affirmations 
of many, befide fwarms of others^ Rhodiginm in his preledions taketh it for 
granted, f chanties Langim in his Epiftles pleadeth experiment for it •, the com- 
mon picture alfb confirmeth it , which ufually defcribeth this Animal with an 
horfhoe in its mouth-Notwithfianding upon enquiry we find it very queftionahlc, 


BaOl $. 

And C*1UVIM E K It O V I . 


and the negative feanjmoflFWftiiMiblyciUercamed-, wliofcveniy imkrdwc id 
i(icr.itiKr JciiK, bceaufe hereby we (ball rcljcveimr ijrurancj: of o"c occult 
quality ^ frir intne lill thereof it i* .icowntcd, anitm itiai i!"<i(initnpen(iufly ob- 
truded upon". 1"! iTi'. own pan, Lii(liiiu:^>li ) have had [be l^glityt this Atiimal. 

1 tave d<j: 
on of doii' 

finguUnty ; tiihLi 
8tnbulou». Pliti ■■ 
fuUitiihi* Aflimal, ■ 
Cionof Iton, Lt*Afr'id'ji!\ wbu !i 
abound, fpcaiiKhdiminubvfly, andli 
fimpUy 4tmm*i tfi , ijmrtfmiA I'm-mr 
ftrtttiittt in his fccond De •iti&iii rrr 
his Comment thrrfofpoliiivcly tlcniait, 

ii[, bD[hiiverecei%cdgRsc otofi- 

..irvtrciCC'J tir;i.vii'flrefi|i'flttnihi< 
:'i, rejeftine iC 

' 'ihoiuany nicn- 
. iC4 fthcnrin ilwy cioli 
i-affernciOj AVrjjHw ^r 

■nij':, oxLt-nuarRii , otul fOthmM m 
Some have espcnmcfltutly rctiiccd it. 

n Alhrrim AU^mw ; nnd mofl plainly ''/i/r; /tldrevMJiny wluil'c worifc ate 

tbetc^ F.f^o ferri fruiht arvtrUrr, Hjhu Tndritii rjfrm, tbfrrvAvi ^ fid ftM iV 
zed^rtnim'ttcermrrt , thaciJ, ,umy bcingat Trent, I oMtrPcdthcOeftridfie. 
taf*Pallowlroti, but y« tocKcludcJt undigcTicdngaiu. 

Nuwbdidteicpcnmeni , it isin ninto3ttcmptaga(n((it byTbilarophinUat- 
gomcnt, iibc!ngftn«aik<iualicy, which contcmm the lawoi Kcafon, and de- 
t€od5n(i:lt'hyadmittin5nornron.n[3U. As ftir iw pyllib',tirj' wc (hall not at 
prelcnt diCpnic^ nor will wc affirm rliat Iron ingeflcd , nrceivoih in the llomack I Howr>ofli- 
ofdicl>ellndge nonltcrationatall , but if any ftch ihercbe. we fufpcct iWs Mk' '•" ^'^ 
effect rather from fome way of corrofton, rhcn any of digeltionj not aiiy h- nuttofAe 

rlreductumor tetMtanceroehilificationby thcpowerofnscnmlh&it, hut ra- '^^^'•h' 
Joiiieactrttion frotnfln aciJc and vitrioloui humidity in the llomacV, fthich ^j^*'" 
'may ablScrfc and (have (hi; ftorioiis pans tbercof. So rufh- Iron down 
iheihroac of a Cock, will become tcrfc and cfcar again in its gizzard : So die 
Counicr which according to the relation o^ AnuuMf remained a whole year in 
cbe body of a youth , and cameout much confumcd ac laft ■, might fuffcr this di- 
minution, ratbcT from fliarp and acidc humours , then the ftrcngth of BaturaT 
bMt,ashcruppofrt!i. So lilvcr fwallowcd and retained fometjmcin the body, 
will turn blatic, a* If it had been dipped in Aqua firtir, or fomecorrofive water, i 
but Lead will rcimiti unaltered , fyr that mettal containeth in it a fircct (alt or 
fugar, whereby It rdilkih ordinary cwrrofion, and wiil not talily difTolvc even 
iaA^M fortij. So when for medical ufcs, wc takedown the tilings of Jron or 
Steel, wc mull not coiccivc it palTeth unaltered from us -, for though the grof- 
fcr parts bcexduded again, yet are die dJToIuble parts cxtraded , whereby it 
becomes effectual indeopilations-, aodtbcreforc for fpeedier operation wc make 
extinitionj.infulions, andtht.Iikc, whereby we cxtraAthe fait and adivc parts I 
of the Medicine i whichbeing info!ution,morcca!^ly enter thcvcuw. Andthtst Wfcv the 
a that tlieCbymills mainly drive at in the attempt of their Aurtim Pnitbilt , that ^-hxr.ttls 
is, to reduce that iDdicclbble fubftance into futh a form as inaj' not be ejcl^t- , J* "'"'"'" 
eabyfiege, bat enter uic cavities, and lefsacceflibJc parts of (be body, without) J^ Vs/l 

The ground of this concrit a iKrwaUowingdownfra^edtsOf Iron , wliich ' 
nten obfcrvmg. by a froward illation, have tbcrrforeconctived it digelleth tlicni -, 
whichi»an inference nottobeadmittcd, as being aftllacy of the ct'iifcfjacfir, 
that t* , concluding a polition of the confeijuent , from the pofiticn of the 
antecedent, for many ihingi arc fwollowcif by Animati, rachcr for condiment, I 

gtril or Medicament, tlicn any fubflantial notniwni. So Poultrcy, and cfpecBilly 
thcTurke^', doof thenifiilvestalicdownttonc* ^ and wchsvcfounJ atone time 
inrhegixrard'of aTurkeynolcis then fcven hundred. Now thdi,- rather con- 

iM ! 


OO K } 

car unto digeftion, then are themfei ves digefted ^ for vre have found cheoi aifo in 
the guts and excrements • but their defcent is very flow , for we have given them 
ftones and finiili pieces of iron, which eighteen days after we have found remain- 
ing in the gizard. And therefore the experiment of LMngim and others might be 
miflaken^ whilft after the taking they expeded it (hoaid come down within a day. 
or two after. Thus alfo wcf fw^llow Cherry-flones,but void them unconcofted,and 
How Cherry- 1 we ufually fay they prefer ve us firooa furfet t for being hard bodies they conceive a 
ftones may be fii:6ng Ind durable heat in the ftomack, arid fo prevent the crudities of their fruit ^ 
thought to ^„ J „ jp^i^ ^\^^ lil(^ reafon do culinary operators oofer ve ^ that flefli boils beft . when 
XwtS thebonesareboikd withit. Thus dogjwiU eat gral$,whiJi they digeft not :Thos 
C^ics.^ I Camels to make the water lapid, do raife the mud with their feet : Thus horftt 
j will knable at walls ^ Pigeon^ ddight in iak ftones. Rats will gnaw Iron j and 
' Ariftotle faith the Elepnaht fwalloweth ftones. And thus may alfo the Oe* ^ 
ftridge fwallow Iron *, hot as his pro0tf dimdit^ but for the ends above expreffed, 
and even as we obflfr ve the like in Other Animifls. 

And whethd: thefe firagmenti oflron and hiird fui]»fianccs fwaJIOwed by the Oe- : 
ftridge, have ndt alio that ufe in their fttrmacks^ which they ki^ in other birdi ; : 
that isjn fbme way to fupply the ufe of teeth, by commolition, grinding and com- 
preflion of their proper aliment, upon theaaion of the (farongly conformed muf- 
des of the ftomack •, as the honor'd Dr. Hurt/r^ difcourfeth^ may alfo be tonfidered. 
What eflfeft therefore may be expeftedfrom the ftomack of an Oefbi^ by ap- 
plication alone to further digeftion in ours^ befide the experimental ridfuce piGs- 
kn, we refer it unto confiderations above alledged ^ Or whether there be any 
more credit to be given unto the Medicine ofv/Elidm^ who affirms tha ftones they ' 
fw^lldWhavea peculiar vemie for the eyes ^ then that of Hermoltw and P/ini 
drawn from the urine of this Animal ; let them detdininc wfio can fwallow io 
(brange a tranfmif Gon of c^ualities.or believe that any Bird or flying Animal doth ' 
feparately and diftin Aly urme befide the Bat. I 

That tnerefore an Oeftridge will fwallow and take down Iron , is eafily to be 
granted : that oftentimes they pais entire away ^if we admit of ocular tcftimony not 
to be denied. And though fonde experiment may alfo plead , that fomedmes they 
are fo altered^ as not to be found or excluded in any difcernable parcels : yet whe- . 
ther this be not efFefted by fome way of corrofion , from fharp and diffolving 
humidities, rather then any proper digeftion, cbilifadive mutation, oralimenul 
cbnverlion, is upth good reafon doutted. 

I Some doubt 
I to be mtdc 

figpificth In 


Chap. XXIII. 

of Unictrns hfru. 


GReat account and much profit is made of^ Unicorns horn, at leaft of ihat 
which beareth the name thereof; wherein notwithfbmding, many I per- 
ceive fiifpeft an Impofture , and fome conceive there is no fuch Animal extant. 
Hertin dherefore to draw up our determinations ^ befide the feveral plac^ of 
Scripture mentioning this Animsd (which fome may well contend to beonely 
meant of the Rhinoceros^ we are fo fiur from denying there is any Unicorn at all, 
thait we afiirm there are many kinds thereof In the number of C^iadrupedes, wc 
witt concede no lefsthm five*, that is, the JndumOx^ the/M^MAis, the Rhi- 
noceros, the Oryx, and that which is more eminently termed MmiQcer^j^ or Vni- 
cornu. Someintbeiiftoffi(hei; uthatdefcribed hyOtMm^Al^irtfuzDdoAtnz 


■ • ■■ 

Book S- 

AHd CffifVM EaiVDUs. 


cTi: be many Uritoiia , m arc w-r (\A\ w ' 

I HI* 

crcbeliddw«|jIicadiI.i.choifcs- T'^"'*^ ' 
Mill tiic bfflj of a D«r ; pji^] \ "''"*■ 

- fc-ici>hinL*i liutihorctwiJwMi 

:k-ll).N>occdlikcaGoac. At^^ti. 

.::,, It i!.i;ulu-lMt;ni.-bot .in H.-Uk-, a» 'V/.w^roy,. of a Cwit - rim 

-. .r fpraktUt 01 was not lo big as an Hciicr ■ tu, Pm/uj i'numr nf- 

::cyari:biii hate Itfe tijcn EJcpbanti. Wliicharc difo-imifationi vcrv 

r, jjJplunlydctUic, ^t under tbc time mrrvc Authors dcfcribcoof tw 

lame Amiiiil : (btJuttbcUnitomsbdrnol one, is Mt that of another alihyugh 

we (WDclaim ail equal vonucmall. ' *' 

i liirulv, Alttioui.h we were agreed wlmi Arirral tins was, or dift^rcd nt>i 

initt dcfcniition , vet wuulJ (bisalfijaflbrd butiKcltjfiimfadion^ for ibchorn 

we commonly CHOI, Unotihc lame with tliat ttf the Anncmt. l-V>r tjiac in ihe 

' (.. ': ...riofv^yi-rtastd/'Artj waiWack: ihi» wbith u Ihrwcd amongft m is 

whitcnuneblaiktaodofthofciivc which i^crfiiWbdidd though' 

. . . .iw, ur y a hght red .ind two cadining to reJ . yet waj there not 

!_ ,.;:^ctnIlpk'XlOoaml■^ngthl•m. 
Vuurilily, Wliat horns focver they be which pais amonnflai!, iheyare not 
fiirely ibc horm of any one liuni ot Animal, bnt mull proceed fromfoverjlibrt* 
of Unkorm, fur kinic arc wrwthed, fume net : That famous one which I5 
prefeivedatSt./V»wwj near P-rw. hath wreaihyfpires, and dioclcary turning 
obomu, wlutJi agrettb wiihtbc deftnpiiim of the Umtorns-horn in ---i lian 
1 hole two in the trciiurc ot it. /I/4>-;;_arc plain, and bcR accord with thofe oi' 
the !nMitn\U, pr the dclcriptions of other Umcoriij: MhtrtHi At4i„mtMm\i 
\ cth one ten fuot long, and at, the bafe about tbirttxn inches compals : And thac 
' ot Anrwerp mXwSxGnrtfiMt BaatiKs dcfcribeth, is not much infcriour uoco it 
whicli bcJUficee umo thcdcfcriptionsof the Sea-UnicomS; for tbcfe, as OW 
aJfirmeib. areot ihat llrengihandbigncfs, asable topmetrarc thenbUiffliiw 
[The fame is more probabic, in thaut wasbcou^ufroni rfland, from whence as 
iiVfrfMi aillrnicih, thrccwbcr wcrebroughtinhisdays .- And we have heard of 
1 Ionic whith hive been found by the sca-isdc, and brought unto us from yfimmeii. 
'VJtbatwiiilcweiOfnmcndtheUnKornstjorp, and contnvea peculiar but unro 
.j;;i-;urM;.!h un^iTspprehcnfion of tlie Cimcvcnue, we ut very niany ■ «0d 
c >iiiii,c:u; iitai erfed irom alJ, which evr7aQc contineth uotofouieonebe'hiUi 
i.tfiLTlf ■iiorddLribed. 

btHhly , AUboughiiiercbcmanyUnicarnF, and confctjuently many horns 
yet many there ate which bear that name, and turnmly pa^ among us whldi 
irenoliorowtail- *.uth ate tli<t(c fra^mcaisand ptecoioi L^pu Crr.uir'er,Kutn' 
.1 r ■... .,. f >r.i- whereof Baun, had nolefs then twenty ll-vcri^ fom 
' "in- Hereof in fnblcmncoui cavitic*. and undcf 
LI- tound in &\■a^\aJlib( Girm^fff ^ which aro &tjc 
■iliii.-t -- i -,. '■^■^tivcmutationjoffaardbodicf-, fomctiiitcoVhoni 
■ of 



Enquiries im$ Vfdgir 


K 34 

monly ufcd 

what it is. 

De vnmmu. 

of teeth, of bones, and tiranches of trees, whereof there are fome fo imperfedly 
converted, as to retain the odor and qualities of their originals •, as he rdateth of 
pieces of A(h and Walnot. Again, in raoft, if not all which pafs amongft us, 
and are extolled for precious horns , we difcover not an affection common unto 
I odier horns ^ that is, they molliiie not with fire , they foften not upon decoaion 
or infufion, nor will they afford a jelly, or mucila^noQs concretion in either - 
which notwithilanding we may effed in Goats horns, Sheeps, Cows and Harts- 
horn, in the horn of dbe Rhinoceros, the horn of the Priftis or Sword-fiflu Nor 
dft they become friable or eafilypowderable by Philofophical calcination, chat is, 
from tne vapor or fleam of water, butfplit and rift contrary to other hooms. 
Briefly, tbit which is commonly received,and whereof there befo many fragments 
preferved in England ; is not onely no horn, but a fiibffamce harder then a bone, 
that is, the tooth of a Morfe or Sea-horfe • in the midft of the folider psCrt con- 
taining a curdled grain, which is not to be found in Ivory. This^ in Nortncm Re- 
gions is of frequent ufe for hafts of knives, or hilts of fwords, and being Jnirnt be- 
comes a good remedy for fluxes : but Anddotally ufed, and expofed for Uniconis 
horn, it is an infufferable delufion^ and with more veniaUe deceit, it might have 
been praftifed in Harts-horn. 

The like deceit may be practifed in the teeth of other Sea-animals ; in the teeth 
alfoof the Biffofoumm, or great Animal whidl frequenteth the KxytTNilms: 
For we read that the fame was anciently ufed in (lead of Ivory or Elephants toodi. 
Nor is it to be omitted, what hath been formerly fufpected, but now confirmed) 
by Okns Wormins^ and Thomas BarthoHmu , that tnofe long horns preferved 
as pretious rarities in many places , are but the teeth of Narhwhales ^ to be found 
about Ifland, Greenland and other Northern r^ions ^ of many kn long , com- 
mk>nly wreadied, very deeply faflned in the upper jaw, and flanding directly for- 
ward, graphically deu±ibed in BarthoUnns, according unto one fent from a Bi- 
(hop oruland, not feparated from the crany . Hereof Mercator hath taken no- 
tice in his defcription of Ifland : fome relations hereof there feem to be in Furchat, 
who alfodelivereth that the horn it l^ir^r. was in his fixond voyage brought 
hither by Frolnfier. Thefe before the Northern difcoveries, as unknown rarities, 
werecarried by Merchants into all parts of Efirope-, and though found on the 
Sea-(hore, were fold at very high rates ; but are now become more common, and 
probd)ly in time will prove of little efteem ^ and tlie bargain of fnUnj the 
third, be accounted a very hard one, who fluck not to. give many thouiand 
aowns for one. 

Nor is it great wonder we may be fo deceived in this , being daily gulled in the 
brother Antidote Bczoar ^ whereof though many be falfe, yet one there pafleth 
amongft us of more intolerable delufion\ fomewhat paler then the true flone,and 
|ivenby women in the extremity of great difeafes , which notwichflanding is no 
Rone, but feems to be the ftony feed of fome Lithofpermum or greater Grumwell ^ 
or the Lobus Echinatus ofCInfius, called alfo the Bezoar Nut j for being broken", 
it difcoverethakernelof a leguminous fmetl and taft, bitter like a Lupine,and will 
fwell and fprout if fet in the ground, and therefore more ferviceable for 
then dangerous and virulent difeafes. 

Sixthly, Although we were fatisfied we had the Unicorns horn , yet were it no 
injury unto reafon to queftion the efficacy thereof, or whether thofe vertues pre^ 
tended do properly belong unto it. For what we obferve, (and it efcaped not the 
obfiervation of PmmIms fovins many years paft) none of the Ancients afchbed any 
medicinal or antidotal vertue unto tne Unicorns horn-, and that which t/£ium 
extoUeth, who was the firft and only man of the Ancients who fpakeof the me- 
dical vertue ^any Unicorn, was the horn of the /if^'4i»Ais-, whereof, £uth he. 
the Princes of tbde parts make bowls and drink therein, as prefervatives againft 
Poyfon, Convnlfions, and the FaUing-fickneis.Now the defcription of diat born ii 



Book }. 

ad Ctmmm E n 


imc agreeable unto thit wc commend ; fbrtbat (Tailbhrjurrttabove.wliitebe- 
low, nnd blarti m the middle i which i*verydirt«mrfromour», urmy tobefcea; 
amongrt us. And thus, though the drfcripiionofche Unicorn be very ancient 
yetwitibcftofoldnovertueafcrlbAlumoit ; Andakhougb thtt amongnmre- 
Kive the opinion of the fame vcrtue, yet isitoocthciifDeboro whercouwdie 
Antienti afcribcd it- 

Lflfllv, Although we allow it «n Amidotall efficary, and fuch « the An-'; 
cients commended, yet »re there fome Vcrtucf afcribeij tbercio by Moderns 
not cafily to be rcrtitfed ^ and it hitb furdy fain ttuc in thi», ss other macmfifll , 
medicine*, wbofc opcrationj cifciS'jjII in fome difeafa, an; prcrci«yci-, 
tendedumoall. That fotne AniidoLill quality iimiiy havt, wc hive no ret- 
fon to tleny-. for frace 0)h hoofi and horns .in; (nagmlicd for EpiJcpfies, 
fince not only the booe in the hwrc, but die horftof il Deer ij AlcKiphat- 
inacil, and ri^;redicnt imo the confcflion of Hyacinih, and the EWttory of f*?oHi«ai 
Maiimilian-, wccMinot without picpidtcceiccp: againft the efficacy Of tlii*. ''"*'""■ 
But when we affirm it is not only Antidotal to proper venoms, and ftbftanca i 
dcftrudivc by <pulide« we cinnor exprefi ■ but ihnt ic rcfiflcth illd Sub- 
liiittte, Arfcnick, and poyfons which (till by fwoivd (]uahdo, that it, by cor- 
niiion of pans i I doubt wc exceed the propcritcs of itt nature, 4nd the pro- 
mifci of experiment will not fecnre the sdventure. .\nd rbereibre in fuch 
extremities, whether (here be ntn more pobaWe relief from fjc sndoyliefob- 
Oanc«, winch afc the open tyrants ova- fiilt and corrolivc bodte», then preciouj 
and cordial medicine* which operate by fecret and difputablc proprirtits; or 
whether he that fwallowcd Lime, and drank down Mercury water, did not 
more rcafonably pUcc his care in milk, butter or oyl, then if he had rccufrcd 
unto Pearl and Bezoar j common rc^oa at afl times, aod ncceflity iti the like 
caft would cafily determine. 

Sinccthcrcfore there be many Unicorm-, iioct tfMt wliereto weappropfiitea 
hornisfovariounydcfcribcd, that it feemelh cither never to havebbcn Jeen bj- 
twopcrfODS, ornot tohavcbccnoncaniraalli Since though iliey agreed m the 
dcfcripiioft of the animall, yet is not the horn we c8 toll the &me with that of the 
Ancient* i SixKC what hornsfoe»«rtbeyhcil«t pafs among us, they are not the 
iiOtns of one. but fevcnill animals : Since n^any in common nfc and high efteem tft 
flObornsat all: Since ifthey were trae horns, yet might tlic:rvcnuci be que- 
ftioned ; Since though we allowed fofte Yertucs.yct were not otbcrs tobere- 
ceived, with what fccurity a man may rdy on tliii remedy, riie miftrtfi of foob 
baihalrtady inftfuftcdfomc, andtowiOfeMn (whkh is never too wi&'io lata) 
ic is not too late [o conlidcr. 

Cm A». XXIV. 
thtt aS AnimUi »f the LiUid, ire in f heir kind in t^S^^ 

THatallAnimatsortheUfld.arein tbeirftiHdintheSea.althOUgb'recfivtdas 
a principle, is a teoenc rery queftiooable, and will admit of redraiiit. For 
fome in the Su ire not to be matclit by any enquiry at Land, and hold ihofe 
fha^ which tcrre[lriou5 forms approach not-, asmaybcobferVed itl (he Moon-j 
filli, or Oiibragoriftu5,the fevcrall foru of Ratil*i, TofpcJo'j.Oyllers. and mwiyt 
more -, and Ibme there arctnthe Land wh:chweren«vermaintainedEobeinEhc! HiAotyol 
Sea, as pftnibcrs, Hyarfia's, Camels, SIfcep, ^fol^l, and others, which carry oo Ei*«*- 
naitieiol^hyology, ntirareCobcfoundintbeAaadclcriptioRs t}( RtiultlrtimtJ_ 
VtfiKr:m AldrntAmbu. ■ ^^ i 

' U AB»io.| 


i^S I 

Bfiqmrus tnu Vulgdr 

Book 3. 

\Yfbjtii orcbit, 
f Ccrcopitbcto- 

Again , Though many there be y^bich make ouc their nominations, ds the 
Hedge«-hog , Sea-ferpents and others *, yet are there alio very many that bear 
the name of animals at Land, which hold no r^femblance in corporal configura- 
tion^ in which account we compute VnlftcnU^ CanU^ Rmmm^ Pajfer, CmchIhs^ 
AftUus , Turdus, Lepus , &c. Wherein while fome are called the Fox , the 
Dog, the Sparrow or Frog-fiih , and are known by common names with 
thofeat Land^ as their defcribers atteft, they receive not thefe appellations 
from a totall (imilitude in figure , but any concurrence in common accidents, 
in colour , condition or iin^c conformation. As for Sea-horfes which much 
confirm this aflertion-, in their conmmon defcriptions , they are butCrotefco 
deliniations which fill up empty fpaces in Maps , and meer pidorial inven- 
tions, pot any Phyfical (hapes: futabie untothofe which ( zs PUnj deliver- 
I eth ) PrMxiteles long ago fee out in the Temple of Domhius. For that 
which is commonly called a Sea-horle,is properly called aMorfe, and makes 
not ou( that (hape. That which the Ancients named Hippocampus is a little 
animal abpnt fix inches long, and not preferred beyond the claflis of Infbfts. 
That which they termed Hippopotamus m amphibious animal ^^ about clie River 
Nilcy fq little relemblech an horfe, that as Mdthiolus ohfervech, in all except 
the feet, it better makes Qutafwine. That which they termed a Lion, was 
but a kind of Lobfter : and that they called the Bear, was but one kind of Crab : 
and that which they named BQAnuHnus , was not as we cor.ceive a fifh re- 
Icmbling an Oxe, put a Skaitq or Thornback, (o named from its bignefs.ex^ 
prefTed by the Greek word Bous^ which is a prefix of augmencatioq to many 
words in that language. 

An4 tbrrefore although it be not denied that fome in the water do carry 
a jufiifiat)le refemblance to (ofXit at Land, yet are the major part which bear 
their names unlike •, nor do they otherwi^ refemble the creatures on eartli , 
then they on earth the conftellacions wh^h pais under animall names in 
heaven : nor the Dog-fi(h at Sea much more qoake out the Dog of the Land, 
then (hat his cognominal or name-fake in , the heavens. Now if from a fi- 
flEiilitude in fome, it be reafonable to infer a correfpondency in all , we may 
draw this, analogy of animals upon plants ^ for vegetables there are whicu 
carry a near ana allowable fimilitude unto animals. We might alfo conclude 
that animal fliapes were generally made. out in minerals: for feveral flones 
there are that bear their namet ift relation to animals or their pares, as Lufis an- 
guiuusj Conchites, Echimtis^EncephAUus^ayEgopthdlmus^^nA many more • as will 
appear in the Writers of Minerals, and efpecially in Bcstius and Aldrovandus. 

Moreover if we concede , that the animals of one Element, might bear the 
namesof thofe intheocher, yet in drift reafon the ivacery produ ftions (lu)uld 
have the prenomination ; and they of the land rather derive their names, then 
nominate thofe of the Sea. For the watery plantations were firft extent, 
aAd as they enjoyed a priority in form , had alfo in nature precedent denomi- 
nations : but falling not under that Nomenclature of Adumy which unto terrefhri- 
ous animus. afligned a name appropriate unto their natures •, firom fucceeding 
fpcAators they received arbitrary appellations ^ and were refpeftively denomi- 
nated untooTeatures known at Land •, who in themfelvesliad independent names 
and not. to be called afcer them, which were created before them. , 

^^-1 By this afTertioa we reftrain the band of jGod, and abridge the va. 
riety of the creation • making the creatures of one Element ,' but an afting 
over thofe of another , and conjoyningas it were the fpecies of things which 
flood at ^Uftance in the intelied <A Cod^ and though united in the Ghaos, 
kkl feveriii feeds of their creation. For although in that indiftinguifht mafs , 
all things; fjseraed one*, yet fe^ated by the voice of God, according co 
their fpecies, they came out in incommunicated varieties , and'iiraa-l 


Book j. Mi Cnmw* Err oas. 

live fcminaliucs, ai well adividtd placei; and (o although we fay (be woHd 
wa* made in ill daies, yet wai there a* it were a world m every ooS; th« 
is, a diftind creauun of drilinguiflit treaturc* -, a dilbnAion m time of aca- 
lurcs divided in notorc, and a fevenl approbaDOD tai fnrvcy in cf cry one. 



Chaf. XXV. 

CeHCcrmnf the ctmmon covfe of Via. in m*kmv cimee t/fm 
^nimali. And dbfiaitiiig from eating Bwcrs. 

V 7 \ 7Hy we omfine our food onto ccitun Animah, and cocally rejcd 

V V fome othcTBi how thefediftiDrtionsaq)! into fcpcral Narioi»i and 
wbetftcr this praaice be built upon folidreafon, or chiefly fupponcd by cuftomC 
oropinjonj mayadmittonfiJcration. 

lor fiiflibere k no abfoluie neccllicy to feed onany^ and if we re(i(\ not 
ibe ftrcam of Auihority, and fevcraldiduftions from holy Scripture: thtrc 
was no SdTccfhaiie before die flood ; and without die esumg of fldli , our 
,fcther« from vcgttablc ^inicms , prcfcrved thtmfclvcs unto longer lives , then 
(heir poilcriiyby any other, lor whereas it is plainly faid, lliavcgivcny 
every herb which is nponthe fece of all the canh, and every tree, lo w u it 
(hall be for meat -, prifcnriy after the deluge , when the fame had dcftroycd 
or infirrocd the nature of v^etablet, by an exprcllion of enlargement , it is 
■gain ddivcrcd : Every moving thing chat livcth, fhall be meat for you, even 
as the green bcrb, havelmveivyou all things. 

And tberefore alihoQ^ it be fatd thac AM was a Shepherd, and it be not 
readily concaved . the tirll men would k»p ibeep, except they made tbod 
tbereof: great Expofitors will tell us , that it was partly for their skim, 
wherewith ihey were doathed , partly for their milk , whereby ifacy were 
fullainedi andpaidy forSacriticcs, which thc^'alfooffia-ed. 

And thoHgh it may feem improbable , that they offirred fle(h, yet cat not 
thereof; and ylinl can hardly be faid to offer the firfllingi of his flotit, and 
the fotor acceptable part, if men ufed not to taflc the lame, whereby to raiic 
fuch diliindions : Ibmc will confine the eating of flefh unto the line of Cmm^ 
wbocicicnded their luxury , and confined not unto the rule of God. That if 
at any time die line of Stih cat flcOl, it was extraordinary, and only at tbeir 
licnficcsi or ellc ( a« Grttiui hintcth ) if any fuch praaice there were, ic 
was not hroco the beginning ■, but from that time when the waie^ of men were 
corrupted , and whereof it is laid , that the wickeJnefs of mam heart was 
great -, the more righteom pan of mankind probably' conforming unto the 
Set prcfcribed in Paradifc, and theftatc of innoccnty. And yet however the 
pradice of men conformed, this wasthcinjiindion ofGod, andtnightbettere- 
forefufficient, without the foodof fleftL 

That they hrdnotoiiflcfh, at Icaft thefi^thfull party before tite flood, mayj 
become more probable, becaafe they refrained die fame for fome time after.' 
tor fo was it generally delivered of the golden age and ralgn of Sarini ; 
whiih is concaved the time of A'mj&, before the building of Bdiil. And he [ 
that eonfidcretli how agreeable tbi? it unto the traditions of the CeittUtr ^ 1 
that that age was of one tongte : that SatMm devoured all Iii» fons bat \ 
three ; rimt he was the fon of OcfMui/ and "Thait- due a Ship wai his 
SymbotCi that he taught the cultore of vincjirdj, and the art of hustandry, 
U 2 and 

GaA i9- 


vniiie of »»^ 
gmb'ei Im- 
pilrtd by dU 

I Fatlnecf 
tlfdi (prob»- 
lily) tm f<i 

fort [he Hood. 


Enqmrits iMt$ ^0lgMr 

Boob 3. 

mfi mi^(. 


How Mofit 

mlghc diftltt- 
ntti bafts 
undcan before 
the flood* 

inttY quadru- 
pides puutyg 

iand wasthereforedefchfaed with a fickle-, may well conceive, chcfe cradkions 
had their drifiiiial inA'ip^. Nordidchispradicecermiiiaceinhim, bucwiscoo- 
tinned at leaft in many after : as ( befide the Pjthd^rijms of old, and Bmmjtms 
how in Indidj who upon (ingle opinions refrain the kkkI of fle(h ) ancient records 
do hint or plainly deliver. Alchough we defcerdnot folow, as that ^itytf- 
clepiudes delivered by Porphyrins, thac men began to feed on fleih in the raign of 
Pjgmdleon brother of Dido, who invented feveral tormencs, to puniih the eat* 
ersof flefli. 

Nor did men only refrain from the flefli ot beads at firft, but as fome will 
have it , beads from one another. And if we (hould believe very grave con- 
jedurers, carnivorous animals now, were not fletti devourers then, according to 
the expreflion of the divine provifion for them. To e very beaft of the earth, and 
to every fowl of the ayr, I have given every green herb for nieat, and it was fo. 
As is alfo collefted from che flore laid up in tne Ark • wherein there feems, to have 
been no flefhy provifion for carnivorous Animals. For of every kind of vndean 
beafl there went but two into the Ark : and therefore no flock of flefli to fuflain 
them many daies, much lefs almoft a year. 

But wnen ever it be acknowledged that men be^n to feed on fleih , yet 
how they betook tbemfelves after to particular kinds thereof , with rejeAion 
of many others , is a point not clearly determined. As for the diftinftion of 
clean and unclean beafls , the original i$ obfcure> and falveth not ourpradice. 
For no Animal is naturally un(;Ij^, or hath this charader in nature ; and 
therefore whether in this diftinaion there were not fome myitical intention • 
whether Ji^ofes after the diftindion made ofundeanbeafts, did not namecheieib 
before the flood by anticipation : whether this diftindion before the flood , 
were not only in iregard of &crifices^ as thai: delivered after was in regard of 
fbod : ( for m^y were clean for fiH>d, which, were unclean for facrifice ) or 
whether the denomination were but coippurative, and of beafls lefs cominodir 
ousfor food, although not fimply bad, is not yet refolvcd. 

And as for ttjcf^me diflin^ioh in the time of Mofes^ long after the floods 
from thence we hold nore^idion, as bdqg no rule unto Nations befides the 
^ems in dietetical confideration , or natural choice of diet , they being co- 
joiiied or prohibited certain foods upon remote and lecret intentions. Efpc- 
cially thereby ,tQ aVOid community with the Gentiles upon promifcuous com- 
iQema$ty : or to divert them firom the Idolatry of ^gjpt whence they came, 
they were enjoined to eat the Gods of E^pt in the focd of Sheep and Oxen. 
VHth^I in this diftindion of Animals the con(i4eration was hieroglyphicall; 
in tbetxifome anH inward fenfe implying an abflioence firom certain vices fym- 
boiicaUy intimated fr^i^i the nature of thofe aoimak ; as may he well oaade 
but in the prohibited meat of Swine, Cony,' Owl, and many more. 

At leaft the intenf^oq was not medically or fuch as ought oblige unto coo- 
fqrtaify or iihitation ^ For fome we refrain which that Law allowetb, as Lo* 
ciifl^ iahH many others ^ and fome it prohibiteth, which are accounteid good 
meat in ftrid and Medical cenfure : a$ befide many fiflies which haw not Anns 
andfcales, theSwinf^ Cony and Hare, a dainty diih with the Ancients-, as is 
(ielivered by Galtn^ teftified by Mdrti^t^ as the popular opinion implied, that 
men grew fair by the flefli thereof : by the diet of Cato y that is Hare and 
Cabbage^ and the ^iv; nigrum or Black breath of the .f^iir/Mj, which was made 
with the blood and bowek of an Hare, 

And if we cake a view.of otha I^ati^ns, we fli^l difcovcr that they refrained 

many meats upon like confideratiom, For in fome the abflineacc was fymbolicaH •, 

foP;rlyx/0r4r enjoined abftinencc f^om^: tbati^ lufjorioDs and dainty difhes| 

So accordimg to Her$JotMs , ibme t/^ffft$4t$ste£niDed fwioes flefli, as an impure j 

' and fordid aniitial : which whoeva: b^t touchcfl, was fiim to wafli hmfeif. { 


Boot ;. 

Elm OR 5. 

Some tblUinKl fuperRttioufly or upon rcligiou* confnleciDon : ^ihtSpi- 
xaj rclTAincd l-idi and Pigcoits -, die t.-€gjftiam of old, ^"gS E^UandCrD- 
cndtlct ; tdougli tea jifyicttitu dcli\cTt, uuic aiany of Ucc, do cat itictn with 
goodguft: and Htrvdtiut alfo affitmctli, cfiu lite E^ftuunai tUfiimunA 
( uncu whom tttcy wvre doc £icred , ] did eac cltereof io cldtr tioics : and 
WntcTf tritilic, cxi3cihcyaiecai«iattni«daviny(»Ji4 and^Muru-.!. And &, 
as C</^ r«[X>ru, unto tlie xncKnt Briuini it was piiculoui to ullc a Goofe , 
wbicK dtfh at prclcnc no cable e witlwuc. , 

UniofDnicKaitomthe ablUnencc wat policii.'al andfuribniccivilliKlvxaoigc: 
So ttK TbtffAGnHi rciritoed Storlu, bccaulc ihey deflroj'cd their Serpents :, and 
tlic like in iundrj' aiiimah isobferTable in oihtr Nation*. j 

And under all tlwrectinfidCTation^were fonic anintsis rcfnined : (othejun 
abftflined from fwine at firlt fymbolically, a» an Einblemc of iinputiry; and 
not for fear of the Leprolic, *s TMritur wonld pu: upon them. The Cntismt 
lupcrftiDOUOy, upon iraduion that 'jmmer wa« futklcd in tliat tountrcy by a 
Si>w. Some %>Lgyft'ut«t poliiiially , nrcauli: d>ey Ibpplycd the labour of plow- 
ing by looung upihi-'gr^iund. And opon Itkc conUdcratioos pczliawthe Ph*-\ 
mriam and Syri4ni fed not ofi this Animal ; atul as Solinm rept>ru, the jfrdiuut 
alfo and /w4^'4M/. A great ^art of mankind refraining one of the bed foods, and 
fuch ai I'jtlugams htnilcltwould eat •, who, as jf n^Kvmw/rctofdi. refufed not Ep 

Moreover white we (ingle out fcvcral diftjcsand reject others , thcfclfl^oa ' 
fiwmbiHsrbitrary, orupon opinion -, tbrmaoyarccominetMlcdandcryedupiii 
oncage.wliicharedctriedaodnaufcaiedinanatbcr. Thusinihc daycs w Mtcfi- 
H4I, no flefh w3i preferred before young A/Tcs -, uhich notwithlWndiug became 
abominable unto fuccixding appetites. At the Tableof /Jf/M^<(^iy»/ the cotnbs 
of Cockswerc an efteenied fcrvi«; whichcotintryftomacks will not admit at 
oun. The Siuaen or belly and dugs of fwine witn Pig. and fowetimcs beaten 
and bniifcd untodeath : the womb of the Cune Animal, cfpccially that was bar- 
ren, or rlAr had caft her young ones , though a tough and membtarwus port, was 
magnified by Roman Palbtts^ whercumo nevcniiclcfi wecannot perfwade our 
ftOmacK^. How -/Itrc, MrnnsindCarftm, would humour our guU J know ooc^ 
but furcly few there arc that could delight in their Q^ftn^ tlut is, the commoo 
draught of Honey, Qiccfc, partht Baricy-Howcr, Oylaod Wine; which not- 
wirhltandirE was a commcndfd mixture, and in high cfkem among them. We 
monitie out felves witli the diet of lifii , andtlunkwc &re courHyif werc6aia 
from the ilefli of otiwr onimalt. Bat antitiuity held another opinion hereof.- 
when P^rWof^fin prevention of luxury advifed, not fomuchastotaflcoofilh. 
Since the Khjdims were wont to call them down? iMt eat fidh : and fioce PLuoxo 
ciidencc the temperance of (he noWe Orcek* before Tm, obferved, that it was poc 
(buodtheyfed'onltfti, though theylayfolongneartncHe/e/^oMj and was<tti- 
ty obfcrved in the companions of >Wfiv£««/, that being almotl itarired, chcy betook 
ihcmfc! vc» to fiftiing about PUm. 

Nor will ( I fear) the atteft orprcfcript of philofophers and Phyfitiam, be 
a fufficient ground to confirm or warrant common practice, asii dcducibic frtMn 
ancient Writer?, from Hiffocraui^ Galen , Simeon Sethi • and the later iracij 
of NtnHMt and CtfieRAniu. So ArijiotU and Alberttts commend the flefti oi 
young Hiwks: GAltn the fle(h of I'oxei about Autumn when they fixdoo 
Grape; but cooderantth Qyails, and ranketh Geefe but withOcQriges: which 1 
notwitliftanding, prcfcnt practice and every tabic cstolleih- Men think tbeyj 
have &redbardTy,ifin tiroes of extremity they have dcftcndcd fo low as Dogi:| 
but GaUn delivcrcth, that young, fat and gelded, they were the food o\ many | 
Nations; and Hipp^cMW/ranJicthihcfleihofWhcIpswith that of Bird*: who, 
commendstbemagfunfttheSpleen, uid to promoce conception. Theofuni- 





fiuA Willi the 
Andcnn, noc 
cActmtd tarn. 



Gtl, Atm-fat. 

Htf it mtrim 

A luftfjit. 


Emjairies im§ Fmlgdr 

Book 3. 

A problem. 

on in Gdlens time, which Plimj aifo foUowetb, deeply condemned Hcnrfeflefh, 
and conceived the very blood chereof dcftructivc ^ bin no dice is more com- 
mon among the TArtdrs, who alfo drink their blood. And though this may 
onlyfeem an adventure of Nor$hrim fiomzcks, yet as Her§dDiHs teUsus, in the 
hotter clime of Ptrpa^ the fame was a convivial di(h , and folemnly eaten at 
the feafts of their nativities : whereat they dreffed whole Horfes, Cimels aiid 
Aflfcs- contemning the Poverty oiCrtciam feafts, asunfurniihM ofdilhes fui* 
Hcient to fill the bellies of their gueft>. 

Again , While we confine our diet in feveral places , all things almoft are 
eaten, if we take in the whole «arth : for that which is refilled in one coun- 
try is accepted in another, and in the colledive judgement of the world, par- 
ticular diftindions are overthrown. Thus were it not hard to (hew , rfaac 
Tigers , Elephants , Camels , Mice, Bats and others , are the food of feveral 
countries •, and Lerius with others delivers , that fome Ameriams cat of all 
kinds, not refiraining Toads and Serpents : and fome have run fo high, asiMK 
to fpare the flefh of man : a practife inexcufable, nor to be drawn into exaaq4c « 
a diet beyond the rule and larg^ft indulgence of God. 

As for the objection againlt bealb and birds of prey, it acquitteth not oar 
practice, who obferve not this diftinction in fiihes : nor regard the fame in 
our diet of Pikes , Perches and Eels ^ Nor are we excufed fiarein , if we ex- 
amine the ftomacksof Mackerels , Cods and Whitings. Nor is the foulneis of 
feed fnfficient to jultiHe our choice • for ( befide that their natural heat is aUe 
to convert the fame into laudable aliment ) we refufe not many whofe diet is 
more impure then fome which we reject ^ as may be confidered in h(^, ducks, 
pncts and many more. 

Thus we perceive the practife of diet doth hold no certain courle , nor 
folid rule df feleaion or confinement ^ Some in an indifUna voracity eating 
almoft any , others out of a timerous pre-opinion , refraining very many. 
Wherein indeed necefBty , reafon and Phyfick , are the beft detcrminators. 
Surely many animals may be fed on, like many plants • though not in alimen- 
cal,yet medical confiderations ; Whereas having raifed Antipathies by prejudge- 
ment or education, we often naufeace proper meats, and abhor that diet which did 
eafe or temper requireth. 

Now whether it were not beft to conform unto the fimple diet of our fore- 
fathers , whether pure and fimple waters were not more healthfoll. then for. 
mented liquors- whether ^there be not an ample fufficiency without all flefli, 
in the food of honey, oyl , and the feveral parts of milk : in the variety of 
grains, pulfes , and all forts of fruits • fince either bread or beverage may be 
made almoft of all? whether nations have rightly confined unto feveral 
meats? or whether the common food of one countrey be not more agree- 
able unto another ? how indiftinctly all tempers apply unto the fame , and 
bow the diet of youth and oldag^ is confounded: were confiderations much 
concerning health,and might prolong our daies^ but muft not this idifcourfe. 


Chap. XXVI. 
0fSftrm*-Ctih M^the Sferm^Ctti Whdlt. 

Hat Sperma-Ceii if, men might judly doubt, iincetbe learaed B»f- 
mMuM/ in his work of Thircj' ycarj, Until plainly, Nttno ijnij fit. 
And therefore need am wojwlcr ai the variety of opinions ; while fomc coocqr- 
cd it to be fliif mMTu^iod many, a bituminoui fubfUmcc flouingupon tbefn. 

That it wai not the fpawn of the Whale, according to vulgar conceit, or 
nominal ap[)e11aiion, Phylofophert have ahyays doubted -, not ealily ci>i>cdving 
ibcSeminalhumourof ADttnab, IhouIdbcinAammabic ^ orof'a floating nature. 

Thjt It [trocerdcih from the Whale, befidc the rdation of C/«/ijw and otba 
learned obfervcrs, was itvilub4tibly detcrminnl, not many years fincc by a Spemut- 
Ceti Whale, caftonour coailo" Narfeii. Which, tolead on hirihir mauiry, 
we cannot omtt toinform. it comained no Ids then ftxiy foot inlengcn^toe 
head fomcwhat peculiar , with a large prominency over the mt>uth ■, leeth 
only in the lower Jaw , received into flcfliy focttets in the upper. The Weight 
of the largcft about two pound : So gttitly fubftancesinthc mouth, comroonr 
ly called Whale-bones ^ Only two Hiort turns feaicd forwjrdly on thebacil} 
incej'cs bm fmall, thepizcU lar^e, andproniincm. Akflcr Whaieof ihiikind 
above twenty years ago, was call up on the fauie (bore. 

Thcdefcriptionot this Whafc leems omitted h)Ce/Mer, HtmUleiittt, and tJie 
firft Editions of AUb-vvMndns; bu: dcferibedin the latin impceflica d Ptirtms^ 
in the Exoticks of C/*i/i«/ , and the natural hiftory ol Nirfmity^i ^ butmoic 
amply in the1con«and figures of fthnfitMMj. 

Mahners(who arenot the beil ^klmcocUIors) called it a7**»»"/4# , ortfc 
iher Giblrdytdt. Of the lame appellation we meet with one ia XtinU/ttfjff, called 
bytheFrvw-^Gbbar, from its round anJgibbouiback- Thenatne GiUMrtAwe 
find alfo given unto one kind of <7r«»i««J Whale* ; But thisofotfrs fecflicdnot 
loanTweribe Whale of that denomination ; but more agreeable umoiJwTrjdwfii 
Of Sperma-<'cti Whale : according to the account of our GrttnUiU drfcnbcrs 
in pHrthM. And maketb thethirdamongthecightrcmarkabicWhaletof that 

Out of the bead of this Whale, having been dead divers daic* ,, and under pur 
Drififtion, flowed dreams of oyl and Spcrma-Ccti , which was carefully taken up 
and prefcrvcd by die Coallers. But uptm breaking up. the Magaiin of Sperma- 
Ceci, was found in the head lying in tbulds and courfcs, in thebignefsofgoofi; 
e^, cBtompafTed with large flaViefubllanccs,8sIarge asamaiuhcad.inibnnc^ 
bony-combs, very white and full of oyl. 

Some rcfcniblancc or trace hereof there fcctns to be in the Phjfirer or Cttfi- 
i/ft/t«of RondtUtiuj ^ while dc delivers, that a fatnefsmore li<]uia then oyi, runs 
fi-om the brain of that ammil^ which being out, the Rclit|ucs are like the tkatcs 
of SarduMi prcfTcd into a msls \ which mdting with heat, are again concreted by 
cold. And this many conceive to have been ttie filh which fw&llowed fontts. Al- 
though for tlie largcnvfs of the mouth, and frequency' in thoTe Teas, many pof- 
fibly be the ^.tmu. 

■. Some part of the Spcrma-Ceti found on the (horc was pure, and needed lit- 
tle deporatioQ -, a great part mixed with felid oyl, needing good preparation, 
and frequent dtpreJuon, to bhngitto a flakie confillcncy. And not only the 
Iiead, but otherparts contained it. For the carnous parts being roafted . the | 
_^ oyl 



Enqnirw int9 fmlgi 

Boot 3 

Cm duttu 9d0f 

oyl dropped out, an axungioas and thicker part fubfiding •, the oyl ic felf contained 
alfo much in it, and (till after many years fome is obtained from it. 

CreenUnd Enquirers feldom meet with a Whale of this kind : and therefore it 
is but a contingent G)mmodity , not reparable from any other. It flameth 
white and candent like Champhire, but diilbl veth not in Mqua fort is ^ like it. Some 
lumps containing about two ounces, kept ever fince in water, adbrdafrefli, and 
flofculous fmell. Well prepared and feparated from the oyl, it is of a fubftance 
unlikely to decay , and may outlaft the oyl required in the Compofition of 

Of the large quantity of oyl, what (irft came forth by expreffign from the 
Sfermd-Ceti , grewrery white and clear, like that of Almonds or Ben. What 
came by decodion was red. It was found to (pend much in the veflfeis which 
contaified it : It fi-eexeth or coagnlateth quickly with cold, and the newer (boo. 
eft. It feems different from the oyl of any other animal, and very much frs. 
ftrated the expeAation of our foap-boylers , as hot incorporating or mingling 
with their lyes. But it mixeth well with painting Colours, mough* hardly 
drieth at all. Combers of wooU made ufe hereof, and Country people for 
cuts, aches and hard tumors. It may prove of good Medical uie - and (crve 
for a ground in compounded oyls and Balfams. Diftilled, it affords a (bong I 
oyl, with a quick and piercing water. Upon Evaporation it gives abalfamr 
which is better performed with Turpentine diftilled With Sptrmd^ni. ' 
Had the abominable fcent permitted, enaiiirie had beeh made inso that ftrange 
compofore of the head , and hillock of nefh about k. Since the workmen 
affirmed , they met with SpfrntA-Ceti before they came to the bone , and the 
hdMl yet prefoved, ftems to confirm the fame. The fphinfters infer ving unto the 
Fiftuia or fpout, might have been examined, fiqce they are fo notably contrived 
in other ceeactous Animals -, as alfo the Larynx or Throtle , whether anfwerable 
Uflto that of Dolphins and Porpofes in the ftrangie. compofure and Hgure which 
itmaketh. What figure the llomack maintamAl in this Animal of one jawef 
I teeth^ (ince in porpofes which abound in both , the ventridie is trebly divided 
I and finc6 in that formerly taken nothing was found but weedsanda Loligo. The 
hoixt, tungs,and kidneys, had not efcaped ^ wherein are remarkable differences 
fpotn A^mats of the land , Kkewife what humor the bladder contained, but 
i^pea^Uf the. feminal parts, which might have determined the difference of that 
koroor^om th» whicn beareth its name. 

- In vitinit waste rake for. Ambergreece in the panch of this LeviathM^ as 
Vrecnldkd dilcoverers , and attefts of experience aiaate , that they fometknes 
fwallow great lumps thereof in the Sea-, infuf&rable letour denying chat en- 
^liiry. And yet if, as Paracelfus encouragech , Ordure makes the bcft Musk, 
iikt fronh the mod felid fubftances may be drawn^the mod odoriferous Effences \ 
dl that had not Veff^finns Nofe, might boldly fwfear , here was a fubject ht for 
fifth txtnettons. 

■I ■ ■» 


Book 3* 

MJCmmut EsftDs t. 

Ch*» XXVII. 


Ctmftftdin^j tf fiiftilry Tenettt c$n$trniM^ ttbcr Animals^ wlrtti ! 
cxamnta, frfvt rithtrftlft «• Jahatif. 

I. \ Nd firftfromgreHAniiquity.aJKi before rlicVrlody of symi^ihtWu- 

J\l]a]\:tX€ of Swans liadi been commrnJed, and char thcj' (ing ir.oft fivcct- 
ly beTore th«ir d«th. Fortbu* wcread in /"/jfo, tliatlT'im ihe opinion of Mt- 
irmfftKhofit, or tntnfmigration of the fouU of men into the b'ulioof hcaft* moft 
futabltf unto [heir humane condition, afrcr his death. (Jr/l-fw/ the MuficiaobeciQic 
aSwan. Thuj was it the bird of -^^6» thcgod ofMulickhy thc(Trrr^T^aDdao 
HieroglyphtcJi of tnufick among die t^U^fMx,', from wbvmtdcGVrfi'^j derived 
the coiKcpeion ^ hath been the affinTatkm of many Laiino, and hath not wanted 
tffenors atmotl from every Nation. 

All whieh ntHwichl'hndinjj.we find ihi» relation doubtlully received by vd Sm^ 01 Sirmi, 
a* »n bear-lay BccyHni by ^fffpwiw, asafalfct»ne by /'/JJ7, esprcHyreftitcdby w-ltkitfiog- 
Mjndim'in Athtntm-^ Jind fcvercly rcjcdcd by Scj/i^tr-, whoft words umo 'j^Wae 
CurJdti are thel'c. lit Cygia vfn c^aau fnruifftma <\tum cnm parmtw meudu- 
riorum Grteia JAlfare Miftif ts , ji LtKiMti tritmut , nfnd nitm mvi mti^Mtd 
dicar, JfdtfK. Authors alio that cfiantcnance it , fpeal; nor ftiiis&ftonly, ol it. 
Some affirming ihcy fing not till tlvy He, fomc that they (ing, yet die not. 
Some fp«k generally, as iliough this note were in a!U fomc bur nariicu- 
Jarly , as though ic were only rn fonw •, fomc in places reiiiPtc , and where 
we can have no trial of it-, others in places where cvcrj' experience can re- 
fute it; as Aldrvvundu/a^a relation, delivered, concerning the Mufick ofihe 
Swatff on ihc river of Thdrnt/ near laMdff. 

Now that which conntenanccjh, andprobsbly confiroictJi thisopimon, isihc Thcfipir»j|. 
flrangc and unufual conformation oft he wind pipe, or vocal organ in this animal : on w bt foun J 
obfervcd fird \)^' Atd/ovMiits, and conceived by fomecontrived fortius intcn- '"^'^(""d 
tion. V'orinitstcr.gihitftrexcecdetbthcgallet-, and hath in the chdlafinu- 
ou* revolution, that ii, when ic arifeth h-om the l«rg5, ic aftcnilcch notdi- 
reiily unco the throat, but dcfcending firft into a capfulary reccpriim of the brcaft 
bone ; by a Serpentine and Trmitpct recurvation it afccndech again into the neck ^ 
and fo by the length thereof a great quantity of ayr it received , and by ihc 
figure thereof a MuIicalmodnlationeffcAed. But to fpeak indifferently, thisfor- 
mationof the Weapon, i5 not peculiar untotheSwan, but common atfo unto the 
JMatca t>r Siwvriard, a bird of no Mulica! throat ; And at AUrtvAndMj contiiTetli, 
may thus be contrived in the Swan toconiain a larger flock of ayr, whereby be- 
itig to fcedon weediit the bottom, they might the longer f[»acc detain their head* 
underwater. But were this fbrmicion peculiar, or had they untu this cftd , 
an advantage from this pai c : yet have they a known and unen difadvantage from 
tnocher ^ that is, a flat bill. For no i.atiroftroiis animnll ( whereof neverthcWs 
there are DO flcndcr numbers ) were cvei- tomnjcndeJ ft>r their note, or account- 
ed among thofeanimals which have been inlirii.ftcd to fpcak. I 

When therefore wcconridcrthedifTcmionofAuthors , thcfuliityof relations, 1 
theindifpofitior of the Organs, and rhcimmuficaluotet't all we ever beheld or 
heard of; if generally taken and tomprehenJing allSwans, orof all places, wc 
cannot afleoc thereto. Surely he that is bit with a Tarantnla , (hall never 
be cured by this Mul'icJt-, and With the fame hof>;s we expert lo hearihehar- 

2.Tbitthercis afpecialpropri«yiniheflc(hofPca«>^k*,roaftorboiled,topre- ofA<l 
fervc a long time incorrnptod, bath been the affertion of matiViflanifa yet confirmed "tk. 
X byl^ _ 

of the Siptk. 


Of die BIttor. 

by AufliHy De Civitate Dei •, by Gjgds Semfromus^ in AlirovAndus •, and the 
fame experiment we can confirm our felves , in the brawn or flefliy pares of Pea- 
cocks fo hanged up with thred , thar they touch no place whereby co contract 
a moyftiire ; and hereof we have made trial both in fummer and winter. The 
reafon, fome, I percei ve, attempt to make out from the (iccity and drioefs of its 
flelh , and fome are content to reft in a fecret propriety thereof. As for 
the (iccity of the flefli , it is more remarkable in other animals , as Eagles , 
Hawks, and birds of prey •, That it is a propriety or agreeable unto none other, 
we cannot with reafon admit : for the (ame prefervation , or rather incormption 
we have obferved in the flefli of Turkeys, Opens, Hares, Partridge, Venifon, fuf- 
pended freely in the ayr ,and after a year & a balf,dogs have not reKit cd to eat tliem. 
As for the other conceit , that a Peacock is afliamed when be looks on bis 
legs, as is commonly held , and alfo delivered by CdrdoHi belide what hath 
been laid againft it by ScAliier-^ lee them believe that hold fpecifical deformi- 
ties ^ or that any pare can teem unhandfome to their eyes , which hath ap«- 
peared good and beautifull unto their makers. The occilion of this concdt, 

< might firfl: arife from a common obfervation , that when they are in their 

< pride, that is, advance their train , if they decline their neck co the gaound, . 
i they prefently demic, and let fall the fame: which indeed they cannot otho:- 

j wife do ^ for concrading their body , and being forced to draw in their fbre- 

I parts to eftablifli the hinder in the elevation of the train ^ if the foreparts depart 
and incline to the ground, the hinder grow too weak, and fuffer the train to fall. 
And the fame in fome degree is alfo obfervable in Turkeys. 
. 3 . That Storks are to be found, and will only live in Republikes or free States, 
is a pretty conqcit to advance the opinion of popular policies, and from Antipa- 
thies in nature, to difpara^ Monarchical government. But how far agreeable 
unto truth, let them confider who read in PUnj , that among the Thejptiians 
who were governed by Kings, and much abounded with Serpents, it was no lefs 
then capital to kill a Stork. That the ancient v^iyftians honoured them, whofe 
government, was from all times Monarchical. That BcHofUus aiSrmeth, men make 

I I hem nefts in France. That relations make them common in Verfta^ and the do- 
i minions of the great Turks And laftly , how Jeremy the Prophet delivered 
I himfelf unto his country-men, whofe government was at that time Monarcbi- 
! cal. The Stork in the heaven knoweth her appointed time>, the Turtle, Crane 

and Swallow obferve the time of their coming, but my people know not the 
judgement of the Lord. Wherein to exprobrate their ftupidity, he induceth 
the providence of Storks. Now if the bird had been unknown, the illuftrati- 
on had been bbfcure,and the exprobation not fo proper. 

4. That a Bictor makech that mogient noyfe,or as we term it Bumping, by put* 
ting its bill into a reed as mod believe,or as BeBonius and ^/^«'z/4M^conccive,by 
putting the fame in water or mud, and after a while retaining the ayr by fuddenly 
excluding it again, is not fo eafily made out. For my own part, though after dili- 
gent cnauiry ,1 could never behold them in this motion^Not withflanding by others 
whofe oofervations we have exprefly requefled, we arc informed, that fome have 
beheld them making tbisnoife on the fhore^ their bils being £ir enough removed 
from reed or water^ that is, firft flrongly attraAing the ayr, and unto a manifeft 
diftentionof the neck, and prefently after with great contention and violence ex- 
eluding the fame again. As for what others affirm of puuing their bill in water or 
mud^t is alfo hard to make out. For what may be obferved from any that walketh 
the Fens, there is little intermifiion, nor any obfervable pawfe, between the draw- 
ing in and fending forth of their breath. And the expiration or breathing forth 
doth not only produce a noife, but the infpiration or hailing in of the ayr, affiird- 
etba found that may be heard almoft a flight-fliot. 

Now tlie reafon of this fbrange and peculiar noife, is deduced from the con- 
formation I 

Boot 3. 

4 W Cffrnmtn E ft a < 


rnrmation of tlic wind-pipe, whichin [bsbu-d u (ijffercncfrom other valitil«f. 
Vat at tbetinKrcx:Ttra[niiiuchnu|itl.arinx, or titroitlc to qiulilic the found, 
anduthecKiKr end, by t^vobnnchejiicnvechilfelf intoihclungg. WliuJtdi- 
vilioD roniidcfii only of Semicircular Kbcis, and fucti is &nain but halfway 
rauod (he pan; By which tbrmaaon ihcy arc dilatable into larger c-ipaciiia, 
«ndar«ablcto containafullerproportionotayr ; whidibcingBitp violaicclcni 
up Ute weazon, and linding no reJidanre by tlic Larinx, it ifTucth forth in a found 
like that from caverns, and fuch as fomaimcs fubtcn-ancouseruptwrn, from 
hollow rwks afford, As AiijInU obfevcthma t'roblem , and (vobfcrvablcin s<a, (j. 
pttdicri, bottles, and titac infb-umciit which Jpautufit upon that. Probleni delcrib- 
ctJi, whcrcwiih in Arifitths tune Gardincrf amigliicd birds. ! 

Wlwhcr the large perforations of the exireniitinof ilie wcazon, tri((>e<(^<^ 
», admitting large quioticy of ayr wilhm the cavity of its mcmbraflt, as it doth ' 
inlrogf; may notinucfullilt this magiency or boation, may alfb be confidered. I 
I or fudi as lave beheld them making this noyfe out of tbcwixer, obfcrrealsr^ 
dillention in ificir bodiw -, and thtir ordinarj' nwc w hut like that of 3 Raven.- j 

J. That wbctpf are blind nine dale* and then begin tu Ice , if the cununofl OfW^jj*. 
opinion of all , and fome will be apt enough to dclirend unin oaths, upon it. 
But this I find not atifwetublc untocxwrieiKC^ for upon a Ilricftohrervacion j 
of ntany , I ha?e fcirce found uiy iJiat fee the ninth day , few htbtc the] 
twelfth , and the eye* of fome not open before the fourteenth day. And this 
is agreeable unto the determination of ArifietU : who ctjflipuictii the time 
of ineir anopi'.c or non-vifion by that of ihetr geftation. torfoine. faith he, do 
gowitli ch»r young thcfixtpartof a year, twa daies over orundcr ihatis,' 
&bout fixty daics or nine weeks; atid the whelps of thcfe fpc ikx tiU twcive 
daiffi- Sotnc go the 6ft part of a year, that is, fcvcnty ooc daics, andtbde 
ilith he , fee not before the fburteemh day. Others do go the loarth ptri, 
of a year , dtat is , thrre whole motMxbs , and thefc , fiitn he , are wUboux 
fight no Icfs then fcventecnih daiei. Wherein although the accounts be dtt- 
ftrent , yet doth the Icait thereof exceed the terra of nine daies, which it fo 
generally received. And this compote of Artfioili doth generally. oTcr- 
Ou^w toe tom[))on dufe alWdged for thiiel&d,.thac is, a prccipitauoa or 
ovcr-haily exdufioo before the birth be perfed , accordiiQg unto the vnl^ 
Adage , FtfiuMPn camt c*c9i fttrit cMtmtu : tor heron the whdpi of longdl 
gcfiation , «fe alfo tl>e laielt m vifion. The manner hcrcol U tins. Ac the 
tirrt littering, their ey« arc finUy clofed, that is, by coalition or ioioing tu- 
geiho' of the cye-ltds, and fo concinae uniill about tne twdtth day ^ at whuh 
time they begin to (cparate, tnd OMy be cafily divclW or parted afundct-, 
they open at the inward canchis or greater angle of the eye, and fo by dcfirctt 
iltbte ibcmfelvn (jmte open. An effcift very llrangc, andthccsufc of mudi 
'Obfcurii:)', whctvin at yet mcnt enqairics arc Mind, and fausfadioo atijuica- 
'-WefFOm noirian. Whatever it be, thiU inDch wc ouy.oblcrvc, thofcaniattls 
in only excluded without fi^t, wtachare multiparous and mitititldottSj thu 
-if, which have many at a liner, and bavealti) their feet divided into maitypor- 
tKKte. Vor the Swine, althooghniuliiparout, yet being bifulcoits, andonljdb-. 
ven hoofrd, is not excluded in th» manocr, but Arrowed withopco<fcf,,fts 
■i6cberbifiilmtis3nimalf. ''■: , ,■-..;. ) 

6. Thc-AntlptithvbeTweena Toad and a Spider, aiKUhitlbcy poifiioodflytk-j 
I (lro\' tachotbcr, avtry tamous, and foLcrtinftonohave bediwrittenof. their '^'('^^ 
I C(Mi)Mt?iWbcremmolVcomnwnly thc%'(rtoryi9 given JiiKfrdloSiiidcr. Of what|'° ' ^ *' 
j Toddi and ^^idcnitiitobennderfiood wouldbr coi^idcKd tor the Pbtlasigf- 
•■■inn and deadly Spiders, arcditfcrent from tlinie wcgoleriilly behold in. fo^- 
[■((iiiiA Howiivfr the verity hereof, aj alfo of tnanyoSwr*, wctannot btude- 
bctefay ite mighc be SxaS'if.^ii&^Mjfifiip^ Anudote^Uhafeil 


Bnqtdrks inn Vutgiir 

Book 3< 

Of aLlon tod 




which rt(fam them ^ But what wctrnTcobferved heretn, we cannot in rea- 
bn correal -, who having in a glafi included a Toad with feveral Spiders , 
we hUM uie Spiders withont refiflance to (it upon his head and pais over 
all his body-, which athiftupon advantage he fwaltowed down, and that inflow 
boors, unto roe number of feveh. And in the like manner will Toads alfo ferve 
Becs^ and are accounted enemies unto their Hives. - 

7. Whrther a Lion be aUb afraid of a Cock« as isi^lated by many, and be- 
lieved by moft, were very eafie in fome places to make trial. Akh^ugh how far 
they (hum in ftar of that animall, we may fuflicifcntly utiderftaod, from what is 
ddivenui by Csmerdrms^ whofe Woids in his Symbola ake tbefe^ JNvftrM tem- 
fortbns in Aula fereniffimi Prmcipis iBnvMriit, wms tx laonilms mris fMkm 
iu viii^Mh cMJMfiUm domus wrernm fife tiimipt , ubi GifUliminmmim ^Mftm Mm 
cUnmres nihil fgfarmidMWs , ipjis mri am flmimisgdlUnif Jevorstnt. That is , 
In our ome in the Court of die Prince of BnvsnU^ one of theLionskaped 
doum into a •neigbbonre yard, where nothing regarding the crowii^ <ornoife 
of the Godks, he eat them up with many other Hens. And therei^a very 
uni^ 'defeniative it is againft thefriry of this animal ( and furely no brtter then 
Virginity or blood Royal) which fliny doth place in Cock broth : For hero- 
with, fiith he, whoever is anointed (efpecially if Garlick be boiled therein ) no 
Lion or panther will touch him. But of an higher nature k were,and moreeialted 
antilMirfiy 5 if 'that were certain wUch Proelns delivers , that fokry DieiPMnj, 
add iiibh ias appear in the fluipe of Lions , will difappear and vabiih > if a 
Gockbefi^efentAd «i)on them. 

% . ft agoxraily tmiccived, an earwig hath no wings, and is reckoned among^l 
4tt{ieilniitais in&fts by many-, but he that ihaU narrowly obferye them, orlhafl 
#fthii needle put a tide the (hort aindifaeathie cafesonchek hack, may extend 
anddrawfbi^two wings of kpropordbnable length for fli^t, and larger then 
iia many flies. The experiment of PmkiMt is yet more perfed, who with a ruih 
t^rbnflJefo pricked thmasto makethefti flte. 
> 9. TlMtwonmareeiangniouslnhBala,andfiidia$havenobI^ 
tlaMrmioadott of t%yk>lb^ thegeoend opinion of Scholars, and I knowDot 
well todiflbit from thence my filf. If fo, lurely tire want a proper term where- 
iff to exprds that humour in them which fo ftridly refembleth blood : and we 
refer jtlinto tbe difternmenc of others what to determine of that red and iangui- 
ufabOlhundor', fonnd more |rfentifully about the Torquis or carneous drde of 
«tekt Wornw in the Spring, afibrding in Unnen or paper an indifcemable tin dure 
Sdta lik)od. OriUKreuittatd^ a vein, whichin an apparent Mew 

4iittiteth along diebddy> and if dextdroufly Pricked with a lancet, emicceth a ted 
ll»^, which pricked on either fideit will not readily afibrd. 

la tte upper parb of Worms, chereareiikeWife found certain white andovall 
gbM|^ficMf,it^1iAut^ andinmagntfyingglaiTea, they alfo re- 

prflfittit th^mr; hdw pcoperiy, may alible enquired -, (ibce if in cbnu there be 
dittiddt6nofSexte,tbefettg^anetobe'i^^ For m that which is pre- 

fimied 00 be their coition^that is^heir nfual tompUcation^ or lateral adbdion above 
theg^dd, dividitig ifaddeniy with cwokhives tbe Hdheriog part* of both, { 
have found Aefeeggsin ticher. 

10. That Flies, Bees, &c. Do make that noife or bumming found by their 
ahdoib, or as many bdievie with their wines only, wKHiid be mtoe warily aflerted^ 
if #e^fuked the determioation'of J£paey whoi0 in fimdry efther places, fo 
iliWe^prcAy in Hisbookof refpiraiim 

ifrtfiMlli^f ab inwad fpirit upon a pdlicie or Uttk membrane liboilt ahe.j»rccind ur 
t^OlilldMfi^fi^ftbefarbody. If we aUannfiderthata Bee orFlif, foitbe 
«bl^eb)M?etfae body^ will buz, tfaodgbitsiifeai'U off ^ thai it will do the like if < 
depiftdl «l^wi^s refe^ii^ thehml>wbeDA]pihe body may. be the bectet • 




"movtd. And that fome alfowtnch are Kg and livelywiU hpm without eithei- 

I Not l» it only the h«nng upon rW* littlt membrane, By the inwahJ tod 
I «»n-niitura! Ipini as Arijftrlt dcrwinrnei , or cbcouinrard airat SfAliger&in. 
itfiTetb, wIikIi afFn'dcth this Immming notfe, but mofl of the otjwr parts 
' rny illn mnnir hereto ; as will be maniftflK if white (hey hum wc lay oilr 

■1 ihc I'acli nr other part* . for tharopod will be fch a fciroui br 
I. -non lihe ihnt which fanpenrth while we blow on the teeth of « 

i'l-iph papTTj and foif rficbeadorotfierpartiof the truftlbctoDcbcd 
I i'.i,i:i')i, the found teill bcmuch impairx-d, if nw ddlroyed; for thofebeing 
alio tlry ami thctubranons parts, by aftrition oftht fpiric do help to advance 
thcnciie-- And ihcrrfore alfb the found i* Hron^ft in dry weather, and T«ry 
; wTrafe in rainy lafbn, and tiiwanj winter ; for then the airi* moift, arldihc in- 
; w-ird rpirit grawnj: Weak, rhikt^ a languid and dumb allifjon upon the parts. 
j 1 ! Ihettis (bund in tSc Summer a kindot SpWer called a Taina, Of a t*d 
Icolnur, andfo btiJe of body chat cfnoftheUrgcft WiU Iiardly ootwayagrlfin j 
ibis by OuBtry people i* accaumcd a deadly jwifon unio Cowi atidHutfeii 
whn, if tlity fuddcnly dit, and (w-ell thereon, afcribc ibwr death hertio, 
andwd! cmiiHionly fay tbtVhavt liclrcd aTaind. No* tofatisfieihcdoubn 
of tiren , We hare called tki tradition iimo cxperifbcnt ; We have givcd 
hereof uttto Pops , Chicken* Calves and Horfo, ftnd liot in tlw fiilgular 
numbct-^ y« nrver could find me leaftdiflnrbawt ciifae. Iherc muft bt tbere- 
Jbreotifcr cinfcs enquired of iht fadden death andfwcUingof cattel; And per- 
haps this infeft is niiUakcn , and imjnfiK' accufcd for fomc other. VOrfomt 
ibtrc are which from Hder dmcs ha^-c been obfmrcd pcrniaotis bnto citdc, 
g5 the Buprcftis or Burfhxnf, the Pityocampor Eiucaftnunm, by tyiifcernie'i, 
Gdltn and -.^»«i, th« StaphiUnus dcfcribtd \)y ArifiatSe dod others, or tholfe 
red r^alangious Spiders \\\x: Caniharides mcntroned by Miifttui. Ndw al- 
tbouglWlW arttma! niay beniillaken and tht opiniWi alfofalfir, yet inthegrijtirtd 
and rCafoti which makes men owft to doubt rtit verity licreof, rncrcmay be truiH 
enough, thatis, the intonllJerable qaamicy of this inlcft. lot that a poiroh 
canhmdfiftreyinfuffnallabaJJt, we haveno re:iron toaifitni. ForiFasi*^>- 
fticuniu ret>orttEli, the icnrfi part of a grain of tbe poifon ofXutlA wi\\ dif- 
palch a man ni two htwrSi if the bite of a Viper and Aing of i Scorpion, is 
not conceived to impart fo much ^ if the bite of ah Afp will kill Withifl tin 
hour, ytt thtfimprcmonftarireTiriWe, andtht pi^ifon cttrtimiitltcatcd rittt pon- 
derable; We taniioi as impofUble rejed this way of dcrtriidion ^ at dttty tbe 
(locif er (if dwtli In to Haf row a rirnitnfcriptiort 

12. WOndron* things are promflVd from the Glow-worm; thereof prt-p*- 
tulU lights are preiWidwi- and waters faid tif be diftilhtl which afford a lilJtre 
Ml tbe night ^ 4nd (his it aiTcrtcd by CJt-iin, Alhc^im,CltHdiminiis. MiKjldiny 
ikd niany rtibre. Btit Irercto We litinoi i<ith feafon dffcnt : for the light 
^de by ih:s animal depends upon a litirtfj fpirit, ami fcemj by fnnW ntlU 
wrftJiatioh to \st aftuaied into this luthr. for when they art dnd thcyftiine 
not, Hof aiwaiJa while tbt)' frVc ^ bat arc tAfcufeof light, according to the 
tfirtUfion Of this Ipirit, andthc protrofion of their lumiiiOKf parrs, as oWttrt- 
[:uii will inlUurt us. I or this flaoimconS light i* mrt oVcr ill the body, hot 

He AntheirtWardlidCj inafmallwhife part hcitr rhctail. Wbenthis 

! fMmcfh {itotrudclj , i\\trt arifah i Ramc of a" rirculal- figtire afld 

■iCft (flijir, ■v-hith is difctfnaWe in afly dark pbcc then Jdy ^ 

!■ ' • : " iiic:h comradcd. tht light drfippi-arcth , artd iHc 

I,,: ..neth. Now this fif^ir, *t it ^ppearrrli aftddifap- 

go quite odt at their death. A^ we have Ob- 

Of 1 TiliLtTl 

:> qui 

:vcd in lomc. wijiui [Kcierved ihlrefhi^afrtuvc ttrbl and Oiioed £iigbnren 


Enquiries int$ Vulgsr 



K 3 

. daics ', but as they declined, their light grew languid , and at laft went out with 
their lives. Thus alfo the Torpedo , which alive hath a power to ftupiHe at a 
diftance , hath none upon contadion being dead , as Gnlen and Rvndeletius 
particularly experimented. And this hath alfo difappointed the mifchief of thofe 
I intentions, which (ludy the ad vancement of poifons ^ and fancie deftru Aive com- 
pofitions from Afps or Vipers teeth, from Scorpions or Hornet flings. For 
thefe omit their efficacy in the death of the individuall, and aft but dependant- 
ly on their forms. And thus far alfo tbofe Philofophers concur with us, which 
held the Sun and flats were living creature$,for they conceived their luflre depend- 
ed on their lives • but if they ever died,tbeir light mufl alfo perifli. 
' And whether the light of animals, which do not occaflonally ihine from con- 
I tingent caufes, be not of Kin unto the light of heaven •, whether the in viable flame 
of life received in a convenient matter, may not become vifible, and the difiufed 
srtherial light make little liars by conglobation in idoneous parts of the compofl- 
tum ; whetlier alfo it may not have fome original in the feed and fpirit analogous 
unto the Element of flars, whereof fome glympf is obfervable in the little reful- 
gent humor at the firfl attempts of formation ^ Phylofophy may yet enquire. 
I True k is, that a Glow-worm will afford a faint light, almoft a dayes fpace 
when many will conceive it dead *, but this |s a miftake in the compute of death, 
and term of difanimation ^ for indeed, it is hot then dead, but if it bediftended 
will (lowly contraA it felf again, which when it cannot do, it ceafeth to dune 
any more. And to fpeak ftridly, it is no eafie matter to determine the point of 
death in infefts and creatui[es who have not their vitalities radically confined 
unto one part ^ for they are not dead when they ceafe to move or afford the rili- 
ble evidences of life ^ as may be obferved in flies, who when they appear even 
defperate and quite forfaken of their forms •, by vertue of the Sun or warm afhes 
will be revoked unto life, and perform its fundions again. 

Now whether this luflfe , a while remaining after death , dependeth not (liU 
upon the firfl impreffion, and}ight communicated or raifed from an inward fpi- 
rit, fubfifling a while in a- moyfl and apt recipient, nor long continuing in this, 
or the more remarkable Indian Glow-worm ; or whether it be of another na- 
ture, and proceedeth from difi(i;rent caiifes of illumination ^ yet feeing (ince it con- 
feffedly fubfifleth fb little a while after their lives, how to make perpetual lights, 
and fublunary moons thereof as is pretended, we rationally doubt, ttiough not to 
(harply deny, with Scaliger and Mnffetus, 

i 3 . The wifdom of the Pifmire is RUignifiediby all,and in thePanegyricks of their 
providence we alwaies meet with this', that to prevent the growth of corn which I 
theyftoreup, they bite off the end ;|)ereof; And fome have conceived that from 
hence they have their name in Hebrew : From whence arifeth a conceir that corn 
will not grow if the extreams be cut or broken^ But herein we find no fccurity 
to prevent its germination ^ as having made trial in grains, wfaofe ends cut off have 
notwithflanding fuddenly fprouted, and according to the Law of their kinds ^ 
that is, the roots of barley and oats at contrai:y ends, of wheat and rye at the 
fame. And therefore fom« have delivered that after rainy weather they dry chefr 
grains in the Sun \ which if effeduall, we mufl conceive to be made in a high de- 
gree and above the progrefiion of Malt •, for tliat Malt will grow, this year hath 
I formed us, and that uqto a perfed ear. 

I And if tliat be true which is delivered by many> and we ihall fiurther ex- 
A natural vf- 1 P^^^^^ » ^^at a decoftion of Toad-ftools if poured upon earth , will po- 
ciffitudc of I duce the £ime again ; If Sow-tliifllcs will abound in places manured with dung 

of Hogs, which feed much upon that plant : IfHorfe-dung reproduceth oati ^ 
If winds and rains will transport the feminals of plants •, it will not be ealic 
to determine where the power of generation ceafeth. The forms of things may 
. iie deep^ then we conceive them ^ finninal principles may not be dead in the di- 

Hjmalah iL 



gcreracfon in 

Book 3. 

ami Comrwn Eits Ri. 


vidcd ammi of plant* -, bat wandering in tlit octin of nsiiiCe, wbcniheyKr 
upon pri.|.'on«nrshlciTi»iiTiaIs. may unicc, and rrtiim tothefr vifihicfelves iglin. 
Bot the proiionct oCihtf aoimil it by Krwwing, pnrcing, or otbcrmfe, 
to dctlri-v the Jitlcnebbcor principle of gcfminaiion- WTiicn inHwitljftanding 
isfKtt calily dikovcrablc ■, iibtingno rcldy bufircfi w mccrwitti fuch gj-ilra 
in Antliitli . and lie muli Jig iirp, (hic will ll-fk tliem in i!rt V/intcr 

Chap. XXV I II. 

of fimcilhtys. 

THat i Cliickcn » I'ornictl out of tlic yeU of the egg, wu ilw: opinion t)f fume 
**■ ancient I'hilofoplwri WTietlicr it be not the imirmicnt of the Pulkt^ may 
aUb be confidcred ; bincc umbilial ve/TcU arc uned uiuu ic : Stncc mudi of titc 
ydkreoiaincthafiCTthcCliitkcnisfbmietl: SiiKCinaCiiaKen newly lia[tficd,il« 
Homacki^tinftrtlytllow, and cliebelly fullof'ycl'^. wliicb is ilrawn inattbcna- 
vdl or umbibi-alvciTcU toward the Vent , asmiy bcJifLCcocdin Uiickcns, wUh- 
in a day or two beforeexdufion. 

Whether the Chicken be made out qf tW white, or, that bc.not iiUb its 
aliment, i* likcwift very qucftionable: Since an umbibcil veffd ie dcriveduo- 
toit: Since alter [he formationandperfcdftiapcofihe ChicJicn, tnuchot'ihe 
white reinauieih. 

Whether ic be not made out' of the granclo, gallaturc, gerru or cccd ot the 
egg, As, Aquaffnicnie and ftridcr enquiry inJEw'meih us, doih Jceiu oflcflcr 
doubt: for atEtie blunter end ir is twc difcoveted after tlie Obckenu foroictl^ 
by this alfo the yelk and white arc cominupl, whefeby u may convoiiCDtty 
receive tts nutrfcicnc ftoin them both- 

Nov that from fuch (lender materials, naiarefhould cfTcdt thisproduAion, 
it is no more then is oblervedinochcr animals ^ and even in gralnfandkeincU, 
the grcitcft part is but the nutnmcDc of that generative particle, fo difpro- 

A greater difficulcy in tlie dodrine of tfgs, it. howtbefperm of theOjclt 
prolificares and fliakes the oval conception miitfiiil , or how ic attaiaeth un- 
to every egg , fmcc the viictlary or place of the yelk is very high : Siocc the 
ovarj' or pare wlKtL' thcwhicc involvcth ic, is in tlierecoiu region of the ma- 
trix, which Ltfotncwhat lon^ and inverted : Since alfo a Cock will in one day 
ferfilicarc die whole receiliauon or clufier of cggi, wliich arc not cxciudcd in 
many weeks after. , ■ 

But ibcfc acUn, and Iiow in the Cicatricula or little pale circle fonBUJ4i{i 
firft bci^innerh , bow ttie Grando or trcdlc , are but the poles and cflablUb- 
ingpanidcs or" tin: iciider owinbrans, lunily tonfirrving tlic floating part5,'tn 
thnr propcc plact? , with many otbcr ooTervablcs . tlia^ occul sr I>ltiloro- 1 
pher, aud (ingulardirctuferof truth, Dr. Harvcj bath ditovcrcd, in that o(- 
cellcnr difcourfe of CUnaation 1 $o(lTonglycrcded apod the two great piltan 
of truth, expcrienccandfolidrcafon. , , J 

That the tii it difcCrnable from tfie Hgurc of eggs, or that Coci^s or \iea».„ 
proceed froco lofig or round one> , as many contend , experimedC will cafily^ 
teuilratc. t 

The ^tipit^ni obferved. ^ bettec way to tntcbtticir cfigs iu ovcnif.UwnJ 
At BdhtiJtuaj lo roaft tbim ac the boudm of a [jing , cy fwinging theiD 

Of Eiii. 


Enquiries int$ Vutgitr 


i^ 3 

Of Snakes^ 

rouad about , till heat from motion had concodcd them •, for that confufetb 
all pares without any fuch e&ft. 

Though flight diftindion be made between boiled and roafted eggs, yet \% 
there no flender difiFerence, for the one is mucbdrier then the other : the egg 
expiring lefs in the elixation or boiling •, whereas in the aflation or roafting , 
it will fomecimes abate a dragm, that is, threefcore grains in weight. So a new 
laid egg will not fo eafily be boiled hard , becaule it contains a greater (lock 
of humid parts ^ which muft be evaporated, before the heat can bring the incz- 
halable parts into conliUence. 

Why the Hen hatcbeth not the egg in her belly. Or makethnotat leaftforoc 
rudiment thereof within her (t% byclienatu^heu of inward pares, lince the 
fame is performed by incubation from an outward warmth after ^ Why the egg 
is thinner at one extream ? Why there is (bme cavity or emptinefs at the blunter 
end? Why we open them at that part ? Why the greater end is firft excluded ? 
Why fome eggs are all red, as the Keftrils •, fome only red at one end, as thofeof 
Kites and Buzzards ? Why fome eggsare not ovall but round, as thofe of fii^ } 
G^r. Are problems, whofe decifions would too much enlarge this dircourfe. 

That Snakes and Vipers dotting or tranfmit their mifchief by the tail . is a 
common expreflion not eafily to be juftified ^ and a determination of their 
venoms unto a part, wherein we could never find it-, the poifon lyinc about 
I he teeth , and communicated by bite, in fuch are deftrudive. And there- 
fore when biting Serpents are mentioned in the Scripture , they are not dif- 
ferentially fet down nrom fuch as mifchief by ftings *, nor can condufions be 
made conformable to ' this opinion, becaufe when the rod of Mofes was turn- 
ed into a Serpent , God determinately commanded him to cake up the fame 
by the tail. 

Nor are all Snakes of fuch empoifoning qualities, as common opinion pre- 
fumeth *, as is confirmable from the ordinary green Snake with us , from fe- 
veral hiftories of dottieftick Snakes ., from Ophiophagous ncitioni , and fuch as 
feed upon Serpents. 

Surely the deftruftive delufion X)f Satan in this (hape, hach piuch enlarged 
the opinion of their mifchief. Which nocwithftanding was not fo high with the 
heathens , in whom the devill had wrought a better opinion of this animal, 
being facred unto the ^y^v/ptUns , Grtcki and RomMns , and the common 
fymbole of fanity. hi the ihape whereof cy£fculafius the god of hcalch ap- 
peared unto the Romdns,, accompained their Embaffadors to Rome from 
Efidaarm ^ and the fame did fraud in the Tikerinc Ifle upon the Temple of 

Some doubt many have of the Tarantula, of poifonous Spider ofCAli^ria^ 
and that magioill cure of the bite thereof by Mufick. But (ince weobferve 
tlttt many attcft it from experience : Since the learned Kircherins hath po- 
fitively averred it , and fet down the fongs and tunes folemnly ufed for ic ; 
Since fome alfo affirm the Tarantula it felf will dance upon certain ftroaks , 
whereby they fet their infrruments againft its poifon ^ we (hall not at all 
qoeftion it. 

Much wonder is made of the Boramez. that firange plant-animal or vege- 
table Lamb of TartAry , which Wolves delight to feed on , which hath the 
(hape of a Lamb , affordeth a bloody juyce upon breaking, and liveth while 
the plants be confumed about it. And yet if all this be no more, then the (hape 
of a Lamb in the flower or feed, upon the top of the (hdk , as we meet with 
the forms of Bees, Flies and Dogs in fome others-, he hath feen nothing that 
(kail much wonder at it. 

It may feem too hard to oueftion the fwifrnefs of Tigers , which hath 
- therefore given names unto horles, Ships and Rivers , nor can we deny what 

all : 

Book ;. 

omJ CtrnwiM Eri o rs. 

tU have tlius ainrmed , y«t nuuiol boi ohferve, chat f^toiui Stuitti/ hts 
Phytituu) at /'^n in the Ealt Jiuiiri , at an occular and fre<}uent wicnefi is 
QDC afraid to deny n % to (stulemn Plimf who affimiech it , and that indeed 
it it ttut a Row and tardigradous anitDall , preying upoo advannge , and 
Dtbenvifc may bcefraped. 

Many more tl>ere ore wbofe ferioiu eoquihetwe oiuH requeft of otbert, 
and Ihall only awakr coollderauiHil , Whettier that common onnioa that 
Soakn do breed out of the bock or fpinatl marrow of man, dotb build up- 
on any (onflant root or Iced in nature ■, or did not arilc from contingeni 
generation, m fome Gngle bodiei retnembred by Pliny or otberi , and mtgbt 
be paralleld 6nce in living corruptions of the guts and other paru ^ wbkbre< 
guUrly proceed not to ptitri&aiom of that ruiure. 

Whether the (lory of the Kcmora be not unresfonibly amplified; whether 
that of Bcrnaclet and Goofe-trces be not too mucli ciJargd ; whether the 
common hillory of Beet will hnld^ at^ge accounts have delivered; whether 
ilic brair.t of Cats benttended with fuch deiitudive malignities , as tiisfnri- 
Jrt and others put upon them. 

Whether the falbng fpittle of man be poifon unto Snakes and Vipers, it 
experience hath made us doubt? Whether the Nightingals fetttng with bet 
breall agarnft aihorn, be any more then that (he pUccifi fome pnckdson the 
outlldc^hcrne1\. orroofleth in thorny and prickly plates, wlwre Serpenta 
may leaO approach her f Whether Mice may be bred by putn^dion ai 
well as univocali production, at may be eatily believed, if that receit to 
make Mice out of wheat will hold , whitb Htlmoui hath delivered- Wbe- 
tlier Qyails from any idiofynaac^' or peculiarity of confUtution. do innocu- 
ouffy feed upon Hellebore, or rather fometimc out medically ufc the fame ■ 
becaufe we perceive that Staret, which are commonly faid lunnlelly to feed 
on Hem'ock , do not mate good the tradition -, and be that cAfcrves what 
vertigoes, cramps and convuuioni follow thereon intbefir aoinialf, will be of 
our belief 


« • 

'.. yj 

•.-stir.' ■•>- t 



. ^ ^ ,'. 


it : 

• t 

•« ■• 



1 • ► 

* r- 

Book 4. 

AitA Ctmm»it E UK R I . 


Of many popular and received Tetjents t(inctrmn^\ 
Man, vpbich examined i fro'vc either fal/e or du* 

C 11 A F. I. 

of the Ere^fiefst/Mdo, 

iHat only Mwi hath an c<& figure, ard Cot to bcftold mi 
look up lownrd Iieavcn, according to that of (tic Poet, 
ProttAquf eHmffttl4>ii attlmatU csttra ttrTtOn^ 
Os homini fi*blime ticdit, Ctlum^ur ruert 
^MJfi, & trt^ss ad fydtrattSereVuhitj^ 
is axJoublc afTcriion, whole firft part may be xxQi j tfwe 
take crcfincf* iWrtly, and To as C.(/r»» hath dcfintd iti for 
tlicy only, faith be, have an wcift figure, wbofc Ipinc 
and ihish-bonc arc carried in right lilies^ and fa indeed of any we yet know 
Manonlyis crect.Fonhe thighs of other ariimaU do fland at angtes with clieir 
fpine, and have rectangular politiont in birds , and pcrfrct^Q_uadrupeds. Nor 
doth die I roe, though ftretthed out, or fwimming, attain the reditude of mJn, 
or carry iistlttphwiihout all an"ulartry. Andtlius is italfo true, rhat man only 
liticth, if we define fitting to DC a firrhation of the body tipon the IfchUt : 
wbereinif tfie polition be juft and natural, the thigh-bone Kerh at right angles 
tothcfpine, and tiic leg bone or tibia to the thigh, hor others when th'eyicem 
tofit, aiDogs, Cats, or Lions, doinakcuncotheirfpineACure angles with their 
tJtigh, and acute to the tliigh wi[h th;ir {hank. Thus is it hkcwitc tmc, what 
' ArifiotU alledgeth in that Problem; Why man alone fuffcreth pollutions in ii^,,,.^^,^. 
the right? becaufe manorly licrh upon his back ^ if we define not.thefime ^ 
by every fupine politiont but when the fpine i*in reftitude with the thigh, and 
both with the armsiie pwillcl to the Horizon : fo that a line throiiWitheiri 
navel Will paft through the Zenith and ccntrcof the earth. And fo cannot other 1 
Bnimals lie upon their backs ^ fot tliough the fpirte lie parallel with the 
Horizon, yet will their legs incline, and tie Rt angles unto it. And uponj 
thcfe thrcedivers poficionsinman, wherein thefpinc can only beat hghinnesi 
withchcihigh, arilr ihoferemarkablepoHures, pconc, fupineand creft ■ whichj 
IK but dinercacodinfituation, orin angular pofturcsupon thcbsek, Lhcbellyi 
and the fret. , I 

Y z Bur' 

Whii Ggan In 
inlmilt li 
pr<^tly erta 


or fiitlaji. . 

Mnqtdriis into Vutgair 

Book 4. 

Obrcrre alfo 
the Vriat Bet" 
hmi 2nd McY' 
gus major. 

Dcrcribcrs of 



But if ereftnefs be popularly taken , and as it is largely oppoled unto prone- 
nefi , or the pofture of animals looking downwards, carrying their venterf 
or opfffy^jin to tbe ^jnc, direftly towards tht earthy it may admit of 
queffi^o, Wr (hoq^ in Scrpenci and UUrdi ve ouy trvly gUcwr a prone* 
nefs , yet 04ii» acknowkdgcth ch^t pcrfiift Qj^adrapedf » 9$ Hor(b » Oxen 
and C4|iBfl« ^ are but paedy pronf , tn4 lutve Sum, part df crffftoeft^ And 
birds or iyiog fioiinab!* are (b &r from this kind ef jprMcneiir, chpt diay are al- 
mod ereft • advaoriag the bead and hrcai): ia thatr pfo^cffigm , tnd only 
prone in the Aft of voutation. And if that be true wliich is delivered of the 
Pengin or jinfer M^ielUnicus , [often defcribed in Maps about thofe Straits, 
that they go ereft like men, ami with their breaft and belly do make one line 
perpendicular unto the axis of the earth-, it will make up the c;^aft ercftocis 
of man. Nor will that infeft come very (hort which we have often beheld, 
that if, one kind of Locuft which (lands not prone, or a little inclining upward, 
but ia a large ereftnefs ', elevating alwaies the two fore 1^, andfultainingit 
felf in the middle of the other four ^ by Zoofraphen ci^lMmantif^ and by the 
comcpoQ people o( Prrume , Pregs^ 1>U , the Prophet and praying Locuft. 
as being generally found in the poftureoffupplication, or fuch as relembleth ours| 
when we lift up our hands to heaven. 

As fbr the end of this ereftion , to look up toward heaven *, though con- 
firmed by feveral teftimonies , and the Greeks Etymologie of man, it is not to 
readily to be admitted ^ and as a popular and vain conceit was anciently re- 
jcfted by Gdlen •, who in his third, De ufu partiftm^ determines, that man is 
ereft, becaufe he was made with hands, and was therewith to exercifeall Arcs, 
which in any other figure he could not have performed ; as he excellently 
dedaretb in ; that pkice , where be alfo proves that man cQuMhave becMinade 
neither Quadruped nor Centaur. 

And for theaccomplifiiment of this intention, that is, ^ hfA Tlf f H(t h Aotri 
the heavens, man hath a notable difad vantage in the eye^li(L^ vbtC^pf ^bi|M» 
per is far greater then the lower , which abridgetb the fi^ HfWp^ii % COO* 
trary tothoie of birds, who herein have the advant^ of tWA.{;I|ifi|^ic(| 
that the learned Plemfiui is bold to affirm , that if he had bad th^ ftfniitiflgi ^ 
the eye-lids,he would nave contrived th^m quite otherwife. ~^ 

The ground and occaGon of this conceit was a literal apprehendon of a figu- 
rative expreffionin PIjuo, as; GaUn thus delivers^ To opinion that man is ereft 
to look up and behold the heavens, is a conceit only fit for thofe that never fkw 
the fifti Uranofcopus, that is, the Beholder of heaven^ which bath its e\ies ib 
placed, that it looks up direftly to heaven ^ which mandoch nor, except He re- 
cline, or bend his heaci backward : and thus to look up to heaven, agreetb not 
only unto Men, butAfTcs ^ to omit birds with long necks, which Ipok not 00- 
ly upwards^ but round about at pleafure. And therefore men of this opinioo 
undmlood not PLito when he &iathat man doth Surfum afpiccrc ^ for thereby 
was not meant to gape, or look upward with the eye, but to have his thoughts 
iiiblime ^ and not only to behold, but fpeculate their nature, with the eye of 
the underfhnding. 

Now althoum Gal^n ia this place makes infbnce but in one^ yet are there 
other ijfhes, whofe eyes regard the heavens, as Plane, and cartilagmcous fifhes^ 
aspeftinals, or fuch as have their bpnesmade laterally like a comb ^ for when 
they apply themlelvcs to fleep or reft upon the white fide, their eyes on the otbcr 
fide look upward toward heaven. For birds, they generally carry their hea^ 
creftly like man, and have advantage in their upper eye-lid^ and many that have 
long necks, and bear their beads fomewhat backward, behold far more of the hea* 
vens, and fetal to look above the ^quinoxial circle. And fo alfo in many Quadru- j 
peds, although (heir progreflion be partly prone, yet is the fight of their tyc dt- 1 


Boos. 4. 

md CcmmtM E t r o i 

Tt& , noE rtrpcding thf canb bar htavcn ■, and itiakci aa higber arch of n\ti- 
tudcdicnourowD. Tlwrpoiitioji of aVrog wnJi ti«hcB4«bove water ancctd- 
clb chc& ^ fnr di»nn he fcenis (o behold a iargc fiirt of ilie bnivenji,iu)d liiinoct 
or btieyetoarccnilofliigliasUicTropak- buche chic hnih belidd cbe pofUire 
of a Jlutoc,wiU not 4cay titu k bebvlds almoa the very Zmdi. 


Chap. II. 
0/ 'J&* 0eart. 

TMac rtw Heart of Man » feM«J m the left fide, »ao aiTevcracwn, wfiJtIi 
ftriftly taken, is rciucabic by infpeAion ; whcrebyirappearrchebifeamd 
ccDCrc thereof is "iu the midA of the dwAf true ic it, tltat tlut Mucroer peiru 
liiereof incltncthiinto ihelcJt-, forbythispofictonit giveth way unto the aftm- 
lionofihc midriff, and by redbaofcbt hollow vein could noi co:iimo<Iioufiy 
defleft unto the right. From which tiivcrlioo ^ ncverthclcfs we cannot fo pfo- 
pcrlvfay tis placeoincheleft, asthaciEcOrtiiltech in the middle, rltatis, where 
icicentrc rclcdi ^ for fo do we ufiially lay a Gnooion or needle ii in the middle 
of a Di«l, alibou^i thcc«retm*D»ay refpeft thcNoixh or South,lHd4ppilo«b 
tiie circumference thereof. ' ' 

'rhf ground of this nwftaJceis a general obftrvationfromtbepoire orttyjlten 
of tlielitari, whichismorcfenllbleonthiifide; but the rcaron hereof is iiot to 
be drawn from the HluaiioQ of tbehean, but t^le^^tc of the left ventricle wbert* 
in the vital {pirit* are UboBred; andalfo the great Artery that conveyeth t\itm 
.oHtj both which are (itotted on thclcfc. Upon this reafon Epichem* or cOrdial 
:appln,ations arc juftly applied unto tbe left brcaft -^ and the wounds undcf tbc fift 
rib may be more fuddcnlydeftfuftivc if msdeonthe finiftcrfidc 1 ahdrheTpoar 
of tbc fouldier thai peirced our Saviour, is not improperly dCtirnbrf^, whtn Pain- 
ters direA it a little toward! tbe left. 

Thcotlicr ground i«niOTCparticular and upoa infpcdion ^ for in dead bodies 
Specially Ijiiig upon tllcfpinc.the heart doth fecin po indine unto the left. Which 
hippeneth not from its proper fice- but bcfidcsits irniftrous gravity.u draiv^ij tlwt 
way by the great artery , which ihcnfoblidetJi and halcththc heart unto it. And 
tbcretore ftriiSly taken, the hcattiBfeatedinihe middle of the chclt ^ but after 
a carclcfs and inconfidcrateafpcflion, or aceonlin"r(JthereadieftferfcofpuJ(a- 
tion, wc thall not cjuarrd, if afiyaffirmirisfeatedtowardibcleft. AndintHcfc 
conliderations m\i(i Arijletlr be falved, when he affirmeth the hesrtof inJn is 
placed inthelcftliJe i and ihu? in a popular acccption nraywe receive thtfperi- 
vitradi of Pcrfiiu ; whcnhecaJtCEh thcpaftundcrtbcleftpapfor the hearty and 
if rightly apprehended, itconcernethnotthi*controveriie, whentt isfautinic- 
c/Wi^y?; j ^ The heanofawifc man is in the right fide, but thatofafbolintbe 
len-^ (ox cherdiymaybe toipUcd, tbatttieliearcof awifc mandelighteihintbe 
right way, or in the path of vertue ; thaiofifool intficlcft, or road of vice-, 
according to the mylicrie of the letter of PjthAttrM , or chat exprelTion in Jtn/ih, 
concerning (ixfcore thoufand, that could not dilccin between their right hand and 
tlicir left, or knew notgoodfromcvU. 

Thai aflirtionalfothatnianproportionally hath tbe Urged brain, Ididlcon- 
fcft fomcwhat doubt ^ and conceived it might have failed in birdi, efpcfially 
fucli ai laving little bodic3, have yet large cranies.and ftfetn to contain mucn braiq^ 
asinipc*, Woodcocks, e^c. But upon trial I /ind it very true. Thebrainsofa 
man, Arcim»v(lui JinA BAnhinMs obfcrvc, to wei^h four pound, arid foajetimtfj 
live and an half. If tlierctbre a man weigh one tigndred and fouliy pounds, 
^Wld bis brain but five, his weight isz7. timet nsmucbai hitbrain, dodtiAing 

the I 


la hh haij. 



Bnqtdrks itm iTiM^ 

Book 3, 

Of aLlon tod 
• Cock. 



which require them ^ But what W€ faaTc obfervtd herein, we cannot in rea* 
Qm comreal -, who having in a glafi included a Toad with feveral Spidors , 
we hdM uie Spiders without refiffamce to (it upon his head and pa6 over 
idl his body-, which atlaftupon advantage he fwaUowed down, and that in few 
hours, unto nie number of feven. And in the like manner will Toads alfo (crve 
Bee&, and are accounted enemies unto their Hives. • 

7. Whether a Lion be alfo afraid of a Cock, as isi^lated by many, «nd be- 
lieved by moft, were very tafie in fome places to make trial. Akbough how far 
thcry iUnd in ftar of that animaU, we may fulRcientLy utiderftaod, from what is 
ddivercd by Csmerdrms^ whofe wohk in his Symbola akc tbefe^ ITpfths tem^ 
fwibns in AhU ftrefiijftmi Principu -BnviKrU, wms tx laonUms mim fitkikm 
in viiimMh cnjnfiUm dmns Mreum fife iHimifit , lAi GnMimukmim cdnfftm am 
cUmores mhU fifunrmidnns , ipfis nmi am jlmimispJIims Jevarstnt. That is ^ 
In our time in the Court of die Prince of BnvdrUt one of the Lions leaped 
doum into a ndgbbonre yard, wine nothing r^ardbg the crowing ^ornoifc 
of the Godks, he^at them up with manyower Hens. And therefore a very 
uni^ *ddeniative it is againft the iury of this animal ( and furely no better then 
Virginity or blood Royal) which ftiny doth pbtce in Cock broth: For her^ 
with, ikitb he, whoever is anointed (e^ially if Garlick be boiled therein ) no 
Lion or Panther will touch him. But of an higher nature k were,and more tialted 
aatitMnhy ^ if 'that were certain which Froelm delivers , that fokry DieiPMn j, 
tmd iuidh ias appear in the fluipe t)f Lions, will difappear and n^tt(h> if a 
Gockbeftefent^ upon them. 

. g. ft iageneraUytoncdved, an earwig hath no wings, *nd is reckoned among^ 
'4iiipeilnbQs in&fts by many- but he that ihaU narrowly obferye them, or (hall 
#fthancedleputaudetbe(hort aindifaeathie ca6s on their hack, may extend 
amldrairfbrthtwo wings of k proportionable length for fli^t, and larger then 
in many flies. The experiment of PemkiMf is yet more perfto:, who with a rufli 
t^rbnftlefo pricked tbnaasto maketheA flte. 

> 9. TfaKWonmaKeiangniouslvitmali,andfodia$havenobloodat^^ 
tlaMrmioiCiott of IMofo^ thegeoend opinioo of Scholars, Mi 1 know not 
well todiffent from tnence my filf. If fo, lurely tire want a proper terlta where- 
iy'to opreft that humour inthem wUchfo ftridly refembteth bkK>d : and we 
rtSff klmtotbediiciernmenc of others what to determine of that red and iangui- 
ufaM^hcuMT', found more |rfentifully about the Torquis or cameous circle of 
«kic Wornwin the ^ng, afibrding in Jinnen or paper an indifcemable tindure 
Soin lik>od/OrMiereHitlwdifo(rafitnn a vein, which in an apparent blew 
rttttnetb along diebddy^ and if dextcroufly Pricked with a lancet, cftiicieth a red 
^^M^iRrlMth ipricked on eittier fideit will not readily afibrd. 
' ^ »lii the npptt* parb of 'Worms, chcrcare iikeWife found certain white 
|0la»^fiddf,MiidiAiRbOnt^^ and in magnifying glaflea, they alfo 

priittft Uiteic*, faiMr'droferif, may aUb'be ^enquired -, fibce if in cbnn there be 
dttlitfftkhi^SCBcte^tnefeeg^aietobffi^^ For u that which is pre- 

fiimed w be their coiaoB;that is^thetf a^ 

tbeghmiid, divMiiig ifadrieniy with cwokhives tbeAdheriog part* of both^ l 
have found Aefeeggiio^eidier. 

10. That FUes, Bees, &c. Do make that noife or bumming found by tbdr 
'fthdtrtb, or as many bdievie with tbdr wines only, wioaid be mtoe iwily affert^ 
if#eitonfolted the detcrmioatioiiof AHptUy wboas iafandry efther places, fo 
iriote^tiprefly in Hbbookofrefpiratkin.aflbmeeh -this found to 
ttMMn^f ahinwadfpiritttpona pdlick or Uttk membrane about ihe!prcdndur 
pdloiiildivte6n^tbefa:body. if we aUa eonfider that a Bee or Flif, fo it be 
abte^ebMiyvetfae body^ will buz, tliodgbitsiifeadM off ^ thai it will dotbe like if > 
tiepitved «l>Wiilg^« . refe^ii^ thebcad^wbenAjpAie body may.rbe^be botcec • 


I oo iL 4*i 


fillt O B 

■■ . Il.;f<-- ■ 
lirrti tbc 

li. '.fio affinru iftii pccnlior vc/TcI to be aiurtory, andwx p 
■ I Misconceived iC; adding moreover that rings brm>!: , 
lIi.' ■ ..i^c , (datuiLipoiIiyniiP* or fv,'otin!!inp«(i?!!rc3 t(i? fn'.-.- 
iFiili rutfroRfliid[^o)d . that llicanti^:' :" ■ ' 

wicfi j tliic thiii^fL-ldomnrbn of nl ' 
cumcih nod'iuj.tncfi lontimic not ;i. 

niaiuunliiti«hed, norcan wcchinh dit uji.t,., ^n-^aujji-u lumnLia 
prdionmenc)' of tli» hnjjcr. 

lorrird, Conterning thepmtticcof iimtijimy. rfictulWine wa« not gcnctal! 
10 wear their rings cither on llt» hand or hnger 1 foritHfaid, and tliaitinphail- 
cally in frrrmi'ih. Si f'Mtrii JtetniM f/iw f*Mbim n^u J*<i« mitmlmi in mMu 
dextrimri, iifie evftlam cum : Though Ctntth ttif )»n ul ftdi-lam KtrgofJ**- 
ti.ih wcrciSc ftgnci on my rigdt (mid . yet would I ptui'h iltcc thcwe. Son it 
'uH'erveid hy Pi'ty, idir mihf ptinrjiisof rlirir Cods, ilicnhn» w«c worn on 
thf ringrr next tlie ihDmb,i!tat chc Ramani wore them ulfo ujKtn rhnr fcttle finger, 
as AVai* dctfiSedin Pttrviini : funic wofc ihi-ni on the nttddic finger, ntihc 
I ancient CJll»/«andJriM)•/^ and fome upon the forc-finger.astsdtduteaNcfitMft 
fttliinPtBur' wlio natDci [hat ring Owionos. I 

Again, That the practice of the ancicm* had any filth refpectof cordiatrtjfol' ' 
(cfacncc unto the heart, will muchhcdoabred.if weronliuer thnr rinp weft R(ft-,,ji(t! 
I midcof lron,ftith was that of Prvfurrhriit, who is c«nceived the fitl\ rlctt brought tmly oi in 
them in ufc. So, as P/iny affirmcrh, f«r rrtanj' year* rlic Seitarc^i of Ihmr did I 
not *ear any rings of Cwtd ■, but the (laveswore generally Iron rings untill thor 
maniSiiinion or prefcrinent to fume digmti', 'Fli-it the l-Mttttrnvniiuii contamcd 
their !rrrarin»«niohiidaics, /*/i«|alfoddtVercth ^ and furv-ly thry ufe<f ftw of 
Gold, for behdc that Crctn-fMt prohibitedthatniatall, werrifl in vyr;tir«^rt,, tint 
baring a ddire to guild the fiirt of --*/»i'#f .they enquired of the Orailc where thry 
might purchafe fo much gold; and were directod onto Crsftii Kvn^ai L)Sj. 
Moreover whether the Anricniij had am'fiich iwentiiw, the grounds wffich 
* they conceived mvcin, nerve or artery, flreBotiolxrjiidilied, rwrwil! infpefli- 
on confirm a pccuhar veffcll ^n this finger, l-or «* Jimt^mj infortncui the 
I rfafihta vein dividing into two branches below thccnlur, the outward femfcth 
two furcles unto the thumb, two onto the (bre-fi»gcr , and one unto the nritldlc 
! (ingcrmthc inw.iidlidei the other branch of the Bafilica fendeth one furde nn- 
to the omfide of the middle finger, two unto the ring, aod as many tmto the 
little fingers i fo thai thej' all proceed frotn thcBalilica, and arc in et[uaH num- 
bers derived unto every otic. In the fame manner are the brinches of thtf 
axillary artery diftributcd rmo the hand ^ for bdow the cobn it divideth inTO 
two parts, thiL* one running alonf^ the Reditu , and (ntsing b^' the wreft or 
place of the pnlfc, is at the lingers fubdivided mio tlirw branches ; whetwf 
the firft cotTVcjcth ^wo furdcs unto the thumb , the fccoml as ntanyto tlitS 
forefinger, and the third one unto the middle finger-, the other tir lowW 
divdion of the anery dcfccnderh by the olna , and furniftictti the other 
Jihgen , that is , the middle with one fbrclc, and the rmg and little fingerf 
wiuiiwo. As for the nerves, they are dilpofcd much after the firnicman- ^t'lirncr k 
! OCT, and have iheir onginall from the bram , and not the heart, as many of mivaJo- 
' the Anctcnti conceived ■, (fitich is lb for from affijrdtng nerves unto other cwJ. 
■ pjrts , that it rcceireth vcrj' frw it ftif frtmi the fiat coiifugaltod , ofttiir Of 
ntffve^mtftc brain 
i Lalily, 1 hefe proi^agations being communiated unto Bwtlrfcsnds, WC' WaVC 
j no greater rtaftn m wear olir ringt on rficlett, then on tftf fight- iTbr arc, 
I ibeTL- iordi.ll conlidtrationsirt the one, more then the orfiier. And chl-refoi'tf 
iTrten fi/iffiit for the (hnching of bibod mattes ufe of Wedirall appIiratiOtTs 
I afuip^iIiefourEtltiQger, becontines mt itm pnAltJe antvthc left, butVimttb 
' - . the' 



Enquiries into Vulgsr 



the fide according to the no(irill bleeding. So in Feavers , where cbe heart | 
primarily fufierecn^ we apply medicines unto the wrefts of either arm ; fo we j 
touch the pulfe of both, and judge of the affections of the heart by the one I 
as well as the other. And although in indifpofitions of liver or fpleen. con- 1 
fiderations are made in PhUtotomj refpeccivdy to their fituation •, yet when j 
the heart is affected, men have toought it as effeauall to bleed on the right i 
as the left -, and although alfo it may be thought , a nearer refpect is to be 
had of the left, becaufe the ^eat artery proceeds from the left ventricle, and 
fo is nearer that arm ^ it admits not that confideradop. For under the 
channd bones the artery divideth into two great branches, from which trunk 
or point of divifion , the diftance unto either hand is equal, and the confide* 
ration alfo anfwerable. 

And therefore Macrpbitu difcufiing the point, hath alleadged another rea- 
fon •, affirming that the geftation of rings upon this hand and finger, mi^ 
rather be ufed for their conveniency and prefervation , then any cordial re* 
lation. For at firft ( faith he ) it was both free and ufuall to wear rings 
on either hand ^ but after that luxury encreafed , when pretious gems and rich 
infculptures were added, the cuftome of wearii^ them on the right hand was 
cranflated unto the left •, for that hand being left imployed, thereby they were .. 
beft preferved. And for the fame reafon they placed them on this finger *, j 
for the thumb was too active a finger, and is commonly imployedwich either of' 
the reft : the Index or fore-finger, was too naked whereto to commit their pre- 
tiofities, and hath the tuition of the thumb fcarce unto the fecond joint : the 
middle and little finger they rejeded as extreams, and too big or to(^iit- 
tie for their rings , and or all chofe out the fourth , as being leaft ufed' of 
any, as being guarded on either fide, and having in moft this peculiar condi- 
tion, that it cannot be extended alone and by it felf, but will be accompanied 
by fome finger on eitluer fide. And to this opioionttteDtttb A/exanJer at Alex* 
mJtp, Annulnm nuftidUm frion €tai in RmfirkfenbM^iiiAtrim ne MttenretMr. 

Now that which begat or promoted the common opinion, was the common 
conceit that the heart was feated on the left file ^ but how far this is verified, 
we have before declared. The t/EiyptioM pradice hath much advanced the 
fiime, who unto this finger deriveda nerve from the heart*, and therefore the 
Prieft anointed the fame with precious oyls before the Altar. But how weak 
AmUHmfis they were, which werefo good Embalmers, we have already (hewed. 
And though tnis reafon took moft place , yet had they another which more 
commended that pradice : and that was the number whereof this finger was an 
Hierogly[^ck. For by holding down the fourth finger of the left hand, while 
the reft were extended , they fignified the perfed and magnified number of \ 
fix. For as Pierius hadi graphically declared , Antiquity exprefled numbers : 
by the fingers of either hand : on the left they accounted their digits and arti- 
culate numbers unto an hundred •, on the right hand hundreds and thouiknds ^ 
the droreifing this fii^er^ which in the left hand implied but fix, in the ri^ indi- 
gitated fix hundred. In this way of numeration, may we conftrue that of fm* 
vemU concerning Nejl$r^ 

— QjU per tot fdcuU mortem 
Diftulitj a$g^ fuos jam dextri comfMtst Mnms> 
And however it were intended, in this fenfe it vwll be very eling^nt what is de- 
livered of Wifdom, Prov. 3. Length of daies is in her right hand, and in her 
left hand riches and honour. 

As for the obfervation of Lemmm an eminent Phyfitian , concerning the 
goot^ however it happened in his country, we may obfenre it otherwife in ours • I 
that is, that chiragrical perfons do fuftr in this finger as well as inthcitft,anj 
fomedines firft of all, and fometimes no where dfe. And for the mixing up | 

meditiBce (ierewkh , it it mher an argumcot of opmion, ibtn any ccnilida- 
bWl' tSzit , aoii wc as highly connave of tbc pnrltcr id Hdfolmn^ dsai. is, in 
dtc nuking y t ll»[ plairter, to (lir it w>lh the Ilick of a falm- 

Chap. V 
0/ the ri^hiMd left UmH. 

JT it alfo rurpiciou<t, anJnotwilhtliamnaincy to bcrvccived.wlmt i^gcnr-' 
rally bt'itcved concerning the nght and left hind, tfiat m«i naturally mike 
life ot' ihe vigitt, an<lthat the u(cot'iheMh4.Tis a digreiHon ur abemnon frwn 
cfaac way which nature gencralty tntcndnh. We do not deny that almofl all Na- 
tioiishavfulcd [liis hana. and afcribcd a prchcminencc ilicreto ; hcnrafare- 
tnarkablt (wfiagc rh«c U in the 48. o\ Gimfit , Aod f^rfh took them both, 
£fhmm in his nglit hand towards Jfydtli left hand, and Afiiwiffei m his left 
hand towards //»•*// right land , and Ifi-ail Itrccthcd out his rigiit hand and 
laid it upon Jiphruimt head, who waithcyoungcr, and hislctt hand upon yW^r 
iM/«h«d, guiding hi* hands wittingly, ^tr MMtagts wistbefirlVborn; and 
wiicn 'fiftfh faw tluii htt father laid his right hand upun the Itcad of £fiirMm, it 
difplcafed him, and he held up his fithershaodiorcmovcit rrom£fife'«W head 
unto >/.i'*«^" head, and JnfrfhiiA, Not (omy fetlwr, for thtsistlie fidUborn, 
put thy right har-d upon hii head; The like appcareth trumthcordinanceofwIA- 
yr/ intheconktraiionof ihcir PricIU, Tlicn rtialc thou kill tlw Ram, and lake 
of his blood, and put It upon the tip of the right ear uf yisrtn^ and upon the 
ijpof <lver.giitearof hisfons, andu^nthcthumbof thcrigbtliaod, and upon 
the great toeofthc right toot, and fpnnklc the blood on ih« Altar roundabout : 
Thattlic PfrjtMs were wont herewith to plight their faith, it tcAificJby TJw- 
4arnf: That the Crnkj and AeiWiiw inadc ufe licreof, befjdc ihctriUnwnyof 
di»ci5 Authors, is evident from ilieir ailtnm of difcumbency at their meals, 
which watDponiheirlcIt fide, for fo their right tiandnrat free, and ready ibrall 
favitc. Nor was this only in ufe With divers Nationt of men, but was the 
coftom of wlwle Nations of women ^ as is deduccabic from (he Amarones in 
cbcamputationof theirnghtbrcaft, whereby they hadthc frcerufcofthcirbow. 
All which dofecmtodeclaTcanauiralprcierment of (he one unto motion before 
theodicrj win-rcinnotwithftandingm fubmiiliontofutureinformation, weare 
unlJtis'ied unto great dubitatton. 

For (itll, if inerc were a determinate prepotency' ir the right, and fucb as 
arifah from a conlUnt root iu nature, we might expett the fame in other ani- 
naU, whofc pares are alfo ditferented by deairality -, wticrein ootwichAanding 
wc cannot diltover a dirttnft and complying account-, for we find not that Horfes, 
Bailor Mules, are generally llrongemn this lidc Ai for animal* whofe fbrelega 
more fcnliblyfuppiy iIkuIc of aim«, they hold, tf not an equality in both, a pre- 
valency oft-tjm« in the other, as Squirrels, Ape*, andMonkieSi thefaroeisallb 
difcermbic in Parrets ■. and tncn obferve that the cycof a 1 uoibler is biggell, not 
conitanih' in one, hot in the bearing fide. 

ThattnereisaUbinnicna naturail prepotency in the right, we cannot with 
amftaun' atBrm, if wc make obfcrvationincluldren -, wbopermkcedUiefrec- 
unmuf both, do oli-iimes coniinc unto the lett , and ore not wuhontgreai 
ditfitulty relbained from iL And therefore thi* prevaleucy is dihcr uncer- 
tainly placed in the laterality' , or ciillom detenniiKS lu ladiflerency. Which 
M the rcfulution of Ari^nle in that Problem , which enquiret why the 
r^t llde bbi^ better flicn the left , it cqnalt to the fenfc t bccaufe , &th 
2 be. 


Enquiries im9 Vn^ar 


O K 4. 

Whence tbe 
dcxcral adWh 
ty In men pro- 

he, tbe right and left do differ by ufe and cuftome, which have no place in the fen- 
fes. For right and left as parts infer vient unto the motive faculty, are diflerenSrd 
by degrees from ufe and afTue&ftion, according whereto the one grows ftfonger, ! 
and ott-times bigger then the other. But in the fenfes it is otherwiie ^ for they ac- ' 
.' quire not their perfection by ufe or cuftomc, but at the firfl we equally hiear and j 
I fee with one eye, as well as with another. And therefore, were this indifltcrency j 
j permitted, or did ^ot inftitution,but nature determine dextrality, there would be ! 
I many more Scevoiaes then are delivered in (lory ^ nor needed we to draw exam- ; 
pies of the left, from the fons of the right hand •, as we read of feven thousand in j 
the Army of the Benjamites. True it is, that although there be an indifierency [ 
in either, or a prevalency indifferent in one, yet is it moil- reafonaUe Ibruni- ' 
formity, and fundry refpedive ufes^. that men fhould apply themfdves to the 
conftant ufe of one •, for there will otherwife arife anomalous diftiirbancesin ma- \ 
nual anions, not only in civil and artificial, but alfo in Military affairs, and the fe- 1 
vcralaftionsof war. I 

: Secondly ,The grounds and reafons alleadged for the right,are not fatis&ftory, 
and afford no red in their decilion. Sealiger finding a deled in the realbn ofAri^ \ 
ftot/e, introduceth one of nalefs deficiency himfelf v R^io tnaterialis ( fkith he ) 
fdngmnis craffitado fimul & mHltitndo^^ that is, tbcrcafonof the vigour of this 
fide, is the craffitude and plenty of blood ^ but this is not fuffiqient • for the 
craflitude or thicknefs of blood, affordeth no reafon>why one arm fhould be en- 1 
abled befoire the other, and the plenty thereof, why both not enabled equally, i 
/^^Atfpi/n/ is of no other conceit, deducing the reafonfrom the Azygos or z^mi 
fim pari^ a large and confiderable vein arifing out of the cava or hollow vein, be- 
fore it caters the right ventricle of the heart, and placed only in the right fide. 
But neither is thik perfwafory *, for the Azygos communicates no branches umo 
the armtor 1^ on either fide, but difperfeth into the ribs on both, and in its de- 
fcent doth finrniih the left Emulgent with one vein, and the flrll vein of the 
loins on tbe right fide with another • whichmannerof derivation doth not con- 
fer a peculiar addition unto either. Caliut Rodiginus undertaking to give a 
reafon of Ambidexters and left-handed men, delivereth a third opifkion: Men, 
faith he, are Ambidexters , and ufe both hands alike , when tbe heat of the 
heart doth plentifully difperfe into the left fide, and that of the Liver into 
the right, and the fpleen be alfo much dilated, but men are left-handed when 
ever it happeneth that the heart and Liver arc feated on the left-fide 5 or 
when the Liver is on the right fide , yet fo obduded and covered with thick 
skins, that it cannot di&fe its vertue into the right. Which reafons are no 
way fatisfaftory •, for herein the fpleen is injuilly introduced to invigorate the 
finiiler fide, wnich being dilated it would rather infirm and dibilitate. As for 
any tunicles or skins which fhould hinder the Liver from enabling the dextrali 
parts V we mufl not conceive it diffufeth its vertue by meer irradiation, but 
by its veins and proper vefTels, which common skim and teguments cannot im- 
pede. And fbr the feat of the heart and Li ver in one fide, whereby men become 
left-handed, it happeneth too rarely to countenance an effeftfo common^ for 
^ the feat of the Livei on the left fide is very monftrous, and raifely to be met 
with in the obfervations of Phyfitians. Otners not confidering ambidextrous 
and left handed men , do totally fubmit unto tbe efficacy of the Liver ^ 
which though feated on the right fide , yet fa^ the fubclavian dtvifiotl doth 
equidiftantly communicate its afti vity unto eitoer arm •, nor will it ialve the 
doubts of obfervation *, for many are right-handed whofe Livers are weakly 
conftituted, and many ufe the left, in whom that part is flrongeft ; and we ob» 
fcrve IB Apes, and other animals, whofe Liver is in the right , no regular pre- 
valence therein, t 
And therefore the brain , efpedally the fpinal marrow , which is but the 



Book 4. 

Md CtUMWt B K K o n I ■ 

|bnin prolonged, hatha ftircr pica herein ■ for tlicfc are [he piinciplct of mo- 
tion, whwrin dfxti'alTty f onlifti i andarcJlviiJed within and without the Crsny. 
By winch divifinn tnlnftiiiltini: ncrrct rcfjvrtivcly unin cilhcr Tide -, aiYord- 
' ing to ihc tndirfcTcacy , or originii a/id iueivc prepotency , ihcre arifccb flu 
Mailtcy in Iwch, nr prevalent)' m ciihtr fide. And Co may it l»e nade out, 
[what many may wonder 3t . *Iiy Tome moll atlHvcly u\e ihc comriry anil 
ifid leg - fnr tlu; vigour of thi^ one dcfcndnhupuhchc upper part (it' tlieffHa^ 
but the oiIicT upon the lower. 

AndthcTcfiire tiwiny things irc Philrtfophrfally delivered coocernifig rlghcaqit 
I left, which adnm orromc fulpenfidn. Tlilt a woman upnn a mafcutinc coDc(t<ii^ 
lonadvanceih berrigbrlej, will not bc found to anfwer Itriftobfirrvatiiio- TtWt 
'males arewnccivcd in tlic right iidcof theimmb, females in the Wt, iliiweb ge- 
nerally dehvcrcd, ahd fupportcd by ancient tcilimony, will make no tnfalliElcar- 
connt; ithappeningoft timnthat males and femilet do lie upon both lldes, and 
Hcrmaphroditei for ought we know on cither. It is alfo fufpitiou* what is 
delivered concerning the right and left tefticle, that males arc bcgt>ticn from the 
\xax, and female* from the ocher. For tlioOgh the left fcmiMl vein pi'ocMdtth 
ISrnn tbcemulgent, andisthcrelbrc conceived tOtarrydoA-ij afcrous and femi- 
Inne matter ^ yet ihc feminal Arteries which lend forth tlteaAivc materiakj 
'are both derived from the great Artery, Befide, this ori^nal of the left 
vein wai thus contrived, to avoid the piilfition of the great Aricry , over 
which it muft have palTcd to attain unto the tdlide. Nor can we calily infcr 
futh different cffcrt* from the divers lltuation of part* which have one end 
fltid office-, for in the kidntyt which havt one office, the right is fcated low- 
er then the left, whereby it lieth free, and givctb way lintb the Liver, And 
iheretbre alfo that way which is delivered for mEfruhfic gehctation, to make 
a Ilraic ligature about the left tefticle, thereby to intercept the evacuation of that 
p.irt.dcfcrvcthconl'idcration. V<ir one fufficethuntogencraiion , ashatbbeen 
obfcrved m fcmitalbration , and oft times in carnous ruptures. Bcfide, the 
feninal ejaculation protccds not immediately froia the tellicle, but ffpm the 
fpcrmatick glandules-, and therefore Arijlotte affirm^ ( and rcafon cannot de- 
ny ) thatalthoughthcrebe nothing diffulcd from the tdlitlej, an Horfe ijr ^ull 
may generate after cafl ration, that is,from theOr/cIt and remainder of feminal tnat- 
tertalready prepared and ftored up in the ProfVates or glandules of generation. 

Thirdly . Although we (hould concede a right and left in Nature, y,tft in 
thrt common ind received account wc may err from the proper acccption-, 
miflakmg one fide for another^ calling that in man and odicr ahimaN the riglu 
which ii the left, and that the left which is the right, and that in fome things 
right and left, which is not properly cither, 

hot firft therightandlett, arcnotdcSntfdby Thilofophers according to com- 
mon acception, tliatis, refpeftivcly from one roan unto another, or any conflaot 
fiteincacJi-, asthough that fhould bctherightinonc, Whichupon confrootor 
feeing, ftands athwart or diagonially unto the other -, but were diftinguiflhcd ac- 
cording to tlicaflivity and predominant loromoiion upom either fide. Thui Ari- 
pttlexn his excellent Trad f^'Wfjfx uBimaltHm, aftribeth fin potitidns unto ani- 
mals, anfwering the three dimcnfions-, which hcdetcrmineih not byfitcorpofi- 
lion unto the heavens, but by their faculties and fundions ; andthcfc are7w«» 
fummHtk, Amt Retro, DtxtratS- Siniftrit: thatis, the fuperiour part, wnere the 
aliment If received , that the lower cxtream, where it is W t cxpetled •, fo he term- 
eih a man a plant inverted ; for be fuppofcth the root of a tree the head or 
upper part ihercrof. whereby it receiveih its aliment, ahhough therewith 
it rcfpcfts the Center of the earth, but with the othtf the Zenicb -, and this 
potition it anfwerabie unto longitude. Thofc c^rts arc antcriour and 
meafurc pro&iidity , where ^he fenfet ; efj^ecialljr t^ eyes are piatxd. 


flow in Hotrc 

<fcc7 ht j<It. 

i«4 I 

■I ■ ^ 

Enquiries inu Vulgdr 


o« 4J 


Scrongly or fie 
fer corporal 

and tbofe pofterior which are oppoHce hereunto. The dextrous and finiftrous 

{»arts of tne body, make up the latitude ; and are not certain and iiialteraUe , 
ike the other •, for that, faith he, is the right fide, from whence tlie motion of | 
the' body beginneth, that is, the active or moving (ide^ but that the liniftet > 
which is the weaker or more quiefcent part. Of the fame determioatioo 
were the Pldtonicks and PjthagorUns before him •, who conceiving the hca- ; 
vens an animated body, named the Eaft , the right or dextrous part, from | 
\ whence began their motion : and thus the Greeks , firom whence the Lmus 
'have borrowed their appellation, have named this hand /fg/^^^denoauiairtos j 
it not firom the lite, but office , form Jixm^ capio^ that is , the hand wiiicD j 
' receiveth, or is ufually implied in that a Aion. i 

Now upon thefe grounds we are mod commonly mifbkeo, deAning that by 
fituation which they determined by motion •, and giving the term of riefic haod - 
to chat which doth not properly admit it. For RtA, Many in their Infancy are | 
fimfbroafly difpo(ed, and divers continue all their life Aff(i*>}9 that is, left hand*! 
ed, and have but weak and imperfed ufe of the right ^ now unto cbefe, chat '; 
hand is properly the right, and not the other efteemed fo by fituation. Thus 
may ArifiotU be made out , when he afiirmeth the right claw of Crabs and 
Loofters is biggeft, if We take the riglit for the mod vigorous fide, and noc 
regard the relative fituation ; for the one is generally bigger then the otbtf , j 
yet not alwaies upon the fame (ide. So may it be verifieawbat n delivered by 
Scaliger in his Comment, that PalHes do ofiened happen upon the left fide, if 
uriderllood in this fenfe •, the mod vigorous part proceding it felf, and pro- 
truding the matter upon the weaker and lef^refiflive fide. And thus the Law 
of Common-Weak, that cut off the right hand of Male&dors, if Philofophically 
I execute, is impartially othcrwifc the amputation not equally punifheth all. 

Some are A'/9iA';/6i, that is, ambidexterous or rig|it handed on both fides -, 

which bappeneth only unco itrongand Athletical bodies , whofe heat and fpi- 

rits are aole to afbrd an ability unto both. And therefore Hifpocratn^ faitb^ 

that women are not ambidexterous, that is, not fo often i$ men •, for fome arc 

Ifoond, which indifferently make ufe of both. An J fb may Arifi^le fay, that 

loidy men are Ambidexterous ^ of this conflitution was Afterofeus in Burner ^ 

lana Tdrthemfem the Theban Captain in Sutims : and of the fame , do fooie 

[conceive our Father AdAm, to have been, as being perfixtiy framed, and in a 

conftitution admitting leafl defect. Now in thefe men the nght hand is on 

both fides, and thacis not the left which is oppofite unto the right, accord* 

ing to common accepcion. 

Again, Some are A/^9 'ris%^/ ) ^ Galen hath expreffed: that is, Ambilevous 
or Idt-banded on both fides ^ fuch as with agility ^nd vigour have not the ufe 
of either : Who are not ^ymnaflically compofed : nor actively ufe thofe pares. 
N6W in thefe there is no right hand : of this constitution are many women, and 
Xome men, who though they accHftome themfelves unto either hand^o dexterouf^ 
iy make ufe of neither. And therefore although the Political advice of ArifiotU 
be very good, that men fhould accuftomc themfelves to the command oif either 
hand : yet cannot the execution oi: performance thereof be generall : for tboujgli 
there m many found that can ufe both, yet will there divers remaid that am 
ffarenuoufly make ufe of neither. 

Laftiy 9 Thefe lateralities in nuui ire not only Mible , if relativdy deter- 
mined umo each other, but made in refi^ence unto the heavens and quarters of 
the Globe: for thofe parts are not capable of thefe conditions in themfelves, nor 
witt)| any certainty refpfcftively derived from us, nor firom tbem to us again. And 
firll in regard of^their proper nature, the heavens admit not thefe finifter and 
delter reipeds- there being in tbem no dlverficy or difference, bull a finMplicity 
of parts, and iequifbrmity in motion continually fucceeding each other- lothac 


Boor ^ 

Md Cuttmn E x A D n 1 . 



from w]iat poinr foevcr wc compute, tlx acconrt will be common cino the whott 
tutuliriry. And thtrcfbre tbouglni be jMiiuiiblc, it i»no: of tontcqucnte liwe- 
Idnliliu dfTiVcrcJSv SvUimi. Tl:ai rnanwai tfacn-krt .t ?.'.irfn<>J,ii orliulc 
rrlJ, heciurcihcdimcnliomof tm p'.)fitioiu wertfniii" ■ ^^rtter. 

If ii< In tbe Iiwvcia the didancc of ilic North and ■• nJi arc 

eTm-nicd tb« fupcriour and inlcriour [KHDtt, ii ngtiiU ur.-j .. \ta the 

EaunndWcii, accounted ilKdextrouiindlimUrous pirLs dicrcni ^ luuitslli> 
ill man : forittecxccntof hit titthutne or dillance becwixi the ciiremiiyDf the 
finA(TS of ciihrr lund uponcipsnfvon. tsfquall unco the rp;!cc h;rA'rcn thcfulr 
Qt'< the ttiocar^ thci.rown. But ihitdoih but petio.-nrily infer a dcxtrnlicy m the 
heavetti, and we may as mlutnUy conclude a right and left laterality in the 
Ark or navall cdihcc of NmI). tor ilw length (iiercof was thirty cuoiu, the 
brndthfifty, and tlve height wprofiindity thirty ^ which wcllagrecthontoille 
p^oportionof man; tt'hole length, that is. a pcrpenditulir from the vertex uilEo 
thcfifte ofihc toot IS lexinple unto his breadth, or aright line di^wn from the 
ribsof onclidctoamtlterj and d«iible uoto hi( profiiiuJityj ilacu, adire(5 
line hct ween the breall bone and the fpine. 

Again, Thej* rccnrc not iherctondiiiomwithany affunnceorlhbitny trom 
our Iclves. 1-w the relative tbundarioni andpoims ol'deramiration, are not 
/ixcd andcettain, but varioufly defigoed according to imagtnatifin. TbcPhilo- 
fophcr atcounu that Eaft from whence the heavens begin thcr motion. The 
Altronomcr rrgarding (he South and Meridian Sun, nils that the dextrouj part 
of hc-ivcn which refpe^eth hi* riphi hand ; and (hat ii tli? Wel>. l*oet J ttfpctt- 
ing (lie Well, aliign the name of right unto the Noali, whic!i rwjardeth their 
right hand ^ and fo moft that of Ovii he explained mj, titudtxtri «« roiiJem' 
^ fmfi*-i. Bnt Augurs or Sonth-faycr« Turning their 6ce to the Hall , did 
tnakctherigluiHthcSouthi which was alfooWcrved by the W^?ii*fandC4jA 
4Mni. Nowif we name the (juaners ofheavenrcfpcftivdy umoourlidtt,it 
Will be no certain or invariable denomination, lorif wecall that the fight fide 
ot heaven which is fcatcd Eallaly unmuj, when we regard the Meridian Son-, 
the inhabitant! beyond the Equator and Southren 1 ropicii when thej' face M, re- 
garding the Merioian, willconrrarilydertnciti foruntoihem, the oppofilc part 
of heaven will refpeft the left, and the Sun ante to their right. 

And thus have we at targe declared that although the right be mo!l common- 
ly tifed, yet liath it no regular or certain root in nature. Since it is not confirm- 
able from other animals : Since inCliildrcn it ftcmietcherindifFercntoriBore 
favourableitiihcotheTibutmi-rc reafonaHefor oniformiry ia'aftien, thatintrn 
accuUoiQe utitoone: Since the grounds 'and rcafons lUf^cd for it, do noway 
iijpport it : Since if there be a right and llrongcr fide in nature, yet niay wc 
miflike inics denomination ^ calling that the right whfcl«it the letr, and the 
left whichis (he right. Since fomchave one right, fomeboth, fome neither. 
And lalily . Since chefcaffcftion* in man arenot only Sllible m relation un- 
to another, but made alfo in reference tiiito the heavens •, they being nw 
capable of (hcfe condition* in themfclvc*, nor with any certainty from' u», 
ilor we from them again. 

And therefore what admiffion wc wr umo many «oti£«p«ion< contwning 
right and left, requireth circumfpedion. That i*, howfer weoughtro rely 
upon the remedy in XifftHiiif^ that is. iheWceyeof «rt Hedgehog fried inoyl 
to procure deep, and the right foot of a frog in aDecr* skin tor rhe gout , ) 
or that to dream of the lofs of right or left tooth , prefagch the death of I 
male or female Kindred, according toihedc»#trineot .^'/fjpWcrjw. Wliarveri-j 
ty thereit in that numerall conceit in the hiteraldiviiion of man hyeven«nd. 
odd, afcrjbit^ the odd umo the right .Jidt. and e»eq tiHto thcleiii apdi^by: 
Mrity oriintnmy of Ictim iornensRamatotfctchdiienuiforniocs oni^tbctj 



ml eiprtlliofl, 



Bnqtdriis im$ Vulgir 

Book 4. 

Wby droit ncd 
bodlei float 
ifccr a cUnc. 

fide of their bodies , by which account in Greek numeration , Hephdftits or 
VmUm was lame in the right foot, atd jinitai loft his right eye. And laft- 
iy^ what fubftance there is in that Aufpicial principle, and fiindamen call dodrine 
of Ariolation , that the left hand is ominous , and that good things* do pafs 
finiftroufly upon us , becaufe the left hand of man refpeded the rigbc hand of 
the Gods, which handed their fiivours unto us. 

■-*i ■'! ■■ 


Chap VL 
Of Smmming. 

THat men fwim naturally^ if not difturbed by fear ^ that men being drown* 
ed and funk, do float the ninth day when their gall breaketh •, tliat wo^ 
men drowned, fwim prone, but men fupine, or upon their backs -, are popular 
aflSrmations , whereto we cannot aflent. And Arft » that man (hould fwioi 
naturally, becaufe we obferve it is no leflbn unco other animals, we cannot 
well conclude ; for other animals fwim in the lame manner as they go, and 
need no other way of motion for natation in the water, then for progreffion 
upon the land^ And this is true whether they move ferUtera, that is, two 
Iq^ of one fide together, which is Tollutation or ambling ^ or fer iidmttrtim, 
lifting one foot before, and the crolsfoot behind, which is fuccuiTation or trot* 
ting ^ or whether ferfrentem or tjuadr^Hm^ as ScsUiger terms it, upon a fquare 
baie, thel^sof both (ides moving together, as Frogs and (aliens animals, which 
is properly called leaping. For by thefe motions they are able to fupport and 
impell themfclves in the water, without alteration in the ftroak of their iegs, 
or pofition of their bodies. 

But with man it is performed otherwife : for in regard of (ite he alters his na*^ 
turall pofture and fwimeth prone ^ whereas he walketh ered. Again, in pogref* 
fion the arms move paralldl to tl^Iegs, and the arms and legs unto each other ^ 
but in natation they intoried and make all forts of Angles. And laftly , in pro- 
greflive motion, the arms andlejgs do move fucceflively, but in natation both 
together ^ all which aptly to perform, and fo as to fupport and advance the body, 
is a point of Art, and fuch as fome in their young and aocile years could never at- 
tain. But although it be acquired by art, yet is tliere fome what more of nature 
in it then we obferve in other habits, nor will it ftridly fall under that definition t 
for once obtained, it is not to be removed ^ nor is there any who from difufe did 
ever yet forget it. 

Secondly, That perfons drowned arife and float the ninth day when their galT 
breaketh, is a qudlUonaUe determination both in thj? time and caufe. For tht^timc 
of floating,it is uncertain according to the time of putrefadion,which (hall retard 
or accelerate according to the fubjed and feafon of tne year •, for as we obferved^ 
cats and mice will ariie unequally, and at difierent times, though drowned at the 
ianae. Such u are fiit do commonly float fooneft, for their bodies fooneft ferment, 
and that fubftance approacheth neareft unto ayr : and this is one of ArifiotUs 
reafoQs why dead Eeb will not float, becaufe faith he, they have but llender bd- 
iies, and little fat. 

As for the caufe, it is not fo reafonably imputed unto the breaking of tbcf 
gall as the putre&dioo or corruptive firmentation of the body, whereby the 
unnatural heat prevailing, the putrifying parts do fuffera turgefcence and in- 
flation, and becoming aery and fp«mousaSed to approach the ayr, and afcend 
unto the furface of the water. And this is alfo evidenced in eggs, whereof the 
found onesfmk, and fuch as are addled fwim, as do alfo thofe which are term- 
ed hypenemia or wind-eggs ^ and this is alfo away to feparate feeds, whereof 1 


B {>oK 4> 

aa/CMnnM Eniiont. 


' cif ritlntt.-d in iMi bnAs. but allb iinto tti« fp^rni 
.n ■ Ibr furii a pafFilv.- lutll Ariftttle upon riic TH I 

to prtvtiit die wncrgcocic of murdcrcJ bodio, did tile {otu: oii" clKir lung*, acd 
found mcni miiuii pofrcncdwitliiliisrcafiitii wi; cdtnmicicd fame unco tbf wa- 
icr w:Iiout lungs, winch noiwithlVndirg (lijiiti\i t.kIi rlit- oiLrr,-. And locoiu- 
j)!«t Uic<xp<;rimcnt, althoughweiwKoiut! ■ ' -, andalfooci- 

fi'ratcdilie Cranium, yet wouliibcyarilc, di- i ,,_■. From thelc 

obfervatioiii in other iifitiVish, !f miv notSi' ■ ■Ti'ludeihrfmi 

idman.*hoinooti. ' v.irndrfwcafc- 

nllopjwrttirvKy lo" ! i^roundttiUtf- 

fe^ from frj'l <■> ^ ■ >v]!l he abovft 

die Te'i; 1. r , we 

muft coni.i Lti the 

farcflking .■, ■■.!■■■ ■ 'Ucrahfy 


Laflly, T'wt worntn drowTwd fioat^firont, thai^s, with their bcUiBdoiitfn- 
ivavd, but men fu;iine or iifwsrd, ij an nffi;rt(r><( whcrcift phc hul ov polric 
itfclt"isdubi<iiis; am! wete it true; the rMfi>ft altiSJged for ir, is of no ralidi- 
T\\c rcafon ycrcufrantwas firft ckprcffedbyTA*/,- sv/Wi pMdori^Uft^ 
ihrum p^rttnterLUuri ^ natore mcklcttly ordaining thiSpotilion to ronreal chfr 
(Kimcot tftedwd-, which I(athbeoitak*n up V>y .?*/>««>, KfMiiSfJ'iMi,3inimsny 
njorc. This indeed ( as SedlifertCTtcKlb if ^ iirMtn chUUiuu thiUjiU'KA^ firing 
coough frr morality or RiietorkKsj not ftr pMlofophv or Payficki. Vor fUrii^ 
nnsiuretheconrtalmeniaf frcret paitii* the Dime »(iWhfMW, apdthtrtaRit 
X their reveal njii-i!! : lb yf.«*» -fl^iKW (hcfalle of the fruit was aftiamcd of hH well a* £-^r .iVnd fo fikewift irt AmfritA and coumrie^tinacqBainted 
*^nhh3UX:«, whercmoddly conceakihelefafH inonefei, iidothir alibtoihe 
other-, and ibcrfrtofc hadthif been<tf'eiiitfntionof lutiirf, noconty voftmitHiE 
menalfo had fwimed downwards', the pofhire inrnfon beingiommon unco both, 
whercthe intent V- alfo common. • 

I Apian, While herom wt commeffd the moddly , we condemn thcwifdomof 
I .^sturc : for tlflt prone polition we make heronotriveumo thie woman, were bell 
anrceahle unto the man, in whom the fcctet pirts arc very an: eriour and more dif- 
coferablcinafoiKfie and iiprtgrd poftiirc. And therefore JmA/ct- dcclinir»g(his 
rwfofl, hath recurred nmo another from thcdiffcrcflcc of pin* inhothfexe*-, 
UmA vtntrtvAfia fttnt inuHtres flenty^ imijiiHit,UjlijfntituititKfUtitr 0- fiUifi4ti^ 
UjifUr rthiriiJU /julpiii MMti fr^p«ft^4»t : If fo, th«i mco Wfth p-eat Wties 
will float doviftmard, and only C^ft^ti, and tvomcn largely compofcd behind, 
upward. But .-fit^rMn'/^j obferve, that to make the larger tavity tor the Inftni, 
: lie lianch bonC* in Wotnfo, and corrierjucntly the parts appendant arc more pro' 
tuJiA^mtUicnthtyare in men. Tht-y who afcribe the caiifeimto chebreafls of 
V niVi^n. tiSsnO: itt^y (be dooSi -, for the>' refoKc not why children float dtjwn- 
■,.:'.' ipeiadudcdinihatfex.thouglinoiin chereafonaHadged. Bwhere- 

■ to drtcoiirk-, Itf!> weundertakc to afibtd a rej*fi«i of the " golden .Qf,,,. ^^r 
-\<, to inventor aftign a caul*,- when wc rtuwn Onfaiiifiedor an- whcrtof'muUi 

.-.Mu v-u"! itl^cfteft. "'I dilpuitWM aMarewiil foTerdrown thctra Horfc, though commonly opiiiiofi'd,- "'■"<c,aod*i 
u nm I ftar «porrciircd : nor isthcfamr obfcrved, mthtdroivningofwhelpf i^T^fl"*^"" 
Bvd MiJins. BDt cbat a nuui cannot Auic ot- optn ^ixe^'a tinder vtca^ ^xitc 

_ I etperiroent 


Enquiriis int4 Vnlgir 

Book 4. 

experimenc may convid. Whetto Cripples aod mutilated perfons, who have 
loft the greaceft part of their thi^s, will fx)t (ink but float, tbor lungs being abler 
to waft up their bodies, which are in others overpoifed by thehinder legs ^ we 
have not made experiment. Thus much we obfenre, that animals drown domi- 
wards, and the fame isobfervable in Frogs, when the hinder 1^ are cut off. But 
in the ayr moft feem to periih headlong from high places^ however V^^cm thrown 
from haven, be made to fall on his fim. 


Cmecming Weight. 

THat men weigh- heavier dead then alive, if experiment hath not &iled us, we 
cannot reafonably grant. Forthonghthetrialhereofcannotfowellbemade 
on the body of Man, norwiUthedifierencebefenfiUeintheabateoffcruplesor 
di:agpis, yet can we not confirm the fan^ in lefler animals, from whence the infe- 
rence is good ^ and the affirmative of P/fj^; faith, that it is true in all. For exa Aly 
weighing and ftrangling a Chicken in the Scales ^ upon an immediate ponderation, 
wecould difcover no ienfible difference in weight ^ but fufiering it to lie eight or 
ten hours, untill it grew perfeftly cold, it weighed moft fenfibly li^er-, 
the like we atcemped, and verified in Mice, and pmormed their trials in Scales, 
that would turn mxHi the eighth or tenth part of a grain. 

.JNow whereas feme alledge that fpirics are lighter fubftances, and naturally 
afcending,do elevate and wiSt the bcMdy upward, whereof dead bodies being deflt- 
tnte, contraft a greater gravity v although we concede that fpirics are light, 
comparatively unto the body, yet that they are abfolutely fb, or have no weight 
at all, we cannot readily allow. For (ince Philofophy affirmetb, that fpiri ts are 
middle fubftances between the foul and body, they muft admit of fbme corporie- 
ty, whidi fuppofeth weight or gravity. BeOde, incarcaffes warm, and bodies 
newly difanimated, while tranfpiration remaineth, theriT do exhale and breath 
out vaporous and fluid parts,whic{i carry away fome power of gravitation.Whicb 
thot^ we allow, we do not make anfweraUe unto living expiration •, and there- 
fore me Chicken or Mice were not fo lij^t being dead, as they would have been 
after ten hours kept alive ; for in that Ipace a man abateth many ounces. Nor if 
it had flept, for in that fpace of fleep, a man will fometimes abate fourty ounces •, 
nor if it had been in the middle of fummer, for then a man wdgbeth (bme pounds ; 
lefs, then in the heigjiit of winter -, according to experience, and the flatick Apho- i 
rifins ofSanHoriuj. 

Again, Wheceas men affirm they perceive an addition of ponderofity in dead 
bodies, comparing them ufiudly unto blocks and flones, whenibever they lift or 
carry them -, this accefiionall preponderancy is rather in appearance then reality. 
For ndng deftitutecrf* any motion, they confer no relief unto the Agents, or Ele- 
vacor£ •, which makes us meet with the uune complaints of gravity in animated and 
living bodies, where the nerves fubfide, and the faculty locomotive ieems abdifli- 
ed-, as may be obfSarved in the liftingjorfupporting of perfons inebriated, Apoplefti- 
call, or in Lipothymies and fwoundings. 

Many are aUb of opinion, and fome learned men maintain, that men are lighter 
after meals then bdbie, and that by a fupply and addition of fpirits obfcuring the 
grofs ponderofity of the aliment infiefted 1 but the contrary hotof we Inve found 
in the trial of fundryporibm in different lex and s^es. And we conceive men may 
miftake if they diftinguifli not the fenfe of levity unto themfelves, and in rej^d 
of theftale or dccifion of trutinadon. For after a draught of wine, a man may 
feemlififiter in himfUf firom fudden refedion, althou^ he be h«ivier in the ba- 
lance^ from acorporal and ponderous addition ^ but a man in die morning ii 

* ^^^^^ hghter 

: ligbtcr intlic (ctif, bcaufc in flco) ftmic poonds have pnfpiral ^ utduilfo 
ligliicf onto (limfvlf, faecjufe he iireJeftcd. 
I AnJ tJi fpcik llrrdiy, a man tbar holdi tiis brcich uwbghit« whikfuilungi 
arc full, tticn upon rifMHtion. tor « bUdder blown ii wcighlier then one 
I empty, anJ if iKuaaiiia ijuan, rtpraffctlandctnptial icwIHabstcibouiaquir- 
I tcr of 3 grain. And we TflncwKit miiiniii Uic experiment nl» panjicc-Hooe 
, tniicn up by Miin,m>4t ^ iii tiis Common ujHin AvUftmJi , where ileciifing 
hovt [be rarity of part*, anil namcrofity ul poro, omlioncih aligbtoefMn 
boilict, bcoilirmi ihit a pumice ilimc powJcrcJ, is lighter then nnc OKwi -, wlitcb 
if an eKperimem beyond out UiisiaAion -, for bdlde tttac abatemcm ran bacd- 
ly be avftiiltd in Uic 1 ciruraDun •, if a binddcr of good capaticj' will Icixce 
include a grain oi ayr, a pumice of three or fiiur dragio*, cannot be Jrclaiocd 
CO contain the hut)Jrcd put ibcrtofj which will noc be fetiCblc upon toe csad- 
e(t*n,*cure. Nuris'tiobctakcnftnCtly what ii delivered tiy the learned 
Lord ytruUm, and relierred unto hirifaer experiment ; That a diFfoIution uf Iron 
in A90A frj-tu, will bcjir a^ good weight i-% ttieir bodies did belotc, tiotW-ilh- 
lUnoing a great deal uf -.v^jIl- by a thick vapour that iirucih during ihe w6r)c> 
ing ; lor we cannot Hnd it to hold neiilicr in Iron nor Copper, which is 
diHblvt.'d wiihleu ebiillii>t>ii ^ and bereot wcmadc triahn Sciu« of gocniex- 
adncr»: wherein if chere be a deted, or fuch as wJt noc turn uponquorto- 
grairn, there ouy be tre^uenc millalccf in cxpcrixncRtsof this tiacurc. But fbanger 
» chat, and by the favourabldl way of trial, will hardly be made out what is 
dctJvered \>\ liamtrut Pa^fiui^ i\a,i AMtimenj cakin'd or reduced toafliobj' 
aburtungclafj. alihough it emit a grois axw ponderom exhalation, doth ra- 
the reicced ilien abate it* former gravity. Ncverihelefi, ftrangcitis-, how ve- 
ry little aitd aliiwll infcnlibleabatenwut there will be fometimcs infuchopera- 
iiDoi ,or rather fotne encrcBfe, aiinihercriningof metah, intfie ted of bone 
aflm, according tn experience: and In a burnt brick , as AitnfituriK CaJvcaC- 
tvrmctb. Millakc maybe made in this way of trial, when the ^Mf/nmi; is not 
Weighed immediately upon the cakinaiion j but pennicted the ayr, it imbibeth the 
luunidicy the^f, andforepaireth its gravity. 

EHm there arc different paffttge* for Meat and Drink, the Meat or dryili.^ 
mcatdcfctoding by ilwone. the Drink ur rsoifintngvehicleby theotber, 
uapopular Terem inoiirdajc!,boiwaitbcaffi.-roon of learfulincnof old. Vor 
[beJamewas affirmed by PIjUo, maintained by £.mji*thimi inylf«»Ji«;, ahdii 
dedudble ihim ErAuJibewi^ £*fitt and EmipAti. Now herein men ctmtradid 
eipmencc.ootwcll undcrfiandit^ ^iwwiip/.axid tbeufcofparis.Forat tlie throat 
rticre are two cavities or troodufltng parts ^ the one the Ocfopliagu* or gullet, 
fcatedncxuheCpinc, a part official unto nutrition, and whcrebv the aliment both 
wet and dry is conveyed unto iheftomack ^ the other (by wlikhti* conceived 
the Drinkdoth pafs) is the weaion, rough »ncry, or wind-pipe, a paninfervi- 
entlovoiccaodrelpiiarion ; fiw thereby ilieayrdeftrmleth into tbtlungi, and is 
Kinimunicated unin the bcart.And thcrdore aU animals ihJt breath or have lungs, 
lave alfo the wtaTon ; but many have the gullet or feeding chitlnel, whith haVe 
nohmgi or wind-pipe-, as filhcs which have giU, whtrtby (Ik hean li rcfirigei'it- 
ed J for fuch thereof as luvc lungs and rcfpiration, are not without the weazon, aJ 
Wltalet, and cetaceous animals. . , 

•ain. Belideibeftpartsdeftin'dtodivctsofficej, there isa pemliar provifion 

ch AP. vni. 

of the p^(}*St *f Meat *nd Urink. 

170 , 

Enquiries into Vulgar 

Book 4. 

Why a man 
cinnoc drink 
and breath ac 

Anairton the 
Poet, if the 
ftorybe taken 

I for the wind-pipe, cbacis, a^arttlagineousflap upon the opening of tbeLarinx 
or throttle, wliich hath an open cavity for the admiffionof thcayr ^ but left 
thereby either meat or drink uiould defcend , Providence bach placed the Eii- 
glottis^ LiguU , or flap like an Ivy leaf, which alwaics dofeth when wefwallow, 
or when the meat and drink paflfeth over Tt iqco the gullet. Which part aIcbou::h 
all have not that breach, as all cecaceous and oviparous animals, yet is the wea- 
zoq fecured fome other way ^ and therefore in Whales that breath, left the wa- 
ter (hbuld get into the lungs, an e jeftion thereof is coatrived by a Fillula or fpouc 
at the head. And therefore alfo though birds have no Epiglottis, yet can they 
fa contraft the nm or chink of their Larinx, as to prevent the admiflion of 
wet or dry ingefled-, either whereof getting in, occalioneth a cough, untillic 
be ejedbed. And this is the reafon why a man cannot drink and breath at the 
fame time *, wiiy, if we laugh while we drink, the drink flies out at the noftrils ^ 
(why, when the water enters the weazon, men are fuddenly drowned^ and thus 
mult it be underftood, when we read of one that died by the feed of a Grape , 
and another by an hair in milk. 

Now if any (hall ftill a$rm, thatfonie truth there is in the aflertlon* upon 
the experiment of Hippocrates, who killing an Hog after a red potion, found 
the tinfture thereof in the Larinx ^ if any will urge the fame from medical 
pradice, becaufeinaffeftionsbothofLangs and weazon, Phyfitians make ufe 
of fyrupcs, and lambitive medicines ^ we are not averfc to acknowledge, that 
fome may diftill and infinuate into the wind-pipe , and medicines may creep 
down, as well as the rheum before them ^ yet to conclude from hence, that ayr 
and water have both one common paffage, were toftatethequeiiionupontbe 
wesfker fide of the diftinftion, and from a partial or guttulous irrigation^ to con- 
clude a total defcenfion. 





, A Colled Ion 

' of Cireck Fpl- 

! grams. Tiiulo 

of Snefzing. 

Concerning Sternutation or Sneezing, and the cuftomeof falutiug or blefling 
upon that motion, it is pretended, and generally believed to derive its ori- 
ginal from a difeafe, wherein Sternutation proved mortal, and fuch as Sneezed, 
died. And this may feem to be proved from C4roi/iii Sigouius, who in his bifto- 
\ry of Italjf, makes mention of aPelKlenceinthc timeof GworjrtheGreat, chat 
' proved pernitious and deadly to thofc that Sneezed. Which notwithftanding will 
not fufficiently determine the grounds hereof: that cuftome having an elder c/fr^, 
jhcn this Qironology affordeth. 

For although ^e age of Gregory extend above a thoufand , yet is this 
kaftome mentioned by ApuleiHs^ in the fable of the Fullers wife, who lived 
three hundred years before-, by PUnj in that Problem of his. Cur Sttrnt^ 
^tkntes fdlhUntur '^ and there are alfo reports that T/^wii/ the Empcrour, other- 
wife a very fower man, would perform this ritemoft punctually unto others, 
?nd expect the (ame from others, unto himfelf Petronins Arbiter, who lived 
before them both, and was ProconfuU of Bythima in the raign of Nero, hath 
mentioned it in thefe words, Gjton colUIiiQne ffnritus flenus^ ter continue 
Ua fiernutavit ut grabstum concuteret , aJ quern motum Eumolpus canverfus , 
Solvere Gyiena jutet. C^lius Rhifdiginus hath an example hereof among phe 
Greeks, far antienter fhen thefe , that is, in the time of Cyrus die youn^ -, 
when confulting about their retreat, it chanced that one among them Sneez- 
ed- at the hoife whereof, the reft of the fouldiers called upon fupiter Sotpr'^ There 
is alio in the Greek Anthology, a remarkable mention hereof in an Epigram 
_ upon 


And Cvrmruft E n a o n i.. 

_ a pac PrKlm { tlie L«cinc whoreoF we (liaU-.ddiWr. *• W fitldU oto 

iViM priiitfi Ptottm iti^hu etuikji^tn lufitmt 

N^m t, rj} fra lu/i intJc finfiSs mjnmr ; 

, NmvKja>ai1»i''»!^- r : :i--7^(.mJ.V 

SttrmujmfHintr . ■ jl. 

His liansituuliak' . 
HeSncc/ing cab not ■ 
Himfcif iTxSiiK.'. 
was llii* only anancientaiflodi i . : , . . .:, 

rewiiiius, but isr<ctiv<datihi« djy itiioiiii'ita [nmvi J;\ 
■ in CtMfHUj I diai upon a Snce* of the fcmpcnmr <if Afimm^tjpji, tbcri 

acdaiiiJtioM fucccllWely tliroii nh itx City . And as rcininlabte an <:miii; 

k there » of tlrf fame cuftooi^ la luc ^nnotcft pans ul' die Eail, cctofded iri 
Ihctnvdifii FiMSc- 

Ulc ilieliidory Will run tnuclibigLcr, ifwefliould taie latiic^^^AwNV-f^ac* 
coant Iiercof ; ibat (heciingik'asaaiartaiirTJicv'cnfroinUic firlt man- untill it 
WaeialkCnorf by thef||>«iat fuppliation of Jaech. rroiivwbrnn:,, fi a tKankfulI 
bknowl!iiIg<.'fiicnt, ihts falutatina liril begaa -, altd wa .iftciT coadnueaby ibeex- 
preflion orTiiiin CiMtm^ or t-iV* iwa, by lUnJeriby^ upoo lU otrafionof 

NoWthegrmiodof ttiiUndcnc cuQomwas firobabty tlie opinion ibcancicni^ 
held of (Icrnutjcion, wtiici) thej- generally conci^ived, to be a good Ago ur« bid, 
andfoupon tlii^moEioriaccoTiJingTyultrd, 3 Salve or ^ vranr, asagraiulalion 
fiirtheonc, andadtp'recitio'n frumilieother. Now of the waic» whereby itiey 
twjuircd anddcicrmincvl lU fignality ^ tbc fjtft was natural, ariling &oai I'hy- 
fical caufrs, ami confc<jticiK'c* 6rte'ii(ii«es naturally futtccding ib"is tnocian •, iad w}.. 
fo it might be I'ofHy eflewncd a gooJ fign. Fpr Snccani; being properly 3 1.1 
Oioiion ofihc' brain, fuJJcnly expelling t,hroiigIi thcngllriU wfuti* t»ffcnlivC|*i 
unto It . ic tanno: but afford fomc ividente oF it* vigour j and therefore 
faith jfriJloiU. rlicy that hear it, f>-.«.«*.w.r *( m-h. lio'wuriiaslbmc'wiiat fa- 
Citd , ittfd a lign of Sitiity in the diviner part -, dnd ttiit lie illudniEei from 
the praititc of Phylitiahs , wlw in pcrfons near death, do ufc Stcrmitjiio- 
ries , rrr fufh ineaitincs is provoke unto Sneezing; when if the faculty 
srilc, and Srcrniitation cnfueth . tlwy^ conceive Iwpss pf hfc , atid with gra- 
tulation receive the figns of Oilety. .Atid fo i_s it alfoot good Cgnaliiy , ac- 
cording r(C <tai of Ht}f9C'iiui , thai SnCc?inE curetii the hicKci . atid is 
profitatite unto women in hard labour ^ and io. is it good iii Lychirycs , 
ApoplcxcSj'tatalepfics idd Coma's. And in tliit natural way It w fomerimc 
likewift of Sad cflkCH Of Iigm , and i:uy give hlnw of dcprecaiit'ii ^ as in 
difeafcs ojthc cheft ; for therein //if^otrxfr/ condcdWEh it as tw-tnutfi 
rtagitaring: in the beginning of Catdrrhi according unto Jvicim4.ii hin- 
dering (/oiKoaioti , in nt\tf and tiai4cr conccpcions {m P/m/ otftrrvcth) for 
then ir crtdincerf abttniftn ... 

Tltc lifci'nd way wai rtjperftitio"us and Auguriil, « C4itMi Jthedi^fniij hadi 
iHtrtlraiedititeliimoiiief, as indent s* Tbt^ritm and Himtr : as appears ifoi(i 
the ArhMtAM marter, who would havi retired, bctaiil'c aboat-man Snscied-, 
and tbtf rclHmony of Atpn^ that the Aiititfnis were wont to go to bed again 
if they Soctwdwhilethey put on their fhixi. And iti' ibis way itws* alfoof 
got* J and bid ligniHa^ion ^ fo ArlpstU hath a ProiJem, why Socciing from noon 
unto midnight was good, but from nigh; iij nooounlucKy?So£«rf*A*Vjup- 
oa H»mer nbfcrves , tTia't Sneering to the left hand w^s ufilutlty, b'u'i'profpe- 
roas unto ihc rtebt i ftf,' as Plindrch rclatcih ' when' ThtmiliKU: ficrincca in 

'n nlui afci 


ttufum: mt Vd^jr 


Book 4. 

» fe r-lf Ir.; 
r r-:Trr- ;.- 

ru..: r rt 

. « 

As for their generation* androrjcepcioni <^ wiixh are che purer from good di- 
et,) they bciome more piirr and perfect by the rtnftobfcrvacion of their Law -! 
upon tiSe injunAons whereof, they fcvcrelyobfcrvechetiiTicsof Puriricacion'* 
and au\d aI; i\>(hiUiivm^ cuhcr inthcundeanncfe of thcmfelvc?:, or imnuritw ! 
:.:" ;Se.r «'i> ^r.. A Rule, I fc^r, not fo well obfcrvcd by Chriftians • whereby ! 
nn: •iiii c,-ivoxv\"^ 4.-tc /ofvenccd, but if they proceed, fo vitiated and de- " 
r"u*c :^a: ^ii:-«.hc .xu-MCCcj, rttiuin upon the birth. Which, when the 
: ru-ivifti m« :• w-i:r rre*: arwCncus . mull needs be very potent -, lincc in 
: r; •^'■r'. ix^ mni ;ar c "inxxors, eirccd men derive the caufe of Pox and ' 
^^fi-t:. r^r T-.-ir^-i^itt r* ir,;c Kc*n!. l::c »j cbc menftruous impuriticsin. 
T'.M^r' 7^'*^^. ^T^ '.iim rjvra^s ::c:cnfted by the Infant, in tbc. 
rn u-':r.v i 

::!!r.c r ;. '"T^.f r "rir nis ^5rc::ve odor is no waydifco- 
uiir-. rar* e^ . uu by reafon of their nuwiber 
s cc atnc iJccTLib-e in commerce orcmveri- 
- T^-nrr^ tnc cccmt in their Houfes. Sjrclv lic: 
r-r -.V .V rns C'pirjon^ who as Sr.HfH'^ E^wt . 
^ __ _'* --X-I zr^:.: Dr:iare Counfell. Andw:r;iris' 
rrfTC:^* vi .^. ii\ V «r r^»^ :ix :br intention of their Liv d)r 
-.'•TV - .—- *■ ;!.:': :•; ^-ist: v.':a^ . ^.iigly are cadaverous, cc isar . 
'T ,-«,r. uT,'i: 1:7? 'r:- vjil\::r2« :hm>e!ves. And laftK, «(arc: 
•T.-jv ' * I. T.Tw-T;^ •.,-ir-':: ^"r^crrei ?nr/ who are oc' z:c ! 

Li rbc'iigh Aroma:ii-cbv 

•%% i « 


'tr. «% 


•» •«• 

N • 

- -N^^ 

. -^ x:;^^ - -r—Xi^ixt. \T.- Je-on:- r.^*: :« :!^di!tafie-i 

- :- -v^rif ,viJ=<n. Which real i 

,^ ;.v -.'iv»:.-£oaa:craiconilructi-' 
.^ V.'-. -.• *•' .:: -''u itour their father 7^©^ ac-l 

?,..;«' , •i t.- t i:^ ?.oii5i had made him funk in the hod 
^.^4^-w :»i. . ^-^^ i^'-i.Aii.N rhcrcof. No:v how dangerous ic 1 
:^ V . c x.a^-^^Ji?^'^ -<;/rc»nons unto the people, and wfiaii 
V. •; -li^tu'.^ Uii!«u iktrir? ^ an impatient example we have 
^ .. >. ifai. •"v :*•-;§ vui;ri in eating Ulcer by the name of a 
,m.^. . . >' u^-' ^ •- --*^t' • ^ f rai.ty therein ^ and againit our fclvcs 
.•.-..* I*. *> «*«.•.%<*• *^o von;'irm it. ' 

s^- t .^4 \a4.-%».> 'lid iluttifh courfe of life hath much promoted ' 
N «; vvH N •^•^ '^^ ^ »J^ condition at firft, and infehour waics of 
;.v- .> ^^<*i.crcd by Nfr. S^snars^ Thev are ncncral[v &t ' 


^^V-F*"^^ "'"'•' "•^^•« *••••«»« V-^k'f ^rf 

""WjF ^pP** ^'^ « inward impcrfeiftioa in cbe 
^1 ttf*^ ^'^ *^ breath from outward ob- 

^ ■iiti tod was a common clTcct in the 

Mioog Che Cm<j 

» yet are che reafoos 

Mtmc ac i ^ whicfahowcol 


1 1 


Sooi 4. 

«nrc<«n«n Exoit. 

■ S.I 


of tbofc (if (he trihe of fuJj ani / "i'l ■ .: :i ifc into'. 

S.d^jUn by Nri>iici!gdnn.t,ir , n^\'.\ [.i)fe- 

maiBfti, andJrf)tnchtncel()ngaftprii[T ■ r-nfli- . 

"if^i where yet riicy arc Bid'fi>rcTDa'ri,' -"rittt. \ 

" T6sTrib«ilMrrL"iiirrinJfo^«irfi-,<,i, ■ h*;tdc 

[treo cimiifiinti yxhwh Tuki (en r. !"itfter ' 

Ttff4ffMi, hdulJfwi tcfsthcnin hiindrcvl iii'vii .. yenri 

afwr ^l^rLiH the tnipcroiir . wtio riiinfd id ■ . 'vi:nJ I 

tmoy choufjncUinfoi';)j/)i. frnm wlimce tli-^ i^.cy 

21 iiiio /"/jrtii-and Futl^u^t bucwcicbanifti^J .t;,. , ....... ,. ■,,.. l;«.ij cfru'i. 

(bey (Jilpefffd into ^jVic* , lu/f, CoifjtAmitHfIt , and ilw- l>Kmftiora ot ilw 
Tio-t, where diey remain as yet 111 very grca: ntimbcri. Ai«!i!"C'i«WdJngtf) 
good reJatiom) whfrrcthey rtiay frcdvfpcafc it, they forbrsr not ro boaft tint 
mere are at prcfcni many rIiou(inid ?nrr in .f)f,/m , t>>titrf ir.d Sifrf^ff^ Hid 
fome difpcnfwlwitliall, cVCTi co the ciegrrt of Pnrilhocd , if ii 1 mjttwTcrj' 
conirderilile, snj could tlKy be fmdicd out. woold nrath iufvsnMgc, not cmlj' 
rJir(!hurchof Chnft,l)uta!fr>[hccolfcriOf !'rinc«. 

Nowlnving tims lived in fcvcral Countrifc, ardal**}*! Fnftb)fflrO;^ rfwy 
rtiuit needi (uvc fuffercd mar.y commfxture* ■, md wc iff Ture tficy inrftot tit- 
empted from tfte common contagion of Vcncry conttaftcd ftd i'mm ChrifbMia. 
Nor arc fornicatiom uttfrcquco: bet.»eentheni botli -, rhWe cimimonly pi/Bng 
bcnniOiK of invitcnvenc, t(ut their Women ddire copuUtirtrt witiitbem, ricfier 
ificntlieir own Nation, and affnS Chriftian carnality above crtttirnciled vcncry. 
It being tbcrefiwe acknowkdced.tfnt Tome an.- Uf\, evident tfw others jre ttiiiictf, 
and noiafTurcd that any arc dillinft, it will be iiardtoeftablilTitfli* ijualityopon 
ibcfe»i, unlcfiwcilfotransfrrthe fame unto rhofcwhofegeneritioni arenjix- 
cd, whole gencalogiwarcffwt,*, andnaiutally derived fro<ri tlmii. 

Again, Itw'ccoiKcde a National unfavourinrtj fflinyJtojHe.yetftuflntfind 
the pw/ lefs fubj'efl hereto then any, andihatin thofercgiirdi whieh moftpffw- 
frftJly coiitiu to furh fiff iSi, chat 15. tbcir die: and gencratinn. Ai for t(ie(r diirt, 
•rfjrtlier inohediencenncotncrreceTiKof rcal'cm, orthrinfuni^timf oPparfimo- 
ny, tbcrein tltcv arc very temperate , feidom otfending in cbriety or txetft of 
dfink, nor errrng in gutofity or fupcrrtuity oF mcau; Whereby they fitttem 
JBifigcIbon and truditiei, and eonfccjuently ptrtrcfccncc of humour*. They IW in 
alximimtion all flcfh maimcd.or the inwardsany wjy vitiated ^ and ifwefottf tAt 
i» rtiest but of their own killing. Thc\' obfcrve flot only fensaceerfflin tithe*' bt« 
arcri-UraincdiincovjrytVwdithrs at ail times, fofew,tfi3t wherea-iS. /'rt'i'r;(bfcet 
*ilf hardly cover our table*, their la* doriifcanro permit them to fei tbrdi a itwd- 
Jyfeiili 00 any waytoanfwer the Iiisury of oilr rimej.orthofeot otirfiWefir* 
thtts. Vor <»f Jtefli their Law retrains them mmiy fCrtj, and Ti/th as c nniplt^ dbr 
f^Ils- T'hli.ini^i\, PrcpiirimviviAitdrMm, (hey tOCrthftOt, tJorsny nf Hbft- 

E'htions.orpaPtsfoffluchlnre/pedat /fowM tables ; n^raiftntttbcr toro twrr 
lard, Hlr«, Conict, Herons, Plovers or Swam, Of trrticlthey onlytaftirftf 
fitch a* have both fins and (calci ^ which are ci:^parativc?\' but few in nlibibft', 
fuchonly, laitli Anfinlt. whofeeggor fp3\PnisafeMccoui, whereby are ex- 
cluded all (ctacious and canilagineous riftlSs , mahy pcctirmi, whofc nbsarc recii- 
iiflifili manyeoftai, whkh have (hctr ribiembeweJ; alKtHial, or fcehitfaVt 
njii'ib».'tjutonly a back bone, or fomwbat inMogmij rhn-eoft, asEch, C6nger5, 
L4CDprieSi an that are tcfllcei^a*, u OvfWr*, Cocte, Wilte, Sthullop, Muf- 
cte, andliXewifc all cruDaeeOUs, asCrab* Snrimpt andLobdn-). So that ob-' 
fcrviiig a fparcandlipmledK-t^ whereby they pfevehtrhe ^eration ol'crodi-.| 
tict. andCiflirtggritn whereby they might alfodigeftihenii thrt mullbeleftiq-j 
iWcumotfi^inHrinltythifnaMyocber Naiiori, 'Wbpfe procttiiingr airootfo 
"-"»-'*toioviiiit. ■' ■ - •■'•'-, 
^ - . , . M 

ftfl.e tMvi 
VIM nuam. 

174 1 

Enquria into VulgAr 


Book 4. 

The original 
or material 
aufcs of chc 
Vox and 


jejitnU olerc» 


As for their generations and conceptions ( which are the purer from goodtli* 
et,) they become more pure and perfeft by the ftrift obfcrvacion of their Law ;| 
upon the injundions whereof, they fevcrely obfcrve the times of Purirication , i 
and avoid all copulation, either in the uncleanne(s of themfeive;; or impurity ' 
of their women. A Rule, I fear^ not fo well obferved by Chriflians ^ whereby 
not only conceptions are prevented^ but if they proceed, fo vitiated and de- 
filed, that durable inquinations ^ remain upon the birth. Which ^ when the 
conception meets with thefe impurities, muft needs be very potent ^ lince in ' 
thie pureft and moft fair conceptions^ learned men derive th^caujfe of Pox and 
Meazels, from principles of that nature^ that is^ t(>e mendruous impurities in 
the mothers blood , and virulent tinftures contfafted by the Infant, in rh^ 
nutriment of the womb. 

Laftly, Experience will convift it •, for this offenfive odor is no way disco- 
verable in their Synagogues where many are ^ and by reafon of their number 
could not be concealed : nor is the fame difcernable in commerce or converia- 
tion with fuch as are cleanly in Apparel, and decent in their Houfes, 'Surely the 
' Viziarsand Turkifh Baflia's arc not of this opinion ^ who as 5r. Henry Blnni 
informech, do generally keep a ^rnr of their private Counfell. And were this 
true, the Jews themfclves do not Itridly make out the intention of their Law ^ for 
in vain do they fcruple to approach the dead, who 11 vingly are cada vero'ns, or fear 
any outward poHuiion , whofe temper pollutes themfelves. And lafily, were 
this true, our Opinion is not impartial *, for unto converted Jews who are of the 
(ame feed, no man imputeth this un&vovry odor ^ as though Aromatized by 
their converfion, the}' loft their icent with their Religion, andfmcltno longer 
then they favoured ot the ^rw. . 

Now the ground that begat or propagated this aflertion, might be the diftafie- 
fiill averfhefs of the Chiriltian from the Jew^ upon the villany of that lad 
wbicb made them a^minable and ftink in the noftrils of all men. Which real 
practife , and metap'horlcal expreffion, did after proceed into a literal conftructi- 
on •, but was a fraudulent illation ; for fuch an evil favour their father J Mob ac- 
knowledged in himfelf^ whcfn he ikid i his ions had made him (link in the land, 
that is^ to be aboitnin2d)le unto the inhabitants thereof. No;v how dangerous it 
is in fenfible things to iffe metaphorical exprefllions unto the people, and what 
abfurd conceits they will fwallow in their lit;erals ^ an impatient example we have 
in our own profelfien-, who having called an eating Ulcer by the name of at 
Wolf, common apprtheniion conceives a reality therein *, and againft our feives, 
ocular affirmations are pretended to conHrm it. 

The naftinefsof that Nation^ and fluttifh courjfe of fife hath much promoted 
the opinion, occafioned by their fer vile condition at firft, and inferiour waicsof 
j parfimony ever Hnce ', as is delivered by Mr. Sandjs^ They are gencriUy fie,- 
faith he, and rank of the favours which attend ujpon fluttiih corpulency. The 
Eflthttes ailigned them by ancient times, have alio advanced the fame ^ for Am- 
miaHMs MarceUimu defcribeth them in fuch language ^ and Martial m<m an- 
cient, in fuch a relative expreffion fets forth unfa voury Baffa. 

S^Modjejtmia SMstarh.rMm 
From whence notwithftandin^ wc cannot infer an inward imperfedion in the 
temper of that Nation ^ it bemgbut an efifeA in the breath from outward ob- 
fervation, in their drift and tedious fafting ^ and was a common effect in the' 
breaths of other Nations, became a Proverb among the C?/^^)!:/, and the reafon' 
thereof begot a Problem in Arifiotle. 

Laftly, If all were true, and were this favour conceded, yet are the reafons 
aU^dged for it no way fatisfaccory . Huchiritu, andait er him Alfarius Crtuims^ 
imputes this effxt unto their a1>ftinence from fait or fait meats ^ which how to 


*itd CaumM E K It o R s . 

bsd iodrepftfaitdicrot the Jnrr, Wf knownw; nor flinll wcflUJcdve 

BobfcrVcJ of old, if Wc cowfidcr ihcV t f ! . ■' ' i r' ■. -jtidallgb. 
am wbstfocvcr ^ whtreipf Wc ta/inot .' .m by tliC 

Mlt Andif tbc offenngwrreof flclli, imc, Unt 

,--,: ^-'r- rommon tfiamScrof liilt, at ii:v i--n.iiii ■■i :!it. i.n., .iDdii^i^n 

isiiar targe Jelivfrcdbv ^i/jfwsmJ*'!. Nor it ihcy refrained 

i ition Very urgenr 1 for many ifierc are nyt not^l for ill odoiiri, 

.......i i,>_-..(lc at ail, « ulUarnlvoroiK Animal' . int>ftClii!'i'^-\ m^nv ,i ii..|^ 

:iiiiv* , nnd profaably our I .ulicri iiftcr ttic Crcacion ^ ilr. ; 
ry tliinf; we cac. a nnturnland con«;«lcd (alt, wliirh U ! . 
, ai doth appear m our icars , fwat and urines, altlioui^li v _ . . ..i ■ ... i^!:, 

Itlui doOi Iccm [Qcoruaiii it. 

inoiher ciufeii urged b^- C^jw^^w/. and mucb rrcdved by Chriftiini ; tbat 

ill favour laacurfc derived upon cticra byChTil>, and flandf a;a badgeor 
mJofagencrationtbBtcrucirtcdthcir SaJvastr. Bnt ttii^ iiaconceit wuli- 
alhvarranc; and an calie way to laKcoffdifpuicm wbat point ofoblcuriiy 
va. A mahod of many Writer*, which muth deprcciaicitheelitantnd 
jcof initadc* -, ilutis. tlKfewith to faUe not only real vcritia, but alio non- 
tcncifs. "Hiui have elder tinwi not only afcribed tbc imnjuinty of InUnd 
n any venftnom bcafi, onto the Raff or rod of V*nick,., but tbc long taylci 
K'cjtf, unto the nMledidion of //i»/?i». 

bus therefore, altbougb wc ccMx^dc thir many opinioosaretniewhicb hold 
«conlijrniity unto this, yet in afienting bcrao, many difficukiei nnift arife 
cing a dangeroo! point to annex a conllanr prupaty unto any Nation, and 
dj more tlu^ unto the /n»; iinte its not vcrihable by obfcrvatJon ■, fintcibe 
lands arc feeble that (houldcftablifliii.and kl\ly. (ince if all wcrctrue, ycc 

' % teafuos alleadged ibr it, of no fufficieoc)' to mainiaia ir. 

Chap. XI. 

of fi^itl. 

j>jgmies we underhand a dwartiOiraceof people, or lofveft ditniautjoo 
I'of nwniund, comprcbeoded in one cubit, or u fotnr willlwve it, jo two 
t ortlirctlpaiis-, not taking tbem tingle, but nationally conlidcring tbcm, 

at they inaJic up an aggregated liabitation. Whereof although affirma. 
1.^ be many, and tdlinxKiics more frequent then in any other |wtnt which 
; men havccatt into tlie liH of tablet; yet tbat tbcrcis, or ever was fuc6 
ice or Nation, upon eiad and conKrnied teilimonies, our {IhAcft caquiry 
HVci no fatisfadion. 

fiy, cxatt icfUmonics, firft. In regard of the Auiliors, from whom wc 
ivc the account ; for though we meet herewith in HtroiUtui , PM/tfint- 
jHftls^Plitj, SeliMHty and many more^ ycf were they derivative Kclaton, and 

primabvc AutI>or was Htmtr ; who , uling ofien fimilte«, as well to de- 
IC tbc ear . as to dluflrace hit matter , in the third of bit Iliadi, compor- 
itbe Troyun umo Cranes, when cbeydefcend againl> the Pigmicii which 
rnorc largely fet out by OffiM^JuvrmU, Mjminui.indmtny Poets ftnce, 
: betng only a plealant figmetu in the tbuncain , became a folenio fiory tn 
(Ireain, and cnrrrnt Itill among m. » 

^gain.Many ptorcfTcdcjiquircriliavcrcjcdediEi Sirah iacziftttydjuS 
n Cet^apoer, Itaili largely condemned it lu a fiibutoui (tory in /i^. ( . faliM 
iAJEfraail^cntcni]uiier,accoumsthereof, but asa Poeiical fictton^ Vi^ife 
tniMfdMt a moil exact Zot^rapher in an cxprcli diftourfe hereon , con- 
ies tlte ftory , Villous, ana a Poccical account Of Hn#rr-, and the fame 


Enquiries int§ Vnlgdr 





excellent dH* 

was formerly conceived by EufidthtHs , his excellent Commentator. Albertmi : 

Mninus a man oft-times coo credulous, herein was more then dubious -, for \ 

he afiirmeth , if any fuch dwrafs were ever extant , they were furely fome ' 

kind of Apes : which is a conceit allowed by Cardan^ and not efteemcd im- '' 

\ probable by many othen. I 

There are I confefs two teftimonies , which from their authority admit of ! 

Hift.animl. ^ confideration. The firlt of Arifiotle^ whofe words are thefe, 2%i Ji i t&v^* ' 

lib. 8. &c. That is , Hie locns efi quern incolunt Pjgmxi , non cnim id fabmU eji, fid \ 

: fufUnm gcnusj ut diunt. Wherein indeed Arifiotle plaies the Arifiotie^ that 

is, the wary and evading affertor ; For though with non efi f^ula , he feem 

■ at firft to confirm it , yet at the laft he daps in , Scittrnt Mint , and (hakes . 

' the belief he put before upon it. And therefore I obferve SeMiger hath not \ 

tranllated the firft ^ perhaps fuppofing it furreptitious or unworthy ta great an | 

aflertor. And truly for thofe books of animals, or wor|c of eight hunted ta- ! 

leats, as Athenens terms it, although ever to be admired, and contain moft «« , 

ccllcnt truths *, yet are many things therein delivered upon relation, and ibme < 

repugnant unto the hiftory of our fenfes «, as we are able to make out in Ibme^ ' 

and Scaliger hath obfervea in many more, as he hath freely declared in his Com- ^ 

ment upon that piece. 

The fecond teftimony is deduced firom holy Saipture *, thus rendered in the 
vulgar tranflation, Sed & fjgmti qui emnt in tnrritus tuis , fhnretras fiids 
fnffenderunt in mnris tuis fergjrum : fi'om whence nocwithftanding we cannot 
infer this affertion , for firft the Tranflators accord not , and the Hebrew word 
Gammsdim is very varioufly rendered. Though AquiU^ VntMus and Lyra will 
have it Pjgnui^ yet in the Septuaginc, it is no more then Watchmen ; and fo in 
the Ardlick and high Dutch. In the ChnUe Cappsdocikftj , in Symmacbns 
Medes, and in the French^ thofe oiCdmad. But in the CW^^ Cdffadoci- 
ans \ in SjmnMchns^ Afedei. The^dction of old, and Treme/liui of late, have 
retained the Textuarie word ; and fo have the Itslian^ Low Dutch and Engllfi 
Trandators, that is, the men of Arvdd were upon thy walls round about, axid 
the GammMdims were in thy towers. 

Nor do men only diffent in the Tranflation of the word, but in she Expo- 
(icion of the fenfe and meaning thereof^ for fome by Gamnuutms underftaod 
a people of Sjriay fo called from the City GsmaU ; fome hereby underftand 
the Cappddocinns, many the Afedes : and hereof Fwtrims hath a (ingular Expo- 
fition, conceiving the Watchmen o(Tjre, might well be called I^gmics, the 
Towers of that City being fo high, tfiat unto men bdow, they appeared in a 
cubital Itature. Otoers expounded it quite contrary to common acception, chat 
is, not men of the leaft, but of the largeft lize *, fo doth Cornelius conftrue 
Pjgmai or viri cubitdles, that is, not men of a cubit high, but of the brgeft 
ftature, whofe ' height like that of Giants , is rather to be taken by the cubit 
then the foot •, in which phrafe we read the meafure of GoUnh^ whofe height 
is faid to be fix cubtis and a fpan. Of affinity hereto is alio the Expolition 
of Jerom ^ not taking Pigmies for dwarfs, but ftout and valiant Champions ^ 
not taking the fenfe of 77u>fM ^ which lignities the cubit meafure, but that whkh 
! expreffecn Pugils -, that is , men fit for combat and the exercife of the fift. 
! Thus can there be no fatisfying illation firom this Text, the diverfity or rather 
contrariety of Expofitions and interpreutions, diftra ding more then confinn- 
; ing the truth of the ftory. 

Again, I fay, exad teftimonies^ in reference unto circuroftantial relations 
To diverfly orcontrarily delivered. Thus the relation of ^W/?^^/^ placeth them 
above "^gjpt towards the head of Nyle in Africd • PhiUfiratut affirms they 
are about Ganges in AftA\ and Plinj in a third place, that is, Gerdmn in Scjthia : 
fome write they fight with Cranes, but AtenecUs in Arheneus affirms they fight 


m Pi^ 

Booic 4. 

*ai Cunmfs E a it o r s. 


with PanridgCT, fomc fay they ride on IVtridgw, and lome on thcbsckiof Rarrj. 
) Laftly, l(ay, on'i'rnicj tcrtimonkii furtboug!iP*«/i<»i'»i;«(ddivcr*tbtTe 
I act Pignuci l)i:ioi>J f "?•"*, ^'t,?"/"'', aI*o«t die MiijaiA'i-, JndfjLtis Jiitj^- 
.mM^pUtcxiicbcmifidrtiMUnd^ Y« wanting ttwjucnt confirmation 111 a muter lb 
«miinDabIc,tI»cir aifirnwion cirrictb but flow p^rfwalton ■, * and wile men may 
ttunk ilterc isas matiitcaJicy m\ i\v \ Pi^mic* ttf pjtrMt/fiij; tJui 11, hit non- 
/Adimical men, or midJIenaiEurrfSciiw-itEmcn JOil Jpincs. 
1 There being ibus no fofficieai rqnhmBion of iJior verity, (ome doubt mjy 
)irifcconceToingcbcirpcWiibititj', wherein, rmcritijrwtdchncdin wliirdimrnfi- 
. ont (}% foul may cxcrcifcbcr ^njlcie&.wc tluU nor tronclude iiiiponibifit)'- or tliu 
(here mipht noc be a race of Pipnio , as ibcrc a fomc[iinc5 of Urinn. So may we 
,'uke tnibcopiniunof ^if/Ji«, arxJbis Comment An>Isv«Vn; ^ but to believe they 
ftwiitd bcintbcllaiurcof afooior fpan, re>juircsdicp(e.ifpciii(on of fuch aoitc 
uPki!rr*JlbcPu<t lajJthauMti wnowatliun tofaltenleaduntuhitfcetleft tlie 
wind (houW blow him away. Oribwoiber inibefamcAutbcr, whowaj folit. 
tic niadtimhm .ncfdirtt-, a ftory fojtrange , tbat we might Iicrcm encufcilie 
l>rintcr, did r^ rbcaccountof •^i.&MSccordunioit.aiC^w/V^oK' bath obfefV' 
ed inliis learned Ammadverlionf . 

LafUy.lfany fuch Nation there were, yet i« it ridiculous whi( men have deli- 
vered orcIicm,rfiai they light with Cranei up 'R the baclttof Rami or Pariridgtt: 
orwbat i» ddivered by C«/i*/, that they are iV*PWMin(he niiddcflof /«^m; 
whereof tbc Kingof ilur Countrcy, entertainctti three ihonfaod Artlicrs for 
bi» guard. Wlucbtsarelationbclowtbeialeof oiff-etf-, nor could they better 
detetul tiim , then the Emblem faith , they offended Hnrit/w whiJcft he (lept j 
Lhac is, to wound him no deeper, then to awake him^. 

C H A P X I I. 

of tht fftt4$ CUrndttmeaijeMT, thdt «(, Sixty thrte. 

CErtaintlytbeeycsof theunderiUndtng, and ibofe of (be fenle aredilTcrenti 
ly deceived in [hetrgrcateilobfcds-, thefcnfc apprehending them in lelTer 
magntmdes then tlicir dimenfion* require ^ foil bcholdeth the Sun, tlic Stars,and 
the Eanb itfctf. Um the undeHknding quite otberwife ; for that afcnbeib unto 
many things Jar Urgcr horizons chenthetrduecircumfcnpiion<; require: and re- 
ceiveth [hem with am[4ihcations which their reality will not admit. Thus hacb 
i t fared With many Heroes and moft worthy perfons, who b«ng fuificiently com- 
mendabie from true and imqueOionablc merits, have received advancement from 
ftlftit'od and the fruiifull flock of lablcs. Thus hatli it happened unto the btars, 
and Liimiruries of heaven ; who bcinpfufficicnily admirable in tliemfelvcs, have 
been let out by effeds, noway dependant on tlieir efficiencies, and advanced by 
ampliliiations tothequcl'lioning of their true endowments, Thus isitnotim- 
probable it hath alio tared with number, which though wondcrfijU initfelf.and 
fuffieicntly raagnitiaMc from its demonftrable atfeftiom, hath yet received ad- 
jedions trom the multiplyuig conceits of men, and tlands laden with additionsj 
wlikh us equity will not admit. 

Andfopcrbapahathithappcnedanioihenumbcr, 7and9, which multiplied 
into tbcmlelves do make up Sixty three, commonly dieemcd ilie great QimaAe- 
nral of our lives. For tbedaicsof tncnarcufually call up by Scpienaricf, and 
' f verv fjvcnth year conceived tocarry fome altering charader with it,cithct in the 
temper of body^ mind, orb>>ih. But araung ail oth;r, chrcc are moil re- 
tckable,cbat is, 7 cimcs 7 or fourty nine, 9 times 9 or eighty one, andy iiraei 9 
Bb, or 

Tte B.vy 
of Pigmua 

t I J Pijifito 


Dtkc I'pitkf 
jboiii I he 

SjSlfkl IDlI 

i*iuiiuuint , 
fl'iili* m" fire 


Enqwifs into Vulgar 



K 4« 


the great 
cjI, Sixty 
thtceifu) fuch 

j or the year of Sixty tlpree^iy bicb is coocei ved to cdrry with it the moft conlkierabk 
\ tatality, and confifiipg of both, tl)e other nuiobcrs was appr 
I thevcrtue ofeithe^ : is therefore expefted and ectertained with fear ,andeflecfncd 
' 4 favoft: of fate to pafs it over. Which notwi thftanding many fnfpeft to be but a 
' Panick terrour, and men to fear they jpftly know not what : and to fpeak indi&. 
rently , I Hnd lyo fatisfiiAion : nor any fuffidency in the received grounds to 
eUablifh a rational fear. 

Now herein to omjt AArological confiderations ( which are but rarely intro- 
duced ) the popular foundation whereby it liatb continued^ is firft^ the extraonfi. 
nary potver and fecret verti^^ conceived to attend thefe numbers : whereof we 
muftconfefs there have not wanted not only efpecial commendations, but very 
(inguiar conceptions. Among Philofopher s, PjthAgonu fiseros to have played the 
I leading part •, which was long after continued by his difciples, and the ItMlkk. 
School. The Philofophy of PUu^ and moft of the P^er^ni/?/ abounds in nume- 
ral confiderations : above all, Phila the learned ftw^ hath a fted this part even to 
fupcrftition : bcftowing divers pages in furoming up every thing , which might 
£^dvantage this number. Which notwithllanding, when a feroius Reader (mil 
perpend, he will hardly find any thing that may convince his judgement, or 
any further perfwade, thep the lenity of his belief, or prejudgement of rea- 
fon indinech. 

For firft. Not only the number of 7 and 9 from confiderations abilrufe^have 
been extolled by moft, but all prmoft of the other digits have been as myftically 
applauded. For (he number of One and Three have not been only admired by 
the Heathens, but from adorable. grounds, the unity of God, and rayfterie of the 
Trinity admired by many Chriftians. The number of four Itands much admired, 
not only inthequatcrnity of the Elements, which are the principles of bodies 
but in the letters of the Name of God, which in ihzGreekj ArAtnan^ Perjimn 
Hebrew and v/^gyftian^ confifteth of that number •, and was fo venerable among 
the PjthAgorians , that they fwprq by the number four. That of fix hath fouod 
many leaves in its favour ^ not only for jlie daies of the Creation, but its natu- 
ral confidergtion, as being a pertbft number, and the firft that is compleated by 
its parts-, that is, the fixt, the half, and the third, 1.2. 3. Which drawn into a 
fum, make fi](. The number of Ten In^th been as highly extolled, as containing 
even, odd, long, plain.quadrate and Qubtcal numbers •, and Arift»tU obfer ved with 
admiratipn, that B^rkArians^s, w^U as Grr ^ !>/, did ufea numeration unto Ten • 
which being fo general , was not to be jui^ged cafuali , but to have a fouo^ 
datlon in nature. So that not only 7 and 9, hut all the reft have Iiad their Ele- 
gies, as may be obferved at large in Rhodiffnus, and in fever al Writers (ince: 
ev^ry on^ extolling number, according tohisfubjed, and as it advantaged the 
prefent difcourfe in hand. 

Again, They hav« been commended not only from pretended grounds in na- 
ti^re, but from airtificial, cafual or fabulous foundations : fo h^ve fome endea- 
voured to advance their admiration, firom the 9 Mufes, firomthey Wonders of 
the World,, from the 7 Gates of Thebes : in that 7 Cities contended for fl^ 
mery in that there are 7 Stars in Vrfamimr^ and 7 in Charles wayn , or Plaufln|pi 
of Vrfa major. Wherein indeed although the ground be naturall, yet either 
firom coni\ellations or their remarkable parts, there is the like occafion to com- 
mend any other number^ the number 5 from the ftars inSagittM^ 3, from the 
girdle ot Orion^ 2ini d\. from E^hicmIms J Crnfero^or the ket of the Cenuur : yet 
are fuch as thefe clapt in by very good Anthors,and (bme not omitted by PhiU. 

Nor are they only extolled firom Arbitrary and Poetical grounds, but from 
; foui'idations and principles, ialfii, or dubious. That Women are menftruant, and t 
; Men pubefcent at the year of twice fcven, is accounted a pun Aual truth : which ' 
; perioid ncverthdefs we dare not preci(ely determine, asbavingobfcrveda varia- 



Book ^. 

*nd Common £ ft & o ft k . 

two ftniJ Utituiie in mod ^ agcctiblv unfi tlic beatfjf clime Wtimpcri mctt 
anliiigvaniiully unid vinlit^', naarJifig iu[hr afirviiy o'' raafmliai promote 


Which noiwitiiflanuingUrcpugnanr untw cipiTu-nie, and the doanoe of.Hif. 
pieratet, "to In hu bo«3k,, M liiera. plainly atlirmcttii it i* tIjuj bucwulifew 
wofifci), andoaly lucltuabounj witli picuitou'iauj W3i«'y JiiiRif'UM. 

It it furcher cutKciveJ to receive nddKinnj in tliac tbcrc arc 7,licaiisof ^x/jr.blll 
wciuvcfiizdcinaniftl) elfrwiicrt;, [bat byUtrdercripncn of Go>graphea,they' 
h*?e been fomerime iiK>fC, and arc at pfclent I'rwcr. 

Iniiuithcrcwo-ey Wiknicn ot Grrrtr ■, wh'tli lliougli giJncrdlly recttvej , 1 
yeilittvingccquirnlimotlicvcnty lliereof, we cannot to rciddy dcurniincii-, | 
for in the life otTtdler, who was accoiimeil m tiut dumlin, ft.i;;(«fi i-jurtm/' 
plainly liith, M*lnAdeiirHmiiumtrtMf*:tr4utji ; fomc l-ulilifig bo[li>ur, fome! 
ten, oihcri twetve,andiKHwagrwin]; tn their names, tliijugb according' totbar 

In Uiat there arejuft 7 Plancu or errant Starsm the lower orbs of hcawn ; 
but il it now lieraonArable unto fenfe, that there arc many mDre- i/tCmliUt 
baxh declared , liuii.'i, two more in the orbuf Saturn, and nu Icis thooibuc 
more in the I'^ihccc of Jupiter. And the like may be faldo)-' ttie Vltitniai t>r 7 
Start, which arc alfo introduced to magfi<He iln« number ;^&)C whereat IVarce 
difccrmng Hx , we account them 7, by his relation , there are no left tlien fourty. 

That tlic Iicavcns arc encooipiiTcd with 7 circle, is alio the allegation ofPhi/t j' 
which are inbitaccount, the Ariitk. AniarcicK^ theSummcr lod WimerTro- 
plcia, tlic Equator, Zodiack, and the Milky circle -, wticreatby Aftronomtrs 
they are rtteiycd in greater number. Tor though we kaveaut the Latfteout cir- 
cle ( which JrAiMi^ Gemittu], and Predut^ otit ot' him hfllh nunibred among rlw 
rcll)yct are there more by four then Phih mcntiotuv that is, iticHonion, 
Meridian and both the Coluics ^ circles very confidcnbJe, and gcottally deli- 
vered, not only by PctUmit , and the Ailronomcrs Jiotc hi» time, bm focb 
35 ftourifbcd long before, as Hiffdrchni and EttdtxHi. ^^/m for aught 
tknow, it'll make for otir purpole, or advance the ihemcin Vb, withc^al^ 
nbarty, we n»y affiriQ there were 7 Sybils, or but 7 (ignt in ibc ZodtacJi 
tirde of heaven. I 

That vcrfe in J'iriU tranllatcd out o( Hsimr^ Our}, i^Mtn-^ itMi -, that' 
isasmen will haveit, 7 timeihappy, liathtnucbadvanccd tbit number in cri- 
cicat apprehcnlions -, yet is not ihis condtut/lioa fo indubitabty. c6 be received, 
asnoia: all to be ijiiellioned ; for thou^ Rhodtghtis, 'Btrtaldm, and others. 
ftom the authority of yM><n)*i>«<(bimerpr«it, yet Serviut ha ancient com- 
ibcniiitor conceives no more thereby tlicn a Hniic number lor indefinite, and 
that no more is implied then olten happy. Stmbo theaDcioueAof themall, 
6iaccives no more by this in hitmrr ^ then n full and cxcenive txprelfion^' 
whereas in co-nmnn pharfc and received language , hv fhould hava termed 
[hem irice happy^ herein exceeding that. number, he called ittpni four times 
fcappy, that is, more then thrice. And this hcilluUrates by ihelikeexprdlioii 
of Homrr, m the fpcecb of Circe ; who to (sprcft the dread and tcrrouroftbe 
Ocean, iiicks not unto the common form ot'Jpeech in ihe'llrift 8«ountof 
itsreciproaciont, but largely fpcaking, faiib, it ebbs and flows do leli then rhricc 
A day, lerf^ Me revfiwU ftiiiliij, iter'ftm^ rtftr^i. And fo when tis (ltd by 
HuTMe , Jxiicrd ttr 0- amfliMi ^ the expofilion is fufficient, if we conceive 
nomore tben the Icacr fairly beared), that is, fuut times, or indci'initely more 

But the main confidcrationswhichraoft ictoffiKisnunibir, arc obfervatibM 
drawn from the uxKtont of the Moon, fuppofed to be meafurcd by fevens ^ 
lUid'ibe critical or decretory daicsdependamobthatoumbcr. As tor tbemo- 
■ B b 1 ■__■ -^m 

' yjJi' 

Tp't fMVMf 


EnqukUt ht0 Vulgdt 

Book 4; 

Whit a Solary 

! OMDCtk b. 

l>i oCi§meftti 

Wkit a Oici* 

cion 6f the Moon, chough we granc it to be itieafured by fcvens, yet will not , 
this adrance thir ianie before its reliow numbers ; for heitby the motion of other j 
Stars are not tneafured, the fixed Stars by many tbouiftnd \*ears, tbii Sub by 3 65 ; 
idbies, thefuperlour Plaoecs by more, tne iiiferiourby lomewhatleft. And if' 
we confider the revolutibn of the firft Movable , and the daily motion from ! 
Baft to Weft, common unto all the Orbs, we (hail find it meafurcd by Mother ! 
niimber, for being performed ii\four and twenty hours^ it is made up of 4 times 
6 : and this is the oneaiure and ftandard of other (Arts of time , of tnoneths, 
of years, 01ympiades,Luftres,Indidions,of Cycles Jnbilics, &c. 

hpin^ ^ton•ths are not only Lunary ^ and meafuned by the Moon, Init alfo 'So- 
lary, aiid determined by the motion of the Sun ^ that is, thefpa^e wherein the 
Sun doth pais 3 o degrees df the Edipcick. By this moneth Hiffocnnes computed 
the lime ofthe Infants geftation in the womb-, for 9 times 3 o, that is, 270 daies, 
or compleat 9 raoneths, make up fourty weeks , the common compute of wemen. 
And this is to be underftood, when he faith, 1 daies makes the fifiec;nth, and j 
3 the tenth part of a moneth. 1 his was the moneth of the ancient Hthrews be- 
fore their departure out of ^pft : and hereby the compute will fall out right, I 
and the account concur^ when in one place it isfaid, the waters of the flood pre- j 
vailed an hundred and fifty daies, and in another it is delivered, that they pre- j 
vailed from the feventeenth day of the iiecond moneth, unto the feventeenth day 
of dit feventh. As for hebdomadal periods or weeks, although in regard of 
their Sabbaths, they were obfcrved b)' the Hf^rf iri,yet it is not apparent, the an- 
cient Gneki or Romsms ufed any : but had another divifion of their moneths into 
' Ides, Nones and Calends. 

Moreover, Moncahs bowfoevertaktfi, are not exaAlydivifiUe into fcptenarics 
or weeks, which fully conuin feven daies : whereof four titties do make com- 
pleatly twenty eight. For, befide the ufual or Caiendary moneth, there are but 
four comfiderable : the moneth of P^agration, of Apparition, of Confecution, 
and the medical or Decretorial moneth •, whereof fome come (hort, others exceed 
tliis account. /Jhioneth of Ptragration, is the time of the }/i90ns revolution 
from any part if the Zodiack^ unto the fame again : and tliis containeth but 
27 daies, and about 8 hours : which cometh fbort to compieat the feptenary ac- 
count. The moneth of Confecution, or as fome will term it, of progrefiion, 
i is the fpace between one coo]unAion of the Moon with the Sun^ unto another : 
and this containeth 29 daies and an half : for the Moon returning unto the 
: fame point wherein it was kindlcd^{yy the Sun, and not finding it there again 
; (forin the mean time, by its pr(^0^itKKioni^nath pafTed through 2figns,) 
; it followeth aft^r,and attains the SuA ift c^ fpace of 2 daies , and 4 hours more, 
, which added untpthe account of Peragrktion, makes 29 daies and an half: fo! 
' that this; moneth cxceedcth the latitude of Septenaries, and the fourth part com-j 
prehouteb more then /dates. A moneth of Apparition, i^the fpace wherein 
the Moon appeared! ( deduding three daies wherein it commonly dt(appear- 
eth ^ and being in combuftion with the Sun, is prefumed of lets afftivity, ) and 
' this containeth but 2d daies and 1 2 hours. The medical moneth not much ex- 
ceedeth this, confifting of 26daiesand 22 hours,,andismadeupoutof allthc - 
other moneths. For if out of 29 and an fmlf, the^ moneth of Confecution, we 
deduft 3 daies of dtfappearance ', there will remain tfie moneth of Apparition , 
26 daies and x 2 hours : whereto if we add 27 daies and 8 hours, the moneth ' 
of Peragration, there will arife 53 daies and lohours, which divided by 2, makes 
26 dai^ and 22 hours, called by Ph^'fitians the medical moneth : introduced • 
by Galen againft Archigenes , for the better compute of Decret6i"y or Cri- ' 
tttat daies. 

As for the Critical daies ( fuch I mean wherein upon a decertation between the 
difinfe andnatnre, there eniuetha fenfiblealteration» either to life or death, y 


w* .R. — '^i *. 

}lt 4. 

MfU Cmmm £ a k a i 

mfom tlierrof ircnchertltfductd from Ailrolog^', iltra AhtbmKick * fi# 
:coastmgfroincbebcglnnuigof thcdifcifir, antlr«&u4)ingunitn(oilic I'cveocb' 
,JUy,thrMoon willbcinarnngo>naior (^atlruc afimt, ibat ti , 4 ligiu re- 
ed trom diUwFterein the diTcolc begin ; iQilictvurucnthdiyii willbcinaai 
ippoliie ilpert : arul ac ctie «tid of the tturd fqvcaary, Tecragonat aj^n : oi j 
tlaiull gnphically RppearmctictigurtioC AlVologni, clpniitlly Laau Cdm.t 
•f, Dt dit^Mi tixcrtltriii. 1 

AgSLn, (Bcftdtthat cumputmgby ttic Mrdiulinonnli, tbr (irf) Iwbdoailde I 
fef canar)' conftfli of 6 diuet, fcvcDiecohounandanlmir, rhc fntrnd bippeiu ) 
ttbiji t] diicf Ar.tlc!cvi:ntiour», andthc tlindbut inchccwcntiecb nacoralaayW 
whac CtUn t\ii\, and Mai-£tj-a (inccobrcrvnj in hi£'Ini£t bfCruicaldalsf ,1 
in regard orEcceotriCityandchc Epic^'clcor kficrorb wbrrein it movcih, ibe 
moitonof t!ic Voon If vanuusandunctfual , whereby tlic Cruicii atcoummult 
illbvary. lor chough ininiddleawfionlecqual, artd of iidegrRi, yet m 
the^tbcritmovcEhibmecimeifiticenj ibnimiBes left clieniwdrr. torraoviug 

fbc itcpfT put of its orb, It (yrli>tiiieth us mocioo more Uowly (hen rn chc low- 
inlomDch ciiatbeingatcbebcigbc, itamvetliti tfte Tetragonal and appoftte 
itlbowr, andtheCntkalday will bein 6 and I) ; nod being ai the hiiA^dCt, 
cruicai actouni wtltbowit ol' iheUdtudeul'' 7. nor bappca bctbre tbr ti ur 
thday. Whifh art caalidcraoow >oc ru be oeglededm the compute 01 de- 
[gry da>Cf, andtnanltetily dedaie ibac <Kl»r numberi mull bare i refped 
ein as well »t 7 and fourteen. 
I Lallty, Some ibingt to this loienr are deduced trom holy Scripture ■, ttiut it the 
yMr ot '^Miilf intruJucedu) ougajfictiib number, aibeinga year made ooc of 
j 7 tinw 7 ; ivlieron not*iihl\andmg liicre may be a mifapprcnenfion 1 ft>r ihii 
larifeth mttromy times?, thac ii, 49; bat wfisubtervcdcbc jiltieih year, « 
I if cXprefTcd, And you fhall hallow the Hltieth year, a fitklt ftull thai lif> 
' ctnh year be unto you. AoCweraUe wherrtouthe iutfoTutooorthe frmtititm- 
felvct, JK ii ddivrred by JVi'irZ/jUMM , that 11, the yearof ^«^7r,comcch not 
into titc account of the yean gt' 7, bat the ^u^ty mntli is ibc Rekafe, aod 
chefirbe:h, iheycar of Jutifit, Tbui iiit alfo eOeetned no imall advancement 
unto chtf number, that the Genealogy of our Saviour i« fumtncd up bf 14, 
that \t, tbii number doubled ■, according aiueaprcffed. So all tbc {tenerati- 
oiH^om ^^rji^>(Mto ZJwiuii^arefouneengeflcntion$, and froo)D.«tAJ unto the 
Carrying away into Bibjlm, are foHneen geneniciDm ; and trotn ctut carrying 
away into BtAjlm unto Oirift , are foorceen generaitont. Which ocver- 
tbdeii mull not be llndly untlerOood as numeral rdationt retjuirei for from 
D»wi anil} ffcottidh are accoQmed by Mm t htm but i4genciaiioaii wbereu 
trcording torheesadaccouminthe bUlory of Kingi, ttwrcwere at icafti?! 
ind J in this account, chat ■e./fJMU.u. fMiitid Am^uia arelcAouc. FOribit 
iadelivered by tlw Evangelift : And / begat o^m .- who-eaj uiiheR^l] 
gcneal<u;y there arc 3 fuccefSont between : for o*Jm or VtMi4b was liie (on of I 
AmAvM , Amdtjj/ of Jm/, />*« of Aturijk , and Axjiriah of ^erdm .- b ! 
(bat in OriA account, 'f<ir*m wattbc Abuvtuoc grandfiuhtr twice renovedl, 1 
and not the father of Ocmv. And ctiefe fecood otninod defceoBiDidca very coo- 
fiderahte meAlure of time, in the Royal cbtottoio^ of JiuiA ; tbi thoorii jf^^ 
ruA retgned but one year, yet Jttu reigned fburry, and Ammwu noUthm 
vine and twenty. However tJiere&re chne were tkliTcmi by the Evangditt , 
Hid (.-arry ( no doubt )an incooiroubtife copformity uatocheuueotiooof hi> 
delivery -. yet are ibey noc ajiptitbk unto precilc nutncrabty > nof lV»dly to 
be drawn unto the ogid tell of numbcrc. 

LaOIv , Thv^ugh many ihinfM have been ddiwtcd by Aotbon coPfWwag 
number, and thcyttatuIirreduniotheadraotagB of their (Mare, yet ar» 


Enqmrits hto VulgAr 

Boor 4* 

Dt ann'ts Cli- 
Dt occultii 

aftive and cafual cdniiderations ^ they being nuiny times delivered Hieix^yphtv 
cally, MeuphorictUy , liiuftratively , and not with reference umo adion or 
caulality. True it is, that God made all things in number, weight and mea. 
fure, yet nothing by them or through the efficacy of either. Iikued our dates, 
aftions and motions bong meafured by time ( which is but motion meafured) 
whdt ever is obfervable inany,£ils under the acowntoffome mimbec^ which 
notwithftanding cannot be denominated the caufe of tbofii events* So do we 
ihjuftly aflign the power of Actkiri even umo Time itfelf; nor do they fpeak 
properly who Ay that Time confiukiech all tliii^;for Timeii noc cffntvc| 
nor are bodies deftroyed by it, but from the action and paffion of their Ele- 
ments in it ^ whofe aaount it only affordeth : and meafuring out chdr moci- 
on^ informs us in the periods and termsof their dutation, rat her then efleccecb 
or phyficaliy produceth the fiune. 

A fecond confideration which ixomotech this opinion , are confirfDicions 
drawn from Writers, who have made obfervatkms^ or fet down favourable 
realbus for this Climaaerical year ^ fo have- Hturicm- £Mtj»vims , Bdfufid 
CnlrofkhMr, and Leviuus Lemmns. much confimicd} the fame ^ but above all, 
that memorable Letter of AHgnfius fent Unto his; Nephew Cmms^ wherein he 
encourageth him to celebrate nis nativity, forhehadilow efcaped Sixty three, 
the great Qimacterical and dangerous year unto mail : which notwitnftanding 
rightly perpended, it can be no fingularity to.queftion it» nor any new Pa* 
I radox to deny it. 

For firfl. It is iiiiplicitely,and ttpofi confemcnee demed by Arifiotle in his 
Politicks, in that difcourfe againft PUf ^ who fnealbred the viciflitude and 
mutation of Statesy^^by a periodical fatahty of number. PutUmie that £imous 
Mathematician pla^ faith , iie will not deliver his doctrines by pares and 
numbers which ire ineffectual!, and have not the nature of caufes; now by 
thefe numbers faith ^oii^Mff/ and i^/ViiivJWAf, he.tmpiieth Climactericall years, 
that is, feptenaries, and novenaries fettlown byibe bare obfervation of num. 
hers. Cenforinus an AnttKir of great authority, and fufBcient antiquity, fpeaks 
j'et more amply in his book DeMeNofati^ wherein exprelly treating of Cli- 
macccrical daies, he thus delivereth himfirlf . Some maintain that 7 times 7, thac 
is, fourty nine, is molt dangerous of any other, and this is the moft general opi* 
nion ^ otners unto 7 times 7, add 9 times 9 » thac is, the year of eighty ' one. 
both which confiftiiig of fquare and quadrate numbers, were thought by /'Acj^ 
and othas to be of great confideration; as for this year of Sixty three or 7 
times 9, chough fbmeefteen it of moft danger, yecdol conceive it lefs dange- 
rous then the other- for though it containeth both numbers above named, that 
is, 7 and 9, yet neitbcr of them fquare or quadrate ^ and as it is differetit from 
them both, fo is it not potent in either. Nor is tliisyear remarkable in the 
death of many famous men. I find indeed that Arifiotle died this year, but he 
by the vigour of his mind, a long time fuftained a natural infirmity of ftpmack •. 
fo that it was a greater wonder he attained unto Sixty three, then that he lived 
no longer. The Pfalm of Mofes hath mentioned a year of danger differing from 
allthefe : ainl thatis ten times 7orfeventy ^ fbrfo itisfaid. The daies of Man 
are threefcore and ten. And the very fame is affirmed by S$lon , as Herodo- 
tus relates in a fpeech of his unto Crjtfusj^^ Ego imnss feptMgintM httmdfut vitd 
modum definioi and furely that year mnft be of greateft danger, which is the 
Period of all the reft ; and feweft fafidy. pafs thorow thac, which is fet as a bound 
for fipw or none to pJs. And therefore theconfent of elder times, fetlingchcir 
conceits upon Climacters, not only diftring from this of ours , but one another^ 
though feveral Nations and Ages do fancy nnco themfelves different years of dan- 
ger, yet every one expects the firae event,and conftant verity in each. 

A(pun, Though r^^rt divided tlie daies ofman into five portions, Hipfoerans 


MadCvinmA .£.na o Et I. 

, Book 4. 

imo'7, Hti-ifttn iiitotoi; ya probttUy thciT diviGoiu were 10 be rmiwd 
mth latituilfri in^£h«trconli<lera[mm nodlri^y tobc f.oa6asiamo tbarUA 
UnitiM. So wUcn Vtin-v cxccndciii Purrti* lUKo tf. Jiitltfnmt* onto ;o. 
/utvw*/ unto 1 5 . 1 here ji ii ktiuidc between tbe ternus or WrxK^^of nim|Niw, 
and rhe vcricy luild^ gooiJ tn chr iidtJcnL^ trt .any yean be£W«en tbon. So when 
M>fwr«;«((ividrt[ioiirlircimo7 dcgrttior (met*, ^"'i makcdidicaidof the 
riril?. Of ilic («tojid 14. Ofthethird ili. O? thetijurtii 55. Of riichft^?. 
Ui'ihefisc 56. And of ttie I'evcnth, the UU yea; when ever flhaf>pc'n«di; 
bercia wc nuy obTcrvc, lie tnUetlt not lili div/uini precilcly by 7 aod 9, and 
omiti the grcit QimacEcnol ^ bcTide cfierc » between every one at lenlt the 
loiKudeot' 7years, inwfaicbfpaccorinccrval, cbstcaihermxheiiiirdorfourtii 
yoir^ whatcvCT talkxli outii cquillyvcritied oTthcwluilc dcfiree, aitbougbit 
fud bipfwnodin [be fevemti. Silim divulcd a into (cn SetKenancf, becaufein 
every onethefeof,»m«arcccivrdroacrcalibicmutati(Hi^ in [b« hrl) h Dnfenn- 
tienur falting ortcctfa : inihe liecoad Piibcfcencei m tbctliird die beard grownb 
ID did Iburih ilf cnfiili prcvuls : m tlic rift mitunty for jJilic ■, in ihe dxt mode- 
ndotiot'^M'aitei m ibe fctfcocb prudcncr, ore. Xowbcrein iberc i»a tolera 
hJeljtiUide, and iliqughtbedivifion proceed byy, yctHnntthe totil verity ro 
brrtitrained unto thclallyesr; nor oontUotlvcobe cipi.'dcdtbrbeArd fboold 
be awnplcic xc zt. or wilckKn icquircd jult 1049. snd tbui alfo (tiODgh? 
timetc, coraninooeof tbofc IcpcensFics, utd duthaifobiftpcntn our declinine 
years-, yet migfit [he events cbetrot be iniputtd unto die wlv>lc fepienary ^ md 
bemori; reafonahly tntntauied with I'ome Ucicude, (bcntlrietly reduced umo 
the Ull mimbcr, or all the accidents ftom 56. tmpu[cd imtobixcy liwre. 
I Thirdly, Altlioitgh this opinion may recmconttrnicd by ot>fer>'&t)on, andnKfi 
I nay fay it hath beenfoobferved, yetwefpeakalfo u|xin cipcricnce, anddobej 
lievethatntcn trom obTervation will collect oa iitbtaicwn. Ttta[ otber^eart 
may be takenagatnl) it, efpeciallyif they havethc sdvanoigc 10 precede Jr v -xs 
tixtyagainl^lii^ty tliree, andfixty threeagainfied. lor fewerattain to the Ut- 
w th«i [he former ^ and fo furdy in the hrft feprenflry do moll die, and 
probahlynlfointbcvcry firftyear-, foralltfaat ever lived were intbeacroant o( 
ifliiyear ^ bclidc, the inHriniiiet ih»(a[cen>c)itire fomaiiy, and die body that 
receive* thetn fo.o>nHrnied, we Icarce count any alive that is r»t pafl it. 

fjtriuHt PaJumiiMi difcourfing of the great aimactonul, attempts a nume- 
mionof eminent men. w(k> died inihat year; hot info fmall a number, ainot 
fuffictent tomakcatonllderabic Induction. He mcntioiicth but four, DitgnKi 
Cfnicti, DUnyftm HcrncUvtitus, Xen*trMti yiMtanttHs, and I^Uit- As for Di~ 
mjfmt, as CrM/tnWjwttneneth, bcftraifbod bimfelf in tbe 82 year of bis Kfe; 
XfMKTMUf by the tel>t[nony of L*eriim fell iotoa cauldron, and died the&me 
year: and />w|^«/ the Qwft;^ by the fametcfbmony lived almoftunio ninety^ 
Tbe date k^ Phtsxt <toth is n»t exaaly agrtyd on, but all diffent from this wbich 
hedctcrmincth : Ntjwthti in /^frn'«i evtendcth his daics unco 84. JWii/un- 
'to8i. But HrrfMi^^»idctinethhitde«[hin8i. Andihisaccoum fcemethmoA 
rtad i for if, aiheddivereth. PUiovns born in the gSOlympiade, anddtof 
intbe tirft itarofibeiog, the actount will not furpafs tbeycar of iii, and fo 
in hiidejtnhcveri/kd the opinion of hn life, and of the life of man, wbofepc- 
riod, as Cf a/orwi*/ re»flrdcrb, hepbceihintheQuadrate of 9or9iinie»9, that 
•. aghiyonc-. aodttierefofcas Jflw^-^dcliwcrah, the v»f*<iVi«B/ at vY;Ar»»/ did 
fKTiliceuiKO him, aadettariaginhisdeaibfomewhuaborchuFMntty -, becaofe 
he liied in the day of hi* nativity, and witbout deduftion fuftly atcomptiihed 
the year of eighty one. B^Jsm 1 confcfs. iidiver«a hrflerliftof men thai died 
inchttycar, Mi>ri»>'>ti*riHiimmer/i^iltt AMm fr.Vit^rfimo irrtit, ^riffotflet, Cfrrjfp- 
fUs , Stfittiiit , BtriMTtUt , ErdfmHt, f.*rhrrnf, MdMtfiiMni Sfl-jim Alriir 
"an^iSttftmiHt, Nicoluu.CiifMuix, T (mtm t UMm^ t^ttm Mm CSSitw\ 
" ^^^^^__^__^... tf"" . 



i84 1 


BnqtArds into fulgitr 


vk • « 

Book 4« 

monly (honk- 
er- llfcd. 



'is4fii$ fjl^ Wherein bcfide, chat ic were noc difficulc to make a larger Cacalogne 
of memorable peribnsthat died in other years, we cannot but doubt the verity 
of his Indudion^ As for Sjlvim and Alexaniir^ which of that name he mcan^ 
etb'I know not-, but for Chryfiffwj by the teftimony ofLantiHs^ be died in 
the 73 year, Bocatim in the 62, Ziitiicrfr the 64, and fr^yimm/ exceeded 70, as 
f^miMj favsHj bath deliveredinhisElogy of learned men. And as for Cicrrs, 
tf Plfitdrch in his life affirmeth, he was flainin the year of 64 ^ and therefore 
fure the queftion is hard fee, and we have no eaiie reafon to doubt, when great 
and entire Authors (hall introduce injuUifiable examples, and authorize their 
a0ertions by what is not autbentical. 

Fourthly, They which proceed upon ftrift numerations, and will by foch 
regular and determined waies meafure out the lives of men, and periodically 
define the alterations of their tempers •, conceive a regularity in mutations , 
wi^h an equality in conftitutions , and forget that varifty, which PhyHtiaos 
therein difcover. For feeing we affirm that women do naturally grow old be-i 
fore men, that the cholerick Mi (horc in longevity of the (anguine, that there 
is fenium ante fetnllHtem , and many grow old before they arrive at age , we 
cannot affix unto them all qne common po'mt of danger , but (hould rather 
afiign arefpeftive fetality unto each. Which is concordant unto the doArinc 
of the numerifts, ,and fuch as maintain this opinion : for they affirm that one 
number refpedeth men, another women, as Bodiny explaining that of Senets 
Septimus quif^ annus atati fignumimfrimit^ fub joins Hoc denutrihusdiSlmmt 
0p$rtm^ hoc frimnm intueri licet ^ perfeHnm numernm, id eft^ fextum fceminus 
jeftenarium mures immuture. 

Fiftly, Since we efteem this opinion to have fome ground in nature , and 
that nine times feven revolutions of die Sun , imprint a dangerous Cbaradee 
on fuch as arrive unto it -, it will leave fome doubc behind, in what fub;ccci- 
on hereunto were the lives of our forefathers prefently after the flood , and 
more efpecially before it •, who attaining unto 8 or 900 years , had not their 
Qimacters Computable by digits , or as we do account them -, for the great 
Climacterical was paft unto them before they begat Children, or gave any 
Teftimony of their virility ; for we read not that any begat children before 
the age of fixty five. And this may alfo afford a hint to enqttire, what are 
the Climacters of other animated creatures-, whereof the lives of fome attain 
'I not fo far as this of ours , and. that of otheres extend a confiderable fpace 

Laftly, The imperfect accounts that men have kept of time , and the dif« 
ference thereof both in the fame and divers common Wealths, will muchdiflnct 
the certainty of this affertion. For though there were a (atality in this year, 
yet divers were , and others might be out in their account , aberring feveral 
waies from the true and juft compute, and calling that one year, which per- 
haps might be another. 

For Hrft , They might be put in the commencement or beginning of their 
account •, for every man is many moneths elder then he computeth. Yor al- 
though we begin the (ame fromour nativity, and conceive that no arbitrary , 
but natural term of compute, yet for the duration of lift or exiftence , we 
participate in the womb the ufual dtftindions of time ; and are not to be exempt- 
ed &om the account of age and life , where we are fubjed to difeafes, and 
often fuffer death. And therefore Pjthsgorasj Hippocrates^ Diocles^ Atncem- 
na and others, have fet upon us numeral relations and temporal confideratiom. 
in the womb ^ not only affirming the birth of the feventh moneth to be vital!, 
that of the eighth mortall, but the progreflion thereto to be meafured by role, 
and to hold a proportion unto motion and formation. As what receiveth mo- 
tion in the feventh, to be perfeded in the Triplicities •, that is, the time of con- 
formation I 

Hook 4. 

aod CemtMn £ & 11 o k t 

ibrnution anu> moiionitdoubtc, <irui clui frotiiinonon unto the btnh, trcblcj 
So what uiurmnichr 3s day, umavciltlictcvenT)', and b«trn cite 2 today. Ana 
ihtrcfiitc if any tnviriWetaiifiUity there be, dut jftcr f.» miiny yMi-idochewt- 
dKicc it frlfai Suiy three, it wilt be qurthoniWc whet Inn iis aAivity only fct 
Out It tiurnJtivKVt anil begin not raclicr la iticivi>ii)b, whcron wepitiectichkc 
conliiio'jnunt. Which Joth n« only cn'.aiigk- thisoircfiion, but liathalm- 
dy cmbroitcti i\k eniJcivouri of Aftrology in the crediton of Schemes, 3i>d the 
judgcnwnc of tlMihor difeafei-, tor bong not lacontroubbly determined, at 
whac liiue to bc^m, whether at a>ncc[)ti(Mi, anim^uion or cxtlurion ( it bring 
iKliiTcTcm unto (he inftucfKc of heaven to begin at cidier ) clKrs'fiavc invented 
another wav, thati», tobc^in ab Hor4 tfrn^i^Mii, a* Hm!j, AtrSdhdSUih.Oati^-' 
vrtmi and (jMida Bfuttn tuvc delivered. | 

Again, In regard of tjic utcafure of tiiitehy moncth; and years, ihrre wiili 
be no fitijll ditfiiiuliy^ and tf we IhaUllri^ly confider it, many have hKn and 
Hill may be millakcfi. ior neither the motion of the Moon, whercbymonethij 
arc conipmedi nor of the Sun, whereby ycai-s arc accounted, eoiiliftetli ofl 
whole numbers, but adiiiitr of fraAiom, iM broken paru, uwe havctlrea- 
dy declared concerning ibc Moon- Thar of ihe-iun eonfillecb of 565 daics, 
and almolV 6hourf, tnatti, waiKmg eleven ininutet; which 6 hoiirsomitted, I 
or nor taken notice of, wjU >n fwoccU of time largely deprave the corwrntc^ | 
and this it the occafion of ihcfiifliuEtJeor leap-year, which wu not obferrea 
in all nmei, nor puo^tialiy in all Conunon-Wcalihs , To rfi^t m Siicy three 
years there may be loll alttoft 18 daies, ooiitung the intercalation of oneday 
every fourth year, aUowcd^r this quadrant, or 6 hours fupernunifrary. 
And tlioughibe iime were obfwved, yet to fpeaii ftrictlyamanimybefotnc* 
what out in iIk auouni of his age at Siatytlirec, fat although every Iburth 
year we iofirr oneday, and fo fetch up [be quadrant, yet thole deven minutes 
whereby the year coinct Qw^rt ot'perfeft 6 hours, willintheoreuiiof tbofe 
yearsarilt: onio (.ertaiQ hours ^ andinalargerprogretlionof tnnc Unto certain 
daics. WhiTcof at prcfcni wc find expccasicc in the Calender wc obfervt 
For the J'Wi^iycar ai J65 daies being eleven ininmea larger then the annual 
rerolution of the Son, there will aril'e as anticipattonin the^quinoxet) and 
as Jun8i^l*tiOva^lt^\\^ inevery i}6ycar chey will anttcipatcitUnollone day 
And therefore thofc ancient mrn and Ncitors of oldbtnn, wh:ch yearly oh- 
fervcd iltcir naiiviucs, might b; mitlalieo in theday ; oor that to be conftrued 
without a grain of Sail , wliich it delivered by Mtfti ; At the end of fbur 
hundred ycatis, even the lidf iameday, allthe boal> of ifr^l went out of chc 
[and of t-«£yf:. lor Jn tJia^ Ipceof omethciEquijKMiesiwdanticiparwfand 
ibc eleven 'mtnuccs had amuumcd far abovtaday. And rliiicompuierightly 
coftndercd will fjU fouler on tliem who lall up the li>e» of Kingdom*, and fum 
ap their duration by partiLuIar ouiiibcrs : as PUu ftr^ begnn^ and tome 
have cndfjvoured linte by perfect and fplierical numbers, hy ihe fquarc and' 
cube of 7 and 9 and 12, the great nuntberof PUto. Wherein indeed Bodint 
huh attempted a particular enumeration'-, bu: ( betide'chc milfakes cpnunit- 
tiblc in the lolary cauiputc of year^ ) the Atfcrrnccif chronologic difturbr 
the facisfaaiuD and quiet of 'k^comptHet-, foine addirg,'Ot)>er5detraciing,and 
fewpiUKtuallyaccordmgiaanyooe yc«r ; wlicrebyindmlfuth acronntsuiould 
be made U(),far the variation in an unite ^eiiroycs tlie total dJadon. 

Thirdly. Ihc compuLe may be unjuU ka only in a ftritt acception, of few 
daics or houis.butintheUciiudcatfoof fomcyearj; andihismay hap^Knlroin 
the differcoi cooipute of years in divers Natiooi, and evenfudias did main- 
tain the moll protable way of account : their year bang not only dilTrrept 
from one amtocr, but. the civil and conunon account dilagrreing much from 
the natural year, whercoo thccoolidcfackmisfoundcd. Thm tiotn the tcttiinony 
Cc of 

ttt Sine hfa 


The Lanary 
year what. 

The Solary 
year ivhac. 

The different 
account or 
meafure of a 

Enquiries into Fnlgdr 

Book 4. 


of HtritdfitHs ^ CenfiriHfts and others, the Greeks obfervcd theLunary yea^,; 
that is, twelve revolutions of tbe Moon, 3 54 daics ^ but the fy^'gjftianj^ and j 
many others adliered unco the Solary account, that is, 365 dales, thatis,ele-| 
ven dales longer. Now hereby the account of the one would very much ex- j 
cced the other : A man in the one would account himfelf 63, wheh one in the j 
other would think himfelf but 61 •, and fo although their nativities were un- ! 
der the feme hour, yet did they at difierent years believe the verity of that { 
which both efteemed affixed and certain unto one. The like miftake there is m 
a tradition of our dales ^ men conceiving a peculiar danger in the beginning dai^ 
of May, fet out as a faul period unto confumptions and Chronical difeafes^ where- 
in notwithftanding we compute by Calenders, not only different from our an- 
ceftors, but one another ; the compute of the one anticipating that of the other ^ 
fo that while we are in April, others begin May, and the danger is paft unto one^ \ 
while it beginneth with another. 

Fourthly, Men were not only out in the number of fome dales , the latitude 
of a few years, but might be wide by whole Olympiades and divers Decades of 
years. I or as Cenforinus relatcth^ the ancient Arcadians obferved a year of 
three moneths, the Carianroi fix, the Iberians of four ^ and as Diodortts and 
Xtnofhon de t/Ejmvocis^ alleadgeth, the ancient ^^^jptians have ufed a year of 
three, two, andonemoneth : fo that the Qimactencal was not onely different 
unto thofe Nations, but unreafonably diftant from ours ; for Sixty three will 
pafs in their account,before they arrive fo high as ten in ours. 

Nor if we furvey the account of R^me it felf, may we doubt they were mi- 
ftakeil-, and if they feared Climaftcrlcal years^ might err in their numeration. 
For the civil year whereof the people took notice^ did fometimes c«ne (hort, 
and fometimes exceed the natural. For according to Varro , StieHninus and 
Cen[mnHs^ their year confided firft of ten moneths ^ which comprehended but 
3 04 dales, that is, 6xlefs then ours containeth- after by Numa^i Tarqaim 
from a fuperAltious conceit of imparity were added 5 1 daies, which made 355, 
one day more then twelve revolutions of the Moon. And thus a long time it 
continued, the civil compute exceeding the natural ^ the correftion whereof, 
and the due ordering of the Leap-year was referred unto the Pontifices-, who 
cither upon favour or malice, that fome miglit contintie their offices a longer or 
(horter time ^ or firom the magnitude of the year that men might be advantaged, 
or endamaged in their contraas, by arbitrary intercalations depraved the whole 
account. Of this abufe Cicero accofcd Verres^ which at laft proceeded fo far, that 
when Julius Cafar came unto that office, before the redrefs hereof he was filin to 
infert two intercalary moneths unto November and December, when he had al- 
ready Inferted 23 daies unto February • fo that that year confifted of 445 daies ^ 
a quarter of a year longer then that we obferve •, and though at the laft the year 
was reformed, yet in the mean time they might be out wherein they fummed up 
Cllmaderical obfervations. 

LafUy^ One way more there may be of miftake, and that not unufuall among 
us, grounded upon a double compute of the year- the one beginning from the 
25 of March, the other fcom toe day of our birth, unto tne feme again , 
which is the natural account. Now hereupon many men frequently mifcalt 
their daies •, for in their age they deduce the account not Arom the day of 
their birth, but the year of our Lord, wherein they were born. So a man 
that was born in January* 1582, if he live to fell fick in the latter end of March 
1 645 , will fum up his age , and fey I am now Sixty three, and in my Qi- 
maderical and dangerous year^ for I was born in the year 1582, and now it 
is 1645, ^t^^^^ indeed he wantethmany moneths of that year, confidering 
the true and natural account unto his birth ; and accounteth two moneths for 
a year: and though the length of time and accumulation of years do render the 



« 4- 

tnd CtmmtH E R x o n i . 

millaKr infcnliblc ^ yccis ii all one, u if one born in Jcnuir)' 1644, fbuold 
be atcoontol a yeir old the 2 j oi* Marcli 1 64 j . 

All which perpciMlcd, it DUy be eadly perrvtved with whac infecarity of 
I truth we adhere unto thit opinion ^ afiribiiig iwc only c^TcAs depending on ' 
itic natural period of time Dnio arbicrary cwnilaciortt , and lucli oi vary ac 
' plealurc, but conHrming our teocis l^ tlie unttrtaio atcoum nf oilwi-and 
.our Wvcs. There being no p<>!itive or itidil'putiUr ground wficre to begin 
our compute -, that il' tlierc were, men hare been fcveral waics tnidakcn ; the 
bell in Ibmo latitude, others m grearer. according to the difTi^etit computcor 
divrrf fhtci, the Ihort and irrecotKiUUe yean ol Ibmc, th*r excefding error 
in the natural frame of oOysn, and the hpfet and ^ITe dedui^ktm of ordinary 
accountant! in moft. 

Wtuth duly coolideTTd, together nidu llriA account and critical cnoini 
of icalijn, will alfo diOnift the witty dcterminaiiontrifAftroJogy. That Sa- 
turn itie enemy of life, coniei almolt every fcventh year, unto the quadrate 
or nuJevolent place, unto that where it begun: chat ai the Moon about 
every fevcmh day arrivcf h unto a contrary (igo, fo Sarom, which remaineth 
about as many years , as the Ktoon doth daies in one lign . and holdnti the 
tame coRJiderattOR in years as the Moon ui 'daies ^ duth nufc thefe periculout 
periods. Wbch together with other I'lanets, and profcftion of the Horofcope, 
unto iIk fevrnili boufc, or oppofiie figns c\'ery fcventh year ^ opprerteih 
lii(iiig namres, and caufeth obfcrvablc mutations , in the fbtc of fublunary 

Further (adsfiiftion may yet be liad from the learned diftourfc of Sdtms- 
fift lately publifhed, if any (^ire to be informed how different the prefenc 
obfcrvations arc frocn iboft of the andems j bow every one hath diffirrent 
Climadericab^ with many other obfervaWcs, trnpugiw^ the prefent opinion. 


Chap. XIII. 
of the Ciimniar trDtg-dsia. 

VI 7Hereof to fpeak didinAly : among the Southren conAdlations two 
V there are whith bear ttw name of the Dog ■, the one in 1 6 degrees 
of laiitude. containing on the left thigh a Star of the firft magnitude, ufually 
called Procyon o^ Anticani* , becaufc fay fomc it rifcth before the other-, 
which if truly undcrdood, muH be retrained unto ihofc habitations, who 
have devation of polo above thirty two degrees. Mention thereof there is in 
HtTMce, who feemsto millaiceor confound tbeonc with the other -, and after 
him in Cd/ii , who 11 willing, the remarkabldl Star of the other ihould be 
called by this name^ beraufe it it the lirft that arifeth in die conHellaiion ; 
whitti notwithflanding , to fpeak ftriftly , it is not \ unlefs we except tme 
of the third magnitude in the right paw in his own and our elevation , and 
two more on hts head in and be^'ond the degree ofSixt)'. Afecoadand more 
confiderable one there is, and neighbour uato the otber, in 40 dcgreciof lati> 
tude, tont^ning i S Stars, whereof that in his mouth of the firft magnitude, 
the Gmks call xn-i®-, the LMtiitct Cmku majtr ^ and we emphukally cbc 

Now frocn the riflngof this Star, not cofmically. that if, with the Sun, but 
HeliatAlJj', that »*, its emetfion from the raics of the Sun, the Ancients com- 
puted thor canitular daies -, coocerning which there generally paffcth an opinion^ 
that during tbofe daics , ;^l meduation or ufe of Phyfick it to be declined , 
and d\e care cotnroited unto narare. Aod Uierefon as ibough tbcra wert 
_ C«a uy 

vifm 4 

Dot-tat h. I 


Enqmria int$ Fm^mt 


Book 4* 

any ftriatioii in nature, or jufticiams imaginable in profeflions, whole fubjeft 
tsnacural, and under no intermiflive, but conftant way of mutation ; this ieafon 
is comihonly termed the Phyfitians vacation, and ftands fo received by moft 
men. Which conceit however general^ is not only erroneous, but unnatural, 
and fub.Gfting upon foundations either fklfe, uncertain , mifiaken, or niilappled, 
defervcs^ not of mankind that indubitable affent it Hndetb. 

For jSrft,which feems to be the ground of this afTercion, and not to be drawn 
iipto queftion, that is, the magnified quality of this Star conceived co oaufe, 
or intend the heat of this feaibn,whereby thefe daies become, more obfervable then 
the red; ^ we find that wifer Antiquity was not of this opinion. For, feventeeii 
hundredyears ago it was as a vulgar drror rejeded by Gcminus^ a leanied ma- 
thematician in his Elements of Aftronomy •, wherein ne plainly affirmeth, tbac 
common .^pinion made that a cauife, which was at firft obferved but as a (ign. 
The ijiiing and fetting both of this Star and others being obferved by the Ancienct, 
to denote and tefliiie certain points of mutation, rather then conceived to induce 
or efied (he fame. For our fore-fathers , faith he, obferving the courfe of 
the Sun, and marking certain mutations to happen in his progrefs through 
particular parts of the Zodiack, they regi(lred and fet them down in tlieir Para* 
pegmes^or Aftronomical Canons^ and being not able to deiign thefe times Jby 
daies, moneths or years ( the compute thereof, and the beginningot the year 
Ixing different^ according unto different Nations ) rhey thought beft co iettle a 
^en^ account unto all ^ and to determinecthefe alterations by fome known and 
invariable figns ^ and fuch did they conceive thehfing andfetcing of the fixed 
Stars r not aicribing thereto any part of caufal'ity, but notice and figniHcation. 
And tnu&much feems implied in that exprefiion gf Homer ^ when fpeaking of the 

D(^Star,he condudeth ^ y^utoV A 71 oyim Tiiuiunh Malum 4iutem Jf£frum 

fft ^ The £ime as Pet^ins pbferveth , is implied in the word of Ptdomj^ and t^e 
Ancients, aiisAcmtniuA(n^v, that is, of the lignification of Stars. The term of 
Scripture alfo fii vours it, z$ thzt o( Jfiuahy Nolite timere a pgni6 call., and that 
in Genefisy Vt ftnt in ftgfiA & tempers : Lcf there be lights in the firmament, 
and let them be for figns and for feafons. 

The Primative and leading magnifyers of this Star, were the zy£gyptsans, the 
great admirers of dogs in earth and heaven. Wherein they worfhipped AmuUs 
or Mercurimsy the Scribe oiSMurn^ and Counfeller of Ofjris, the great inventor 
of their rdigious rites, and Promoter of good unto ^^gjft. Who was there- 
fore tranflated into this Star •, by the cy£^j^fMiyj called Stthis^ andJinV bytbe 
t/£thiofMMs ^ firom whence that SiriMs or the Dogs-ftar had its name, is by fome 

And thk they looked upon,not with reference unto heat, but coeledial influence 
upon the fiicuities of man, in order to religion and all fagacious invention ; and 
from hence derived the abundance and great fertility of ty^upty the overflow 
of ATifAi/ happening about the afcent hereof. And therefore in Hieroglyphical 
monuments^ Anubis is defcribed with a Dogs-head, with a Crocodile between his 
legs, withafphereinhishand.withtwoftars, and a water pot landing by him ^ 
implying thereby, the rifmg and fetting of the Dog-fW, and the inundation 
of theiliveriV;/)*/. 

But if all werefilent. Gdlenhaxh explained this point unto the life -, who ex. 
pounding the reafon why Hiffcr4fes declared theaffeAions of the year by the 
rifing and fetting of Stars • it was faith he, becaufe he would proceed on iigns 
and principles bdft know unto all Nations. And uport his words in the firft of the 
Epideini€ks» If^ Thdfi Ammmmo circs Eetuinoxium & fnk virgiliai ftuvU eramt 
msUdt he thus eidargeth. If ( faith he ) tne fame compute of umes and moneths 
were obferved by aUNations , Hipfeerates had never made any mention either of 
Ar Aurus, Pldadcs or the Dog-Star • but would have plainly laid, in MscedomM^ 


Boot ^ 

mJ Cmmmtt .EftR frx s. 

nfihc tnonetU Dion, ihai « ihu» waitbe «yr d'fpofcd. But for ai mttch'l! 
llic Klmirih Di'Kui imly known unto the Mamhmitttt, bucobrLWconuxhc »rA oilier Natiiiitf ; he found niu re gc/>Mal<Llii»fiKtm of time, and 
r 'L f it'fuiBinj; FTKinutb, wou^iofuatly tsy, at ilie A-^i^uMH>t, tbprilmqof 
: 'is, or the D>jg-Sur. AihI by Unt way diiJ the Aiicrrnu duridi: die 
■: she year, rlic Auiumn, Wrmcr.Sjuing, and Sufumer. By ri^nriup 
I ui iljL I'kiadc*, dcDoting tli* brgianitig of Sunnner, v^ btH 'it -' '*r- n.-r- 
Itiir, die dnl.uation tlicscnE Kj ''"i way Artfhtlt cWjugli 
Animals, diktingajfbcth tlicir liircf nf gCRcraiion, Iniiiincy, ni . 

anj Venation. Aiulthuwaran alluwablr way ulcumpiU', aiiu :.LiU^.^- 

caiocx], were the ihi; of ihe Start Of inolccraMc, and their uUcnts u hivxti 
l)Ic 3S priouti^ c Alb'onotii}' coacetvcd ilifm. And ihcrcfote: tixiugh ArtfhiJe 
Imjucntly mcntiuocth chit Star, aaitpurciculitrly alfinrxifa that ) libci m itic 
B(jl[thiin]iarebeltcai(hedb'oni ilwftrifcof tbc Df^f^-Sior, ivcmuHniKCijau.'tvc 
thcfamc ameercffcA Lbrfcoi. Not tliOugb J'fti/ijrrrttmi brnccbemlliiisio 
inJtr tbcciEcaty of dii* btar, art we induced bcrcto ^ ciicept ficciufe tbr Isnic 
i'liiluruphifc aiBrmoh -, that Tuimy ii fat about (he nfing of ihc I'letuliai, ntiil 
depansupon Axdurut, ortlMC iikiII iafcrti arclatcnf, iromtlicfctimgoj the 
yStars; except, Ifay, he give malfolcaveto inStr that ihcft pariicutareffeAs 
and aiterAiiont procet-d from tltorcSurC) wJiich wer«indccdfaiic defigDationf (» 
fuch yuirtcrt and portions of ibeyeor, ftbereinthc lamcwefcobfrrvcd. Now 
wliat /"Aw^ASiffncthoi ih«Orix, that it (coneth lo adore ihiticar, andtaK«h 
notice thereof by voice and (UTnutuion i unciU wc be better affurcd of its vericj', 
we ftiall net (alTCthe fympathy. 

fvccondly. What flender optnion tlie Aiicientt tichlot* tiiee0icuy ortbitSiar, tt 
declarable froiQ-ihnr commitc. lor asCrmiM/atiinneth.ind PttAviu3ii\s\taxM& 
Comment^itor piovcth. tlicy began their attount frotn its Hcfiacall ctncrlion.and 
Botitiieofmicalafccnt.ThccofiiiitalBlcenlionofaSiarwcocrm that, wbenUari- 
ft-Lhtogethcr witlitticiun, ortbcfjmc degree of tfic Eciipciclt whercinthciTinJ J^^*! ' that ibc Hcli«aU,whcn a. Star fclwch bchwc fijr tl)e vicinity iW'the Sun 
was not vilible.bcin^ further rcmoved.bcginnali to appe»r.For the annii;lj motion ivh« ihc Hc- 
of the Sun fiom Wd\ to Eall being &r fwtfter then that of tiw lixcd Sari, Jit tAult liiol sfccm 
ofiKceflity kavcchem on thcEall whijflhc hadcncth forward^ aiid obfi:ur«t(i ^fSiinii 
otber* to the Wefl :and fo the Moon who pcrforirw its moeion ftvifter then the Sun 
(asRiaybeobferved in tbnr Conjun^mns and Edipfcf) gees FjiDward -out of 
hitraycs, and appcartwhea the SunisJct. If ihi-rettu-echcDng-lhrbidthfi 
ef&AiialL heat wliicli it oTaibed umo it, it vrould Alfitrd bdl evidence thervof, 
Andthe fcafon would be ino{l tcrvcot, whettic arifcth in rheprubtbldl pliceof 
its adivity, that i^, ibc cofmicall afcent ; for therein it arifeth with the Sun, »nd is 
included in the fame irradiation. But titc time obfervcd by ttie Ancients wns long 
after this afcent, and in the Heliacal emcriion ^ when it bccome^ac great^ diihnce 
Irom the Sun, neither riling with it nor n«tr it. And therefore, had they con- 
ceived any more then a bare fignality in this Star^or afcnbed cbe beat of the liufon 
thereunto; they would not have tCKnpmed from us HcliuaUarcent, which was 
of infcriour efficacy \ nor imputed the TchemcncY of heu unto ibofe pmms 
wherria it wai more temilsj and where witfi kfs probability they mtgbt malceouc i 
its a^iun. 

Thirdly, Akbougb we derive tie authority of ihefc dsict from obfirvationc i 
of the Ancientc, yei arc our cwnpdtet very different, and foch at confirm not- < 
e«ch otljer. i-or wbcrcas ihe^ obl'crved it Hcliacatly , we feem to obferve icj 
Coftnically ; for before it wileih Hcliatally unto our latitude, the Summ* r i» 
e«n at an end- Ag^iii, we compute not otily from diffitrem afceras, but alfoiVom 
divcii Si*r* ; tlwy from the greater Dog-ftJr, wc from the leflcr i they from 
OtioDs,wefrotBCepUk»his Dog^ ibeyfrain Seiriw,, we horn rrMryon^ fiir 



Enquims int0 Vdgnf 

Book 4. 




the begiiming of the Dog-daies with us is fee down cbe 1 9 of Juty, abouc which 
dmecbe IdflTer Dog-ftir arifecb with the Sun \ whereas the Scar of cbe greater 
Dog afcendech hoc uncill after thac monetb. And this miftake will yec be fau^» 
I tf cbe compute be made ftrider^nd as \it .BidtAriigi late profcflbr of Aftronomy 
tn Oxford,tuicb fee it down.Wlx> in the year 1 629 compuced, thac in cheHorizoo 
of Oxford, the Dog-ftar arofe not before cbe fiftcench day of Augoft • when in 
our Almanack accouncs, chofe daies are almoft ended. So that cbe common and 
received cime not anfwering cbe crue compuce, it fruftraces cbe obfervations of 
our fel ves. And being alfo di0erenc from the calcalcaions of cbe Ancients, dirir 
obfervacions confirm not ours>nor ours tbeirs^but rather confute each other. 

Nor will the compuces of cbe Anciencs be (b Autbentick unco thpfc, who 
(ball take notice, how commonly they applied tbecelelbaldefcriptions of other 
climes unto their own ; wherein cbe learned BdinhigiMs juftly reprehendech AIm- 
niliMs, who cransforred cbe u£fjftiMn defcripcions unco the Roman aaount -, con- 
founding theobfervation of the Gnekjind Bartarick.Sphcrcfi. 

Fourthly, ( which is the Argument of Geminns) were cbere any fuch effedu- 
all heat inchis Scar, yet could it but weakly evidence cbe lame in Summer; it 
being abouc 40 degrees diftant from the Sun^ and Ihould rather manifoft ics warm* 
ing power in che Wincer, when ic remains con joyned wich cbe Sun in ics Hy bernal 
converfion. For about the 29 of Odober, and in the 1 6 of Scorpius, andfo 
again in January, the Sun performs his revolution in the fame parallel with tbe 
Dog-ftar. Ag^n, If we ihould impuce che beat of this feafon, unto cbeco-ope- 
racion of any Stars with the Sun, it feems more favourable for our times, to 
afcribe the lame unco the confteUation of Leo. Where befides chat the San is in 
his proper bonfe, it is con joyned with many Scars -, whereof two of che firft 
magnicude^ and in cheS**" of Auguft is corporally conjoyned with Bafiljfcus^ a 
Star of eminent name in Affaroloey^ and feaced almoft in che Eclipcick. 
I Fifcly, If all were granced, chac obfervadonland reafon were alfo for it, and 
^ were it an undniable truth, that an effednal ftrvour proceeded from this Star^ 
yet would not the fame decermioe che opinion now in queftion •, ic ncceflarily 
luffering fuch reftridions as cake off generall illacions. For firft in regard of 
different latitudes, onto fome tbe canicular daies are in the Winter -, as nnco 
fuch as have no latitude, but live in a right Sphere, that is, under che Equinodial 
line •, for unco them it arifeth when tbe Sun is about the Tropick of Cancer ; 
which feafon unto them is Wincer, and che Sun remoceft from chem. Nor hath 
the £imepoficion in tbe Summer, that is, in the Equinodial points, any advantage 
from ic^ fbr in che one poinc the Sun is at the Meridian, before the Dog-ftar 
arifeth *, in the other the Star is at the Meridian, before cbe Sun afcendech. 

Seme lacicudes have no canicular daies ac all •, as namely all thofe which {aive 
more then 73 degrees of Northern Elevacion • as che cerricory ofNovdZemtiM^ 
pare of GreenLmd wadTsrtarj-^ for unco cbac habicacion die Dog-ftar is invi. 
lible, and appeareth not above tbe Horizon. 

Unto fuch latitudes as it arifeth, it carrieth a various and a very different 
refped t unto fome itafcendeth when Summer is over , whether wecompnte 
Heliacally or CofioDicaily ^ for though unto AUxsmdrU it arifeth in Cancer, yec it 
arifeth noc unco Biarmia Cofmically before ic be in Virgo , and Hdiacally 
abouc che Aucumnall Equinox. Even unto che lacicude of 5 2, che efficacy thereof 
is not much confiderable, whether we confider icsafcenc, Meridian, alcicude or 
abode above che Horizon. For it arifeth very hte in the year, abouc the 
eighteenth of Leo, that is, the 31 of July. Of Meridian Altitude it hath but 
23 degrees, fo that it plaies but obliquely upon us, and as the Sun doth abouc 
the 23 of January. And lafUy, his abode above the Horizon is not great-, fbrin 
tbe eighteenth of Leo, the 3 1 of July , although they arife together ; yec I 
doth it fct above 5 hours before the Sun, thac is, before cwo of tbe clock, aner ' 




ad tmmtv E n k o n 

wbicli nme ^'^ urt iTiOrc fcnfible of Iicic, then til itic cUy bcAictf. 

Sctuniilv, Inregardof tbe^'arilltinflo^rl^ell^nglt[lJc ot' the Swib, we arrW 
coiiJidcrC what tlit Anrienu obli-Tved nui y iliiic tlw litC of (lie h*«liiarils 
.iJtcnibIe,an»lihat!imeeldcriime^lltc^'iijvtf itiiftTfd:! l-i ^ ..- 1.,-). i -.hit v*- 
riauooutilicir longKudn. Tbctongimdeof a iijr,(oi -ilUnK 

from ttic (irli pomiol numcraciijn tiwitd [Ijc B*ii ; v. i inicbe 

Ar,ntmsrt'Ji!t!iovertMl imiinox. Nowfav rcifonof tiki; ... /i*. rt^lttu 

to Edit, [hey luvc very muth varied from tliti prune i TJic lirit :itar or Arici tii ibc 
unit o! Mrtm die .ItlitrntH was pi.iccd m ihc very inicrfcciion , wJiicb »l now 
clungaccd and removed Baltwiird 28 degrees j infomikh tlu: now tlic figoof Ari« 
poUcnVib tbe phce of Tiuru!:, xDdTiiunistcbitorGcniini. WbichvarUnonor 
ionginidi nmlt very mutbdirtrittUie opinion ot'tlic Dog-iiar, not only io our 
ditin, butintimei betbrc and alter j tur linrc tlM world brgxa it hub ariffn in 
Tauriif, and it'the world Iftft, maviavtfUsjftentin VirgOj totlut wrmuftp5ace 
the tamcuiar dai« , chacis, tbebottdUimcor liieyearin cheSlprmgtn rbcfjril 
Age, and in the Autumn in Ages to come. 

Tiiirdiy, The Surs have noc only varied their longitudes, wliercby their 
afcentf have altered ; but have alfo chatted their detlmaiions, u-beieby their 
tiCngatall, that is , (beir appearing liatli varied ihedcclimtioi) of a St^rive 
call Its Aiortelt dilUnce from liie £«juator. Now ttniigb the I\)les of tJ)e world 
and tlie HijuaEorbi: imniovabk, yet bccaufe ibe Start m tbcir proper mocionii 
from Weft to move upon ttw poles ot'thc Etliptick, diltant 2 j dcgrctfsand 
an half fromcbc Pok-s of the Bi)uator, and delcnbe circles parallel not unto the 
Equator^ bm tiieEclipUck; ibey mufl be therefore fometimes nearer, fonvttime 
removed tiirthcr from the Equator. All Starstbattiave their didancefroni t!w 
Eilipticlt Northward not more then 33 degree* and an lalf ( which is tlic 
greaieti dillance ai the Eclipiitti from the fcijuator ) may in progrefGon of 
time have declination Southward, and move beyond tlw Eijuator 1 but if any 
Star hath juft r!ii» dillaiiceof :ij andan lialf( ai h«th Capelta on the hack of 
Enfthonius ) it may liercafter move undei tim Equioodial , and tlie (kme will 
happen rclpcclively unto Stars which have declination Southward. Aodtbere- 
foremany Stjr» may be vifihlc in our Hftnifplicrc , wbich arenot foatpreftnt ^ 
and many which are at prefcnt| ihall taU leave of our Horizon, and a|>pear 
unioSomhren bub'taiiotis. And therelore the time may come that the Dog- 
liar may notbe vifiHcinoiirHoriiyn, and the time hath been, when it hath not 
(hewed it felf unto our neighbour latitudes. So that camculat daics tbwehave 
been none, nor Ihall be ; ye; certainly in all time* li>me fcafon of tlie ytzi' more 
notably hot thco other. 

LtiUy, Wc multiply caufo in vain; and for ihercafon hereof, we nee<l not 
baVeretourlc unto any St^rbiitihc Sun, and continuity of its aAion. hiritie 
SunafccndmgintD ilicNortbreorigm, b^ienclh tirlta icmpenteheat intlicayt'; 
wbkbby Ins approach unto tbe folllke he imcndnh ^ and by continuation in- 
creafcth the fame even upon declination. Ytit runmng over the fame degrees 
agam, that i<» m I.eo, which lie bath done in Taurus, in July which fie did 
infiUy-, be ougmcntetb tlic tieat in tbe later which he begaain the tieft; ind 
ealdyintcndeiii the fame by continuation which was well proroored before, So 
is iiobfcrvcd, ilm ibty which dwellbctwoen the Tropicta and the Equator, 
have their faund I'ummcr bcKicrandmorejnaiuritive of fruits then the Rinn«r. ; 
SoWEobfcrvcin thed;»y ( which isaihort year ) tliegreaceft beaiabouttwo 
in the afternoon, when die Sun is p«(l the Meridian (whicu is hisdiumallfoUtice^. 
and the fame It evident from the TbrrDMxnetd or obiecvatioDS of tlie weatbet- 
glalt. So are tbe coUs of {benight (harper in tl>e Summer about twot»'tbree 
4&cr midnight^ and tbe ftorts in Winter (Irgnga- about thofebours. Soliltewfe 
" ;veUic rald.toaugoMnc^Mbefi the does bagia ccf ' 

Wl.>t th< loti* \ 

cirmtlinof a 
Sf.U I.. 


diln be fo 

192 1 

Enquiries int0 Vulgar 

Book 4. 

potefi nufM. 

Difeaks eom- 
fliionly deter-; 
mined, by 
what fcafoni. 

chough the Sun be thenafcenfive, and returning from the Winter Iropick. * 
And therefore if we reft not in this reafon for the heat in the declining part of 
Summer, we muft difcover freezing Stars that may refolve the latter colds of 
Winter, which whoever defires to invent, let him Study the Stars of Andrcmeda^ 
or the nearer conftellation of Pegafus , which are about that time afcendenr. 

It cannot therefore feem ftrange, or favour of (ingularity that we have examin- 
ed this point. Since the fame hath been already dented by fome, fince the autho- 
rity and obfervations of the Ancients rightly underftood, do not confirm it, fince 
our prefent computes are different from thofe of the Ancients, whereon not with- ' 
ftanding they depend •, fince there is reafon againft it, and if all were granted, yet , 
muft it be maintained with manifold reftraints, far othcrwife then is received.! 
And laftly, fince from plain and natural principles, the doubt may be fairly falved^ '■ 
and not clapt up from petitionary foundations and principles uneftabliflWd. j 

But that which chiefly promoted the confideration of thefe daies, and me- 1 
dically advanced the lame , was the doftrine of Hipfocrates -^ a Phyfittan of- 
fuch repute, that he received a teftimony from a Chriflian, that might have ! 
been given unto Chrift. The firft in his book, de Aere, Aquis^ e^ hcis, ' 
Sjdtrum wrtHs, &c. That is, we arc to obferve the rifing of Stars, efpeciafiy ; 
the Dog-ftar, Ardurus, and the fetting of the Pleiades or feven Stars. 1-rom ; 
whence notwitbftanding we cannot inf^ the generall efficacy of thefe Stars, or; 
co-efficacy particular in medications . Probably exprefling no more hereby then \ 
if he ihould have plainly (aid, efpeciall notice we are to take of the hotteft 
time in Summer, of the b^inning of AUtumn and Winter-, for by the rifing 
and^ fettiog of thofe Stars were thefe times and feafons defined. And tbercfort 
fubjoynschis reafon, Qgmam his temfwitw tmrln fimumur^ becaufe at thdfe 
times difeafes have their ends ^ as Phyfitians well know, andheelfwhereaffirm- 
eth, that ieafbns determine difeafes , b^inning in their contraries • as the 
fprii^ the difeafes of Autumn, and the Summer thofe of Winter. Now ( what 
is very remarkable) whereas in the fame plaoehe advtfeth to obferve the times 
of notable mutations , as the Equinoxes ^ and the Solftices , and to decline 
Medication ten dates before and ainer ^ how precifelyfoever canicular cautions 
be considered , this is not obferved By Phyfkians , nor taken notice of by 
the people. And indeed (honld we blindly obey the reftraihts both of Pfay- 
fitians and Afirologers , we (hould contrad the libeny of our prefcripttons , 
and coc&fine the utility of Phyfick unto a very few daies. For obferving the 
Dog-daies, and, as is expreffed; fome daies before, likewife ten daies before and 
afrer the Equinodial and SoUticial points ^ by this obfervation alone are ezenipt* 
ed an hundred daies. Whereunto if we add the two ^/Egyftidn daies in every 
moneth, the interlunary and pleoilunary exemptions, the Edipfes of Sun md 
Moon,, con jujidions and oppofitions Planetical, the houfes of Planets, and the 
fite of the Luminaries under theifigns ( wherein fame would induce a reflraint 
of Purgation or Phlebotomy^ there would arife above an hundred more ^ fo that 
oftbe whole year the ufe ot Phyfick would not i>€rfecure much abovea quarter.' 
Now as we do nocflridly obferve thefe daies, fo need we not tbeother •, and al- 
though confideration be mack bereof,yetimift we prefer the nearer indication ,be* 
fore tix>fe which are drawn from the time of the year',or other cvleftiali relations. 

The fecond TefHmony is taken out of the laft pieceof his Age, ^and after tlhe 
experience ( as fome think ) of no lefs then an hundred years, that is, his book 
of Aphorifins^ or (hort and definitivexfecerminations in Phyfick. The A pbohfin I 
allcadged is this, Sub^CMMe& ^MtOmem diffeiies funt furgmi^ms. Sut Cmk ' 
&Ami€due^ fay fome, including both the Dog-flars- but that cannot conftft 
with the Greek ; ^^ wjfdt, ;^ ^^ wpU , nor bad that Criticifin been ever omit- 
cd by Culeu. Now how true this fentence was jn the mouth of Hipf^nnes, and 
with what reftraint it muftbeunderftoodbyus, will readily appear from the 
jMBarence between us both,in circumftantiall relations. And 

vdCmrnntn EitxoJts. 

j Book 4* 

I And firft. Concerning (lis time and Chrwooloft- -, be lived in ilie reign of 
t Artaxrrxti Lait^im^uMi , about chcRa Olympiad*. 45oyean before CJirift; 
I and (torn ovr timcf above iwd iKiuOmJ- NowriiKeiliiL:t!iri.'{ ns wt bnvcAt- 
rcaiiy 4nl.uc<l ) thk- StAr$ luvu varied tliirrloi^iiLiiles ; andfiatibgntAdelargi; 
I progreliion? from Wcif to tji* . the tim«! of ihc Dog-flan afitnt miiil alfo very 
muui:ilicr. toncarilctJiUier nowintheyour, thcaitrordicrly didinthc /amc I 
bciiudc . iind tur later uniotnwliti bavc3 grc;itct dcvatioa^ for \nthi. ii-'.:(.tot I 
Hiff\xriaei thii Srar alccodol in Cancer which now an fech in Leo ^ and will in 
progrcliionot timearilein Virgo. And cbcreftire in regni-dnfiheiiBic wherein 
he lived, [he Aphoriim was more confiderablc in hi^diiicf then in ouu, and in 
ttmH tar piii then prerent, and in hii Couniry then ovn. 

The p>ice oi hit nativity wat Com, an illiiid in [tie MjrttM !ia, not Isr frum 
Hk^^s^ tlclcribHlin Map» by the name »i jUx^*. andcalle\lbTthe'7ffrit.'WtK> 
arc Ntalicrs tbcreM, StAMvfuj, according un:o /'o/tBr^orNorttinn biitiiije^iQ 
degrees. That he lived ind wnt in tJiefc parts, is not improbably coJlcfted ftvtn 
the Kpiillc* that paifcd betwixt bim and Aridxtrxrt ■. ai alio between the Oti- 
zem ot J^JtrM, andCw/, in die bchalt of i>wvr Wrwi Which place being 
reatedfrotnonrlatitudcof 52, i6dcgrec»Scmthivard, J^erc willarifeidiircrcnc 
confideration ; and we nuy much deceive ourfdve) it wecoolurm tbcalcencof 
Stars in one place unto anotbcr, or conceive they arife tbe lame day of iJjc moneib 
tnC«»/aod in Em^J^mJ. Vf>T as /"rtjiwV/ compute^ in iht firfl ^$tJuH year, 
at jIUxMrntriM of latitude ;r, tbcStar arofecdfmically in ihr twelfth degree oK 
Cancer, Heliacaliy the 26, by tbecompiiicofGf«<««i about this limeat A(wjfj, 
of latitude}?, It afcended cofmitally the 16 of Cancer, Hciiaca^ly tlie firOof 
Leo-, and atwuc tint time at Xdm; of latitude 42, cofmically the Z2 of Cancer, 
and Heliaally the firll of Leo. For unto places of greater latitude it an(cth 
ever later ; fo that in fomc litUudei tbe cofoiical! afccnt happcnetb not before the 
cwentieth degree of Virgo, ten d*le< before tbe Autumnall Equinox, and if tbcy 
compote Hcifacally,3fterti,in Libra. 

Again, Should we allow all, and only compute unto ihc latitude of Ctoj 
yet would itnot impofcarotall omiflion of Phylick. forif mtbc hottelliea^ 
fonof thar clime, all Phj'fck weretobe deduwd, then furcly in tnany other 
none were to beufcdat anytime whaifoevcr^ for unco tnany part*,not only 
in the Spring and Autumn, bot alfo in the Winter, the ^an is nearer, then unto 
the citmc of Ctoi in the Summer. 

Tbcthitdconfiderationconccmethpur^i^ medicines, which are at prcfent 
ftrdifTcrenttTOia thofe implied incbii Aphorifm, and fuch as were commonly 
ufed by HipyterAKi. Tor three degrees we mike of purgative mtdicincs : 
The firft thereof is very benign, nor far remored from tne natureof AJiment, 
imp which , upon defcA of working , it is ofi-times converted ^ and tn ihts 
foiindowc account Mmma, Cajpa^ Tdms-rintUs, and many more^ whereof 
we find no mention in Hiffitrsits. The fecond it alfo gentle , baring a h- 
miliarity with Ibme humof ^ into which it is bat converted if it fail of its 
operation: of this foa arc Aht ^ Rh*kart, SettM, &c. Whereof alio few 
tir none were known unto Hipftcati/. The third is of a violent and vcncmous 
quality, which (icuftratc of iti aAion, afTumcs a.i it were the aiture of pou 
ton; fucb at are ^cammoncam , Coloc\'nthii, Elaierium, Euphorbium, Ti- 
tliymilliu, I-aurcob, Peplum, ^c. Of this fon it a nunilcjl Htffccr^ia 
nude ufc, even in Fevers, Plcurifies and Quinfies; and thu compofition is 
very renukable which is afcnbcd unto T^m^^wj in i/kiiiu; tbac is of Pe[K«r, 
Sal Armoniac, Euphorbtum, of each an ounce, tbe Dolu wbercof rour 
ftruples and an half-, wliicb wbofocver Hiuuld take, would find in hisbowek 
more then a taniculv- heal, chough in ihc depth of Winter •, many of the like 
C'Duy be [Served in t^titu , or in the book Zlc OiiumSij, afixibcd 


(tn of 


X94 I 

Enqmrits im§ Vulgar 

Book 4. 

and Acute 
If hat they be. 

Strong purga- 
tions not fo 
well given 
in the heat of 
lummer, and 


A Problem. 

unco Gdkm , which is the fame vertdtim with the other. 

Now in regard of che fecond, and efpecialiy the firft degree of Purgatives, 
the Aphorifmis not of force'; but wexnay £ifeiy ufethem, they being benigp 
and of innoxious qualities. And therefore Lmcms Gduricuj, who bach endear 
voured with many teftimonies to advance this conHderation , at length con- 
cedcch that lenitive Phyfick- may be ufed, efpecialiy when the Moon k well 
affefted in Cancer or in che watery ftgns. Bufin regard oi the third degree 
the Aphorifm is confiderable : purgations may be dangerous ^ and a memo- 
rable example there is in che Riedical Epiftles of Crkcins^ of a Roman Prince 
that died upon an ounce of Diaphamicon , taken in this feafon. From the 
ufe whereof we refrain not only in hot feafons, but warily exhibit it at 
all times in hotdifeafes. Which when neceflity requires, we can perform more 
fafely then jtfae Ancients, as having, better waies of preparation and corredion ^ 
that is^^not only by addition of other bodies, but feparation of noxious parts 
from their own. 

But befide tbefe differences between Hipfocratct and us , the PhyHtians of 
thefe times and thofe of Antiquity -, the condition of the difeafe , and the in- 
tention of the Phyfitian , hold a main confideration in what time and place 
foever* For Phylick is either curative or preventive ^ Preventive we call that 
which by purging noxious humors, and the caufes of difeafes , preventcth 
(icknefs in the healthy, or the recourfe thereof in the valetudinary^ this 
is. of common ufe at the fpring and fall , 'and we-commend not che (ame at 
-this fcafon. Therapeutick or curative Phyfick, we term that, which reftoreth 
the Patient unto Sanity, and taketh away difeafes adually affeding. Nowof 
difeafes fome are chronicall and of long duration, as quarcane Agues, Scurvy, 
^&c. Whefein becaufe they admit of delay we defer the cure to more ad- 
vantagious - feafons : Others we term acute , that is , of fliort duration and 
danger, as Fevers, Pleurifies, e^r. In which, becapfe delay isdangerons,and 
they arife unto their (late before the Dog*iteies determine *,• we apply pre- 
fent remedies according unto Indications ; ropeding rather theacutenefs of che 
difeafe, and precipitancy of occafion , then the tifuig or fetting of Stars ; the 
effeds of the one being difpuuble, of the other a/fured and inevitable. 

And although Aftrology may here put in, and plead the fecret influence of 
this Star- yetGaieft in bis Commit, makes lio fiKh confideration ^ confirming 
the truth of the Aphorifm from the heat of the year ^ and the operation of 
Medicines exhibited. In regard that bodies being -heated by the Summer, 
cannot fo well endure the acrimony of purging Medicines; and becaufe upoa 
purgations contrary motions enfur^ the heat of the ayr attrading the humoun 
outward ', and the adion of the Medicine retrading the iame inward. But 
tbefe are readily falved in the difiindions before alleadged ^ and particularly 
in tlie conftitution of our cliniate and divers others, wherein the ayr makes 
no fuch exhauftion of fjnrits. And in the benignity of .our Medicioes ^ whereof 
fome in their own natures, others well prepared^ agitate not the humors, or 
make a fenfible perturbation. 

Nor do we hereby rejed or condemn a fober and regulated Aftrology ^ we 
hold there is more truth therein then in Afkologerst^ in fome more then ma- 
ny allow, yet in none fo much as fome pretend. We deny not the influence 
of the ftars, but often fufped the due application thereof ^ for though we 
(hbuld afRrm that all things were in all things ^ that heaven were but earth 
celeltitied, and earchbuc heaven cerrenriiied, or thac each pare above had ao io- 
fluence upon its divided affinity below^ yet howtofingle out thefe relations,a]id 
duly te apply their adions, is a work oft-dmes co be efleded by fome rcve- 
lacion, and CdbaU from above, racher then any Philofopby, or fpeculatioo 
here below. What power foever chey have u jpon our bodies, ic is not requifice 


Boox 4. 

Md Ctmmi0 £ m o K t . 

they lliould ild\roy our reaTons, ihu is, la mihe usrcly on the nrengtii of] 
Nature, when flte LilaUt able to rtlirvetui anitwfafs wc conctrre the bca- 
vcn jL^irAi us. to TCtiiiedK ani(biiu:of cbeeinb created (vxMi. Ttiiiwae 
t.i fuffcr firoiu the cnoiitb of the Do^ above, what othen ilo iromtbctredi' 
of Dogs below j thai u , lu be afraid of ibeir proper remedy, and refiilc to 
a(>proaai any water, though llui h.iih olien proved a cure unto their dif- 
caltf- Theceti in wife mto apower beyood iheStar* ; and Pul>myaiio\m%- 
eihiu, ibu by fore-koatricdgc, neouy evade cbeir aftiou; for, being but 
umvcrfal ciuftt, they ore deienninedby particular igcnti^ wl.ich being in- 
clined, oot conilraincd, contain wkhin (fiemlelvestlie cafbngad.andapovcr 
to ciinunand cbecoDclufion. 

LaQly, If all be conceded , and were there in this ApborUJn an unreflnuii- 
cd uutn, yec were it noc rcafonablc tu inlcr from a caution s noo^ancc 
or abolitioa, from a thing to be ofcd with difaction, noc to be ufedat alt, 
Becaufe the ApolUc btds ut beware of Philofophy, beadi of extrcntcy nrill 
bave none at alt ; an ufnidl falUcy in vulgar and Ids diAinttive braJiu, who 
baving once ovciihoc the mean, run violently on, and SikI no red bat in the 

Now hereon we have the longer infixed, bccauie the eiroc ii material, and 
Lonccrns oA-tinus the lite of man ; an error to be talten notice of by Sute 
Kjid provided againf\ by Princes, wtioarc of the opinion of Stttmai, ivatx^ai 
nchcs confiCt in the maliiiude of their Subjeds. An error worfc then fomc 
reputed Htrefitj ; and of greater danger to the body , then tbcy onto the foul , 
WMicb whofocvcr is able to reclaim, belhall favcmorein oneSumniec then 
ThtmifcM deftrovcd in any Aucomn ^ be fluU introduce a new way of cure 
prcferving by Tlieory, as wdl as praftice, ud mm not only from death, but 




Upon tkc blt- 

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-S i^. 


P/ many" things' ^ucflmabk tts they arc couviiontf 
defcribedw TiBtircs. 

Cb ftf. I. 

Of ifie Piiitirt tf the PiUcao. 

Nd Hrft m every (rtace we mret nith ihr piiftiireor the 
Pdean , opcniog bcr bfesfl with her bill , anJ feeding 
her yoiing one? witii the blood diftilling IVom her. 
Thut it ir let forth noc only in common Sigiw, bui In the 
Crell and Siliucfieon of many Nobte finniliec^ luih bwn 
afTcned by many holy Writers , and W3t an Hicrogliphick 
of piety and piny among Uic i-il^jfti^m -, on wliuh coa- 
'nderlcian, tttcy fparedthcm ac tlu-irtables. 
Notwitfiftarding upon «n*juiry wc find ny nicniion hereof in Andeiu 
ZodiograjvlitT', and fuch iA fuvc particaTarly difcourfcd uivia Animab, ai 
ATifi"tir, Milan, I'ii"j, Sfliniis and many mfff ^ who feldfni forget propri- 
eties of (ticit rt 'nature, and btvc been very ponfttull in Icfi conl^dcrablcRetn^g. 
Some grounJ herrol I cnnfdsfcc may allow , nor n«d we dfnya rcmrfrlLi^Ic 
aj!t(^ron m Pdtwm'tofranl Oieir young ^ tor Eiidf diroonrimg of Siorla, 
and their iffcAion fiward their brood, wltom they inftnirt co By, aod antti 
whom they rc-dHrvcr'Hf> thcprgviliun of chdrbclliw, socicludcth at Ufl; chat 
HcTOiM and iVlecam do i!>cHke. 

lor the teUiriwjiuci of Ancient Fathers, and Etclc(i«(KcalJ Wrii«s, we 
nay more fafcly contrive tfwTan fomc EmblenntkaU then any rcall Stofy : 
fo dtith Etcbmus confcft it to be tic Hmblcm of ChrifK And wc are un- 
willing htendly to receive that account of Jer»m. tliat prt-teivtng her yoonp 
onei^roycd by Serpents ftic openeih her ftdc with Iwr bill , by the Uoo^ 
wIwTcof they revive and return unio lift i{^tn, By which rclaiioniltey oiigbt 
indeed illDllfKethcdcOnift'"nof manby the tM Scrpcm, and his rcHoTcmtni 
bv the blood of (-hrift; and in rfmfcnfcwc (hall nut difpUM ihelike rolatioBS 
oi" Jupite, IfiJtrt, Albtrtui . and many more : and nnJef »n f:mhknucK»il 
tntcncion, wc accept ii in coat-armour. 

^ Af for the Hieroglyp'iick of the E«jpi4»t , they trtStd ■ the fame tipon 
iOoclicr confidcration. which wa-; parcniall aft-Aion-, mahlfelW '» die fco- 
icdion of licr young una , when her nell wai &t on fire. Im as furltttiif; 
0(tt bet htodd, it was not tbt A^aiMnof the Eg^tut»t, buDfeenc tranlWtcd 

198 I 

Enqmriis im§ Vulgst 

Book 5* 


Of her Crop. 

unto the Pelccan from the Vulture , as Jieriw hath platnly delivered. Std 
quod PelieoHHm ( ut etiam aliis flmfaHe ferf$ufmm efi ) rojiro fe£lMs diffe^ 
cMtem fingunt , itd m fuo fdngmm fiUos dUu^ nb tAlgjptiarmm hiftaria VdUk 
aUertHm efi^ ilti enim vtUtttrem tdntum id fdcere tradidermu» 

And laftly^ As concerning the piAure, if naturally examined, and not Hie- 
rogliphycally conceived^ it containeth many improprieties , dilkgreeii^ almoft 
in all things from the true aiul proper defaiption. For; whereas it is common- 
ly fet forth green or yellow, in its proper coloar, it is inclining to white ^ ex- 
cepting the extremities or tops of the wi;ig feathers, which are black. It is 
defcriMd in the bignefsof aHen, whereas it approacheth and fometimcs excecd- 
eth the magnitude of a Swan. It is commonly painted with a (hort bill | 
whereas that of the Pelecan attaineth fometimes the length of two ipaos. 
The bi!l is made acute ot pointed at the end ^ whereas it is flat and bread, 
and fomewbat inverted at the extream. It is defcribed like fiflipedes, or birds 
which have their feet or claws divided -, whereas it is palmipedous , or fin*fooc- 
ed like Swans and Geefe ^ according to the Method of nature , in latiroAroos 
or flat-bild birds-, which being generally fwimmers , the organ is wifely con- 
trived unto the aAion, and they are framed with fins or oars upon their feet • 
and therefore they neither light, nor build on trees, if we except Cormorants, 
who make their nefts like Herons. Laftly, There is one part omitted more re- 
markable then any other, that is, the cbowle or crop adhering unto the lower 
(ide of the bill , and fo defcending by the throat : a bag or iachel very ob- 
fervable , and of a (;apacity almoit beyond credit ; whick notwithftanding , 
this antmallcottld not want-, for therein it receiveth Oyfters, Cocbels, Scollop^ 
and other teftaceous animals ^ which being not able to break, it retains them 
untill they open, aiKl vomidil^ them up, takes out the meat contained. This is 
that part preferved for a rarity, and wherein ( as Sdnditu delivers ) in one diP 
feded, a Negro child was found. 


Chap I L 

of the Picture of Dolfhins. 

THat Dolphins are crooked, is not only affirmed by the hand of the Painter, 
but commonly conceived their naturall and prober figure ; i^hich is noc 
only the opinion of our times , but feems the belief of ^er times before us. 
For, befide the expreflions of Ovid and PUnj^ their Ponrcnids in fomc anci- 
ent Coyns are framed in this figure, as will appnr in fome thereof io Gefmr^ 
others in GokfiMs^znd JUvinus Hiv/y?f#iinhisdi(cripdonof Goyns^ from f$Jim 
Cdfdr unto RhodMlfhus the fecond. 

Notwithftanding, to fpeak ftri Aly in their natural figure they are ftreight, 
nor have their fpine convexed, or more confiderabiy embowed, then Shark^ 
Porpofcs, Whales, and other Cetaceous animals, as Scdligtr plainly affirmeth: 
Corpus h^het uon mdgis cmrvum qudm reliqui tifces. As ocular enquiry fih 
formeth^ and as unto fuch as have not had tne opportunity to behold them, 
their proper pourtraids willdiftover in RondeUtius^ Cefuer^and Aldravdudmf. 
And as indeed is dcduciblefrompiduresthemfelves^ for though they be drawn 
repandous, or convexedly crooked in one piece, yet the Dolphin that carrieth 
Arion is concavoufly inverted, and hath its fpine depreflcd in another. And an- 
fwerably hereto may we behold them differently bowed in medalls, and the Dol- 
phins of Tdrus and Fulius do make another flexure from that of CemmoJmi and 


And therefore what is delivered of tbek* i/icurvity , muft either be taken 

I Book j. 

i Einpliatically , that ui -_ 
Xhe\- leap itovc v.r. 


vifiori, v.'liccby )l 

w-rJ,^i'pcK uniu;Kr.- .■ ...,.■■ , Or 

.■■iircUly, i: r„uU riot iimu'iUJIy -nJ [■(.ffv- i ^vflM 

hJ tmuin in Lheu- pr'>p<r tlgure, but in i >, or 

r; wtiirl ibrit boilin ^;r,' ■.«y , .ir.J tbu is u>: ■ ■ncrm. 

Or liilllj, ic mufl; be uLrr !.■ ' ■ ■ ; cmpbam-al^ , bur i^iiy fcimbk- 

iiiatitally 5 fur being ihc H.' ity, undrvciUcc titcn other ani- 

malv, men bdl csprcffeJ [!;.. Luivuy. ami undet ibra* figure 

ofa t>uw : ami in lllis kaic jir..iimiuy cu h.- laiJi aUri rccciv«ii, tvhen ^n B 
Dulpbin cstenilcd, iliry tliibngui^i a Dolphin cinbownl. 

AniJtlius alii} mult [liat picture betaken of 3 DoliiSinddTpiogan Anchqr: 
that IS, niM. rtally, aslsby muUrooccivviluut oratfcaiinutiiomiin, mnvvigjl- 
ingtfac Anchor untothe&\>uoJ ; but emblematically, at-iording as Piirtftt lutti 
cXprclTed it . Tbe iwitdl auinal tunjmned wiJi chK heavy body, impiyuig 
li it mmmoa Taonl\,fcJlinji hf:e : •.n-lihv. LtkTity Ihould alwana WiwiUov 
percd ^iih cundation. 

Ch AF. III. 

of the Piiian ef a Crajhtpftr* 

T Here is alfo among usacommondcftriplionand piAurc of n Gnn»pper, 
asnuybeobfcrvolin tbcpiAuresof EniMaoattfls, in tbe coats of Icvenill 
families, aaduiUcwofdCicoiUa utually tranilacedin Didionanef' Wbcrein 
to Ipcak llnAIy, it' by this word Grafhappcr, wc Dnderfland ituu animal! wbkh 
u implied by7ti7i= with (he GrttkJ, and by CicajU with the /^tnw/^ wcmay 
with fafny atfirni the pidute it widdy miftakcn, and tint for oagiic eoquirycsn 
tnjbrm, there is no fuch infed in Bn^lAiti, Wliich how paradoxical! fijcvcr, 
upon a (b-id enquiry, wilt prove undcniabte truth. 

Vor lirll, Tliat animall whichihc Frtmh term SmatrtBt, vtc a Grafliopprr , 
and wtiich under this name ik comOMnty defcribed by us. is named \-.,it by the 
Gretkj, by tbe Litinti Ltcm^jt, andby our fejves in proper Ipe^eh a I.ociifti 
asintlwdict uf John^jpf*/?. andin onr Tranflacion, tnc lafjy^j have no King, 
yet go [bey J^mh all of them by bands. Agam, Uccwcen the CiM^ and ff tii 
wc call a GraHiopper, tbcdiffercncc^ are very many» as may be obfervcd in ihcm- 
fcWeSf or their Qi'icTi^v>ni'\n Aijitthitl"'' ■4t^''*ir*K^t ^nd. AiMffttmt. For 
hril. They are differently (ucullaccd or capuctied uinm chc head nnd back, and 
in the, OcmU the eyes arc mofe proiament :, the i/jcuila have .Anttimt or 
long horn^ before, with a long takation or forup^cd tail behind ^ aitd being 
,«4aincd for faltation, thcirhindci|cg(4orarcx<:ec4th«ocher. Jht Locuit or 
o^r GraJhoppcr hath tectli, the CUaJU none at all ; nor any nwuch aaording 
unto Ari^iilt : the Cictds is moli upon trees i and l.tHly, tbe tritionicus or 
iproper note thereof, is iar more flihll tticn that of itie loculli and its life 
llbnvonin.Summcr, that for provUion it peeda rut have xecourfe .unto ihepro- 
vidcnccof the Pifmirc in Winter. 

And tlicreforc where the C^rw^i* mull be undernofKl, the pidares of Heraldt 
and EniblcmatiJU are not cxad, nor is itUtecoaiilKreunto ilw iDteiprititioa 
of DiAlonaries -« and we oiufi with candour make out our own TranlldCieosi 
fiw in the i>lagoeofc^,m(, J?.voit<i lo. liiewurd kf.,,. m (ranflifed a Locoft. 
butin thelame fudcaualubie^. trtfdam i6. . Iti^tJiaoaatcdaGnJhoppur ; 
Eorihcmtbcbitingtof Goftioppersand flmiullpd: ^wiiercai we have dettarcd 




Enquiries int§ Vulgar 

BobK 5« 

before, the CiauU hath no teeth, but is conceived to live upon dew ; and cbe 
poffibility of its fiibfiftence is difputed by Licetus. Hereof I perceive AiMffetm 
oath taken notice, di/Tentins from Luniins and Ljccftents^ while they deliver, 
the CicMdms deftroyedthe fruits in Germany^ where that infed is not found [ 
and therefore concludeth^ T^m iffis qttam alios deceftosfnijfe antHmo , dumlL 
cuftds cicddds ejfi vulgdri errore creJierent. 

And hereby there may be fome mifrake in the due difpenfation of Medicines 
defumed from this animall -, particularly of Diatetcigon commended by t/Etius 
in the affedions of the kidnies. It muft be likewife underftood with fome re- 
{Iridion what hath been affirmed by Ifidore^ and yet deliverd by many, that 
Cicades are bred out of Cuccow fpittle or Woodfear ^ that is, tnat ibunious, 
frothy dew or exudation , or both, found upbn Plants , efpecially aoouc the 
joints of Lavinder and Rofemary , obfervabic with us about the latter end of 
May. For here the true Cicadd is not bred, butccrtainicis, that out of this 
fome kind of Locuft doth proceed ^ for herein may be difcovered a little in- 
fed of a feftucine or pale green, refembling in all pares a Locud, or what we 
call a Graihopper. 

Laftly, The word it felf is improper, and the term of Graflioppcr not ap- 
pliable unco the Cicada • for therein the organs of motion are not contrived 
for faltation , nor are the hinder legs of luch extendon , as is obfervable in 
falient animals, and fuch as move by leaping. Whereto the Locull is very 
well conformed •, for therein the legs behind are longer then all the body, aiid 
make at the fecond joynt acute angles , at a confiderable advancement above 
their backs. 

The miftake therefore with us might have its original] from a defoft in our 
language^ for having not the infed with us, we have not £dlen upon its 
proper name, and fo make ufe of a term common unto it and the Locufl. 
whereas other countries have proper expreilions for it. So the Italian calls it 
Cicada^ the Spaniard Cigarra , and the French Cigale ; all which appellati- 
ons conform unto the original^ and properly exprefs this animall. 

Chap. IV. 

of the PiSture tfthe Serpent tetftfting Eve. 

IN the Pidure of Paradife, and delufron of our firft Parents, the 
is often defcribed with humane vilage ^ not unlike unto C^imri// or his wife, 
in the ad of their Metamorphofis. Which is not a meer pidoriall contri- 
vance or invention of the Pianrer ; but an ancient tradition and conceived 
reality ,a5it ftands delivered by Seda and Authors of fome antiquity, that is, 
that Sathan appeared not unto Eve in the naked form of a Serpent, but with 
a Virgins heads, that thereby he might become more acceptable, and his 
temptation find the ea(ier entertainment. Which neverthelefs is a concdc' 
not to be admitted, and the plain and received figure, is with better r^ifon 

For fir(l, as Pierins obferveth from Barcephas , the afTumption of humane 
(hape had proved a difadvantage unto Sathan ^ affording not only a fufpicious 
amazement in Eve^ before the &d , in beholding a third humanity befide bar 
felf and jidam *, but leaving fome ezcufe unto the woman, which afterward 
the man took up wi(h lefler reafon • that is , to have been deceived by 
another like her felf. 

A^in, There was no inconvenience in the (hape aflumed , or any con- 
fiderable impediment that might difturb that performance in the common form 


bnirs. Add thcrrlurc EngutinKi 1 

imurruh au abturJiry, nor need ^ 

(nediaidy uwin tliai VitiOo. iw uoi*-..- ^..t,i,M> ^ 

in ihc CiBtdcn, ilunjVe^^in the Ark.: u tbcy |>£ati: . ; 

r<) tlicy iVicnilly patdtSeA clictr naturu : ind wcrctln-i 

unco citli olbcr, ij»cy were not t'ti uniu tain, wLoli; i.^^ :,uu were 

aDiii!ut«5 , sod needed oui fcJr piiilt'ii>:. And it ( jlh lucai inEictivr ) Uierv 
were liuf iwn c/c3inJ orevtry Kind, lui-y coujd wk at iliat tunc doftroj 
tititu (nan or tticmtirlws ^ for iliii h^d ruiHiaccd iIk comniiind nl' aiuliipli- 
cluitin, ddlniynt a fpecict , and impccteCtcd the (.fciuon. And ibcrdtirc 
alfmf Ct'M wi^rL-thciiHlmanborn , Willi Itimcnucd not only tlic a^ , buc 
[Lc ftrli [Kitvcr o: murdiix -, tor bcUytc thu umc ncitbcr could ttit Seipcnt 
nor v^i*> ikrllruy £vc .not Adjtm juid fitv cacti fKti£i:, tor tbfti tiuluvcr. 
tbruwa tt>c itHCndon of the world , and. puc iu Creator to ad tb« liXL diy 
over again. 

Moreover, WtKreai io regard oF fpfftii ..and vocai conference lyitli £-w, 
tcmay bcilKiu^iclictiv >uld rather nirumcanbuntine Oupcxndurgam, ibentbe 
impfApcrfonQof aScrpem; itijipliano maccrinll impediment. Nor need we 
CO wonder bwhtf contrived i voice outof ilic mouth of •! Serpent, who iixdi 
donechcliJicoutof ttn; belleyof apythunini, andtlic tfunk or anOak-,, s« be 
did for many ycirj at D^^ma, 

Lalliy, Whereat it might be conceived ttuian humane ftupc was titter for 
this cnierpnlct it being more then probable fiic would be amazed to iicar a 
iierpcnt fpcak-, fomc conceive Oie niigtit not yet be teruin that only nuinwBf 
pcivdcJged with fpccth t and being in tltcnovity of the Creation, znduicipc- 
riencc ot all things, tHig'iE not be arfiighicrfto hear a Snpcnt Ipeak, Belide 
(lie might be ignuiant of their nature*, who was not yerkd m ihcir names, 
as being not [>i'efcni at tlve general! furvey of Animalts, when A^m alligned 
uuio every one « name toncordaot onto its nature. t<Or it thu only my opi- 
nion, but . tliti determination of LsmlntrA and T^^jihs -, and alfj the reply of 
Cjnlt unto the ubjcrtiua of JhUah, who compared ilus itory umo tJic tables 
of chcC«flt/- 

wondrjeii nor 
II ihe Itrjjeno 

Ch A P. v.. 

of the Pi^HTitf Adim'aiiJBvtwiikNitwIs. 

ANother fniUake there iiwy be in the Pidore of o»ir firii Parcrt, who! after 
the mannet of itKir puiWityare botli tleltncated with' aNa veil. AiulihiB 
is qtifeTvablc iwc only m orslinary snd lUined piccct, but in the Autticntifik 
draughts of Z^rMi AnuU nnd otbert,., )//h>ch nocWithlUndmg 
allowed, except we impute that unto itte lirii taufe, which we impale not tw 
(hefecondj or wtui we deny unto luiuri:. wc impute untoNaiurtcy itieif « 
lhat]i, that m the tirlV and moll accoDipliJhed piocpi the. Creator, aficAed Cd- 
pe(.6tii{ict, or ordained pjns Without ufe or otHce. 

for the ulc of the NavcUii to contmueihelnraniun(»t(ieWotbeT,andby tvii«tiK Ni- 
tbe vdTcli thereof to convey its ahoientaod fu^cnudon.. 1 itf vclTflt wlicfqof vcib, m^ifor, 
k'cDQiitU(h,^3{c tlic,u(Dli4{ca|l vein, wtiij:l)L,M:f t>n^t> flf ^e Poitt^,. fu?d *>>» "'■:■ 
It^ ,,, J Ec . J igijJantcd^ 


tXiiEve kid 
not Navels. 

■ — • — " — — — T 


06 K 5 

implanted in the Liver of the Infant ^ two Aneries Kkewife arifing from the 1 
Iliacall bnnches, by which the Infant receivetb the purer portion of biood and } 
feirits from the mother- andlaftly, the Uracbos or ligamentillpaflage derived 
from the bottom of the bladder , whereby it difthargeth the waterifh and 
urinary part of its aliment. Now upon the Imth, when the Infant forfalterh 
the womb, although it dilacerate, and break the involving membranes , yet 
do thefe velTels hold^ and by the mediation ifaereof the Infant is conneftctl uo* 
to the womb, not only before, but a while alfo after the birth. Thefc tberc^ 
fore the midwife cutteth ofF^ contriving them into a knot dofe unto the body 
of the Infimt •, from whence enfueth that tortuofity or complicated nodofity we 
ufually call the Navell ^ occafioned by the colligation of vcfTels before mcnti* 
oned. Now the Navell being a pak , not precedent , but fubfequent unto 
generation, nativity or parturition, it cannot be well ima^ned at the creahoo 
or extraordinary formation of Adam^ who immediately iflued from thcArtifice 
of God ^ nor alfo that of Eve ^ who was not folemnly begotten, but fuddtdy 
framed, and anomaloufly proceeded from Adam. 

And if we be led into condulions that Addm had alfo this part . becaufe we 
behold the fame in our felves, the inference is not rcalbnable) tor if wecoih 
ceive the way of his formation, or of the firft animals, did oury in all points 
aftrift conformity unto fucceeding produdions, we might fkll into ima0nati- 
ons that Adam was made without Teeth^or that he ran chroi^ tbofe noo&e al- 
cerations in the veffels of the heart , which the Infant 'fumretb after birth : 
we need not difpute whether the egg or bird were firfl ^ and might cooccive 
that Dogs were created blind, becaufe we obferve they are literedlo with us. 
Which to affirm, is to confound, at ksSk to regulate creation unto generacion, 
the firft Afts of God, unto the fecond of Nature ; which were determined 
in that generall indulgence , Encreafe and Multiply , produce or props^te 
I each other-, diatis, not anfwerably in all points, but in a prolonged metbodac- 
I cording to feminall progrelfion. For the formation of tnit^ at firft was difie^ 
' rent from their generation after -, and although it had nothing to precede it, 
was aptly contrived for that whidi ihould fucceed it. And t&refbre though 
Addm were framed without this part, as having no other womb then that of 
his proper principles, yet was nothispofterity without the fame: fbrthe(emi* 
naljty of his &brick contained the power thiereof -, and was endued with the 
fcieneeof thofe parts whofe predeftinadons upon fucceffion it did accomplifh. 

All the Navdl therdfore and conjunftive part we can fuppofe in Jdsm, 
was his denendency on his Maker, and the connexion he muft needs have amo 
heaven, wno was the Son of &>d. For holding no dependence on any pre^ 
ceding efficient but God 1 in the aft of his produdion there may be concdvcd 
ibme connexion, and Adam to have been in a momenuU Navell with his Maker. 
And although from his carnality and corporall exiftence , the conjanaion 
feemethno nearer then of cauiality andeflea-, yet in his immortalland diviner 
part he feemed to hold a nearer coherence , and an umbilicality even with 
God himfdf. And fo indeed although the propriety of this part oe found but 
in fome animals, and many fpecies there are which have no Navell at all -, yet 
is there one link and common connexion, one generall ligament, and necefla- 
ry obligation of all what ever unto God. Whereby although they act' 
them&lvet at diffamce, and feem to be at loofe -, yet do they hold a continui- 
ty with their Maker. Which catenation or confirving union when ever hisjplea- 
furefliaU divide, let go, or ftf^acuc ^ they fhall fall from their exiftence, eiSace. 
and operations : in £ief, they mi^ retire unto their primative nothing , wm 
(brink into their Chaos again. 

They who bold the egg was before the Bird^ prevent this doubt in inaii^ 
other animthi which aUb extendccb unto them: For birdi are nouriflictf by^ 


umbilical vflTcU, and the Ncrell it nuinifdl ibmetintrf a diy or twu iticr ex' 
cluiimi. TliC Isme w probabk in all oviparout cstluliom, if the IclTer part 
or' eggtmufHcrvctbr Lltcfurination, chcgrejfef pan (or nutrimcni. TIiu UiM 
iimadt: out m tlic egg* of SnaKcs ; aiid is not irojirobibtc in ihc generation ot' 
Porwigglc* Oi- TdJpok-i , and may be .ilfo true in (rwnc vermipuuus clclu- 
fioiu: attliojgh (2s we have obfcrvcd the iLuiy pmgrels thereof} chc whole 
Maggoc islitilc enough to make a Hy.witbouc any put tcauiiUDg- 

Ch *p. VI. 

of the PiilHtet af Edfiern KstiMf, mmH the jews 4t thrir feafij^ 
tfftfitii) tur Savioor Mt tie Pdfavef, 

Concerning, tivc Picture* of ihspwi, and Eallcrn Nations at tticirrcalh, 
conccrnmy the gdlurcof ourSaviouratihc Patova , who ijufually de- 
ftribcJ IJttiiig upon a itool or hcrnii u a Tquaie cabl<;,in die middcli ofthe twelve, 
many make g^ eat doubly and ( though they concede a tabte-gellure) will hardly 
allow this ulitallway ofJicUion. 

Wherein rcftraining do tnarsem]uiry,it will appear tlut accubation, or lying 
down at meals was a gcfturc ufed by very many Nations. That tlic Ptrjiamj 
uJed it, belidc the relbiiK)n>' of humane Writers, is dcducible from that paflagc 
in £fiher. That when the King returned into the place of ihc banquet of wine, 
H40UM was fallen upon the bed whcrron Hfihtr was. Tint the Parthmnj ufcA u, 
isevidsnt from /fjAr*^/. whodclivcrcth out of P-ffiAimut, that dieir King lay 
dowiiacmeali, on an higher bed then others. That Cl(»pMrit thus cmeriaincd 
AiuiKnj, the fame Anchor mamlcltcth when he laiih , ihe prepared twelve Tri- 
dinjunu. Tliai it was in ufc among the Gntkj, the word 1 riclinium jmplieth, 
ud the (amc is alfo declarable from many places ui (he Sympuliacits of PlMJtrch. 
That is was not out of (afhion in the daies of JnfiotU, lie daUrcth in his poli- 
tick« ; whenamong tlie Inllitutionary rules of youth, he advifeth they rhight 
not be permitted to hear lambiciss and Tragedies before they were admitted 
unto diU'umbency or lying along with oth^s at iheir meals. That chc Romnts 
ufed this gcllure n t rcpaft, befidc many more, is evident from Lipfn4i,AiercMr'ntlu, 
Salm-tftui and CUcomui, who have cxprcOy and diftinftly ircaicd hereof. 

Now of theirarcumbiogplaccs, chc onCwatcalledSiibadionand Sigma, carry- 
ing die Hgurc of an half Moon, and of an uncetuin capacity, whereafter it receiv- 
ed the nunc of Hcsadinon, Ododinon, according unto ttiat of Martin/, 
Acdfc LtiHM* fcriftumttfiMMtit Sl^mn : 
Oila Citpti, vrnUr i]uifi}mismic:ts trtt. 
Hercat in fevcraUgn the left and right honr were the prini:ipall places, and the 
moll honorable pexfon, if he wcrcnotmaflcrof thcfeafl, pofrefTcd oneof tbofe 
room*. Iheotherwasicrmcd rrjdicnum.ihat is, Threebcd> encompatringaia- 
blc, aimaybefeeninchc figurcfclicreof, and particularly in the /?i.<»in«/ij»Tn- 
chnium, fet down by /J/crEWnW//. The cuftomaryufe hereof waj probably de- 
duced 5-om the freiiuenc uJc of bathing, after which they cbmcnonly retired co 
bi,-J,and rcfcded thcmfdvct with repalT^ and fo that cuflomeby dtfgrees changed 
dicirc-jhinilary bed; into difcubiiory, and introduced afafhioa to g > fromchtf 
bailiei unto there. 

Ai for tlicir gellureOr oofition, the men lay down leaning ori thca left eIt<JW, 
their back being advanced by iomc pillow or foft fubJlanec ; the lecond lay fo 
ritb hii badi towvds ibelirn, that nit head attainal about ^isboftme^ aodtiK 
Eei reft 

MtTC. at /trSt 

Th( tndait 
ttltaie at pa* 

ao4 I 

Enquiries into Vulgn) 

Book 5< 

Who the Urn- 
brx were ac 

lid. Scalig.f(h 
mUiarium eg- 
FJioblema i. 


reft in the fame order. For women, they fac fometimes dilHndly with their fex, 
fometime promifcuouny with men, according to affcdion or favour, as is deli- 
vered by Juvenally 

Gremiojdc'kit nova nupta mariti. 

And by Suetonins ofCMlignU^ that at his feafts tie placed his (ifters, with whoin 
he had been incontinent, fuceflively in order below hitri. i 

Again, As their beds were three, fo the guefls did not ufuaily exceed that 
number in every one^ according to the ancient Laws, and proverbiall obfervations 
to begin with the Graces, andmake^uptlieir fealls the Mufes. And there- 1 
fore it was remarkable in theEmperour Lucins lerus^ that he lay down withj 
twelve: which was, faith fulius Capitolinns^ prater exampla nfojorum, notac-j 
cording to the cuftome of his Predeceffors, except it were ac publick and nup- [ 
tiall fuppers. The regular number was alfo exceeded in this laft fupper, whereat j 
there were no left then thirteen, and in no place fewer then ten, for, as fw 
fephus delivereth, it was not lawfiill to celebrate the Pafsover with fewer then 
that number. j 

Laftly, for the difpofing and ordering of the perfons: The firft and middle 
beds were for the gucfts, the third and lowed for the Mafter of cliehoufe and; 
his family ^ he alwaies lying in the firft place of the laft bed, that is, next the 1 
middle bed •, but if the wife or children were abfent, their rooms were fuppUed ! 

by the Umbrar, or hangers on, according to that of frnvend/ Locmsefi\ 

& flurihus Vmbris. lortheguefts, the honouraWelt place in every bed was | 
the firft, excepting the middle or fccondbed*, wherein the noft honourable! 
Gueft of the feaft was placed in the laft plac^ , becaufe by that pofition he 
might be next the Mafter of the feaft. For the Mafter lying in the firft of the 
laft bed , and the principall Gueft in the laft place of the fecond , they muft 
needs be next each other ^ as this figure doth plainly declare , and whereby we 
may apprehend the feaft of Perfenna made unto Sertorins^ defaibed by Saluflius^ 
whofc words we (hall thus read with Salmafins : Igitnr Mfcubtiere , Sertorius 
inferior in medio leSo , fnpra Fabins •, Antonins in fnmmo-^ Infra Sa iba Ser- 
torii Verfins •, alter fcriba Mdcenas in Ifno , meSus inter Tarquitinm (^ Be- 
minnm Perpennam- 

rnmi/fupu ^-^dn^ 

^ouoff snmujfi fntp^]^ mmmn^ snooj 















5 « 


thii foft there were but fevciii c'-^ .J. 

:d bong vanm-, and bertit w.i- ' aH 

(liiti. Ai'J r-i ih.iv (vp ir.^J.i '.: ■- Lit 

:&, thativ- ■ ill* ( 

fl«nwrk,wliii iin-j 

\to lutn. Ail'.- ■'! >'li- 1 

jftarecXprdii^'iMi: .T.-.-i.i^, Tiw: ti.c Noi-:[iiV4iiii wmhhI.^ iiuuJli', il*^ y.uaiv [ 
Eaft on dtc tughcr iiJc, am! \\k Nortli-Wcft uR the Itmei'. I ii; <• nppmr- 
eib in th! cirtlcor tdf winds, the Nonti ExfiwiU iii}^vcnlicl»iiul'.<i/'«nM' i 
w/^ndtbe'Nordi-WcfttbKfif fo'/iMM. i 1 

That rbc- cuilom of fciitting upon &cif ivu I'a life among ilw 'Htirtin, ' 
many dedDcc t'rom B^%t Thow fttteft upor. i (Lirrly , sn.! n tiWe Kt:t »(, 
prepared' befnrc it. Tlic cuftftmol' Dif- 1 . ,r.7fl:| 

and iliercforc rhcy hud a petuliitr charge ;' . in ^ 

whichlnfunftion were nccdlefs, '^ i\v\ utvj^uctn pur ihiuMii) iiit^vcvcrir i 
wcreintimc«if liigli anmiiiity, proKiblc itiiibatiti ittji- age. ilicy conformed 
DMOthclHtWonsuf tlic vifjfjTMw aiMl HallcTn Natiom, aiidUllli-oltbc J7aiH.<Mj, | 
beiaaTedDCt'dby Awf/TUnwa ProviiiciulAii/'cilioo, j 

Th»[ rfnsdiHunilnnK7at mealiwaiinufcin the djics of our Saviour, is con- 1 
ccived probible from fcvcrall fpcccltcs (tf his exprcrtpJ in that plimie, even unto i 
common Aadirors, MLnkt 14, CHminviuini fuerts s^ nn^tM , iHBdijtMmb*s 1 
infrimotocBj and bdidcs many more, Mifithrw l\. Wlien reprc'wndiog UtC ' 
Scril/rtini Fhit'ifri, befaii'i, Amant fratxUpM , td t^.ptimfs rccuhiHi Ucmu, ' 
e^ freticatbtir'tMy five, frlMJU cMhtdrM, MSjniif*£it: wherein tlictcrm* arc , 
verydilHnft, and by an Anuchclltdo plainly dillinguifti thcpolloreof litting, , 
from this of lying an bcJs. The confcnt ohhijcit/ wiili tltc Kimuiui in oilirr u:ic- 1' 
iBomcs and ritw of f-'afting , mikct probable tlicir conTocmify in iliis. 'llic Bitmajis 
waftieJ. wcrcanoinced,aiiJ wore a cenauir)' garmcnii and Uiat die fiinic was 
praaifeddycheyrtrr, isdcduccable from due cspo:lul;UKm of our Sjiviour wul) i^^j,^ 
Simm, that he waflied not his fci-r, nor anointed bis Itcfld witli oyj ; the com- 
mon civilitiM at felKvaJ! cntenainmcms : andtharexprefltono/hijconcermng M^nb. »i. 
theccnatoryorwcddinj* garment -, and as fotoc lontifiveoi' chc linncn:gjnncitt 
of the young man or St. John -, wliith might be the liimc lit wore ihc ntglit :bcii>rc 1 

That [hey ufel thit gtf^iire at the Pafjover , U more ehen probable from 
the teflimony of Jnfifh Writers, and particularly wf Btit-mmmtn recorded ;by , 
ScMli^tr Dt rmtttiltmMt ttmfvmm. After the liojflj cup according to tlici 
Inftitution. Tli« fonaActh, what mcanctli this ftrvice? Then be that nuhctfi' eW.>i. 
the declaration, faith. How differcr.t is (tut lught from allotbcr nigW f fttr all \ 
other nigbts wc wafh but once, but thj* nisw iwnci alUitbcr we eat Iw- 
Tcncd or unleivencd bread , but tint only Iwivencd ; all other wc cat fieih 
rotfted, boylcd or baticd, but this only joa fled , all utfier nights we eat to- 
gctbcr lymgor fitting, but this only lying along- And this pt.lW* ibeyufed 
«aioWn«frdlandIccuritywhich[b^eajojied, far »li6crcBE from the 
eanw uf tbc Pal*ovcr in -.iy;?/. 

TfiatthiirciWre wa* ufed tfbcnotir Saviour eat the Pefleover, isnotcvn- 
wived impcobahic from l^c yirords whereby ilie Ea angcliiU csprd'i chc laine , 
diat t«, ->«— :r.'f, r,-:«,:Tw, 'an»*HJKi. e'« irtv-T, wbich term* do properly 
lignitie , thil geflure in Aripmlc . Asht>'*ui, Eiiri9U:r, SepJnc/t/, and altbu- 
manc Autbori; and the like wc inctt witiiinihefarapiicafticallcipccllionof 

LatUy, If it be no; tulty conceded . tluitbis gcfiure<w» nfcd at' (be 1 Pals- 
over, ya t!iuic wKobrervedat die lall Ijfppcr, fcoos aUaoA intontrovcrvble -. 

_^^__^_ -for' 



Enquiriei into Vulgar 

Book 5 



De veterum . 

Not in Evm» 
Lkke 7. 

What Dcnari- 
•j,or (he pen 
Gofpcl is. 

for at this feaft or ccnatory convention , learned men make more tlien one 
fupper , or at leaft many ^t$ thereof. The firft was that Legall one of the 
PaUover , 6r eating of the Pafchall Lamb with bitter herbs , and ceremontes I 
defcribed by Mofes. Of this it is faid, then when the even was come he fat 
down with the twelve. This is fuppofed when it is faid, that^he Supper being 
ended, our Saviour arofe, took a towell and wa(hed the difciples feet. The 
fecond was common and Domefticall , confiding of ordinary and undefined 
provifions •, . of this it may be faid , that our Saviour took his garment , and 
Cit down again^ after he had wafhed the Difciples feet, and performed the prepa- 
rative civilities of fuppers-, at this 'tis conceived the fop was given unto^jv- 
das^ the Originall word implying fome broath or decodion, not ufcd at the 
Pafsover. The third or later part was Eucharifticall , which began at the 
breaking and blefling of the bread, according to that of Matthew^ and as tbey 
were eating, Jefustook bread and blefled it. 

Now although at the Pafsover or firft fupper, many have doubted this Re- 
clining pofture, and fome have affirmed that our Saviour ftood^ yet that he 
lay down at the other, the fame men have acknowledged, ^sChryfofiom^The- 
ofhyla^ly Anftin^ and many more. And if the tradition will hold, the poiition 
is unqueftionable ^ for the very Triclinium is to be feen at /f(?wf, brought thither 
by VefpaJiMff^ and graphically fet forth by Cafalius. 

Thus may it properly be made out-, what is delivered, fohn 13. Erat re 
enmhens nnns sx Difcifulis ejus in Jinu fefu quern diUgebat •, Now there was 
leaning on Jefus bofom one of his Difciples whom Jefiis loved •, which gefture 
will not fo well agree unco the poiition of fitting, but is naturall, and cannot 
be avoided in the Laws of accubation. And the very fame ex pre/lion is to be found 
in Plinj^ concerning theEmperour Nerv^znA. Veiento whom he favoured-, Can a- 
nabat NervA cum faucis, Veiento recumbebat proprias atque etUm in (inu.flnd from 
this cuftom arofe the word dhgyi^.©-, that is, a near and bofom friend. And there- 
fore Caufabon juftly rejeftcth Theophylafl ^ who not confidering the ancient man- 
ner of decumbenqs imputed this gefture of the beloved Difciple unto Rufiicity , or 
or an aft of incivility. And thus alfo have fome conceived, it may be more plainly 
made out what is delivered of Mmkj Afd^da/en. That (he flood at Chriits feet 
behind him weeping,and began to wafh his reet with tears,and did wipe them with 
the hairs of her head. Which aftions, if our Saviour face, (he could not per- 
form Handing, and had rather ftood behind his back , then at his feet. And 
therefore it is not allowable, what is obfervable in many pieces, and. even of 
Raphael Vrbin • wherein Mary Magdalen is piftured before our Saviour, walk- 
ing his feet on her knees -, which will not confift with the ftrift delcription and let- 
ter of the Text. 

Now whereas this pofition may feem to be difcountenanced by our Tranflation, 
which ufually renders it fitting, it cannot have that illation ^ for the Fre9ich 
and Italian Tranflations exprefling neither pofition of feflion or recubation, 
do only fay that he placed himfelf at the table -, and when ours expreffeth the 
fame by fitting, it is in relation unto our cuftom, time, and apprehenllon. The 
like upon occafion is not unufuall : fo when it is faid, LhI^ 4. ^"'i'^s(^ n QtC- I 
}A'.f, and the Vulgar renders it, Cnm plicajftt librum, ours tranflateth it, be 1 
(hut or clofed the book* which is an expreffion proper unto the paginall books 
of our times, but not fo agreeable unto volumes or rolling books in ufe among 
the I^Sj not only in elder times, but even unto this day. So when it is faid, 
; the Samaritan delivered unto the hoft two pence for the provifion of the Levite ^ 
; and wheo our Saviour agreed with the Labourers for a penny a day •, in ftrift 
I tranflation it (hould be feven pence half penny •, and is not to be conceived our 
common penny, the fixtieth part of an ounce.For the word in the Original is j^r«- 
&(0r » in Latine, Denarius, and with the Romans did value the eight part of an 





Book 5. 

gnd Cmtmait E r k o s s 

Ofour cnoocj'. 

Lafilj', Wlicreaf it mlglit beconccivfd ihoc they rat the Pi&over (Unding 
nthcr tticoli[ciDg, or lyutg ^own, accoriiing to the InititDCion, Riti4. iz. 
Thui ftwll you ear , wUh ■your loins girded , your (hrioc* on war feet, and 
your llAff in your haod ^ ttic Jtvt tbcnifdvcs reply, tlil» ivts ni>[ required uf 
fucceeding gf nerationi, and ivas mK ubferved, hoc in rbc hiijatver of ^nft. 
Andfb alio many other ioiuoAittm n'crc afterward omitted, aitliciafcingupof 
tlic Pafthall Lamb/rom ilic tenth day ,tite eaimg of it in clieir btmlodifpcrfcd ithc 
flrikingof iJ(c blood on the duor poiU, and (heentingtbcrtnt* m halt. Soieai- 
nitiejsnd Ccremonicj primauvcly enjoyncd, aficnvard omitied^ ai wai aUo 
chif of Union, tbrtbe iKcatlonnaling.and beiDgm feiiirity, ittey apptied tbem- 
felva unto gclturcf in ul'e among iheni. 

Now in what order of recumbency Chrifl and the Diftiples were dirpofed, is 
not fo eafily determined. C</i/w from the L/iteraii Tmlinium wiJl tell ui.ihar 
there being thirteen, tire by down in the Er\\ bed, ^ve in the Uf}, ind cbrec 
in the middle bcd^ and that our Sariour poffeiTed the upper place iherwf. 
That fvkii lay in the fame bed fcemi plain, bcnufc he Ictncd i>a oar Saviours 
bolbtn. That rrffrmade iheihird inthatbcd, conjeAureifmadCi beciufilir 
becJcenfd unto Jilm . »s being next him ^ to asJt of Cbnft , trho it wu tbU 
flwuld betray him. TbaifBtLu wu not far offfecms probable, ooionly becadfi! 
be dipped in the fame dim, but becaufe bewaifoocar, that our Sariourrould 
htnd the fop unto him. 

Ch a». VII. 

0/ iht Picture ef nrS*vi»Kr ttHbUnghdf. 

A Mother Vidure there is of oar Saviour deftribed with long hair, accord- 
ing to the cuftom of the Jrwi. and hi« defcripiion fern by UntKUt unto llie 
Semic. Wbereiii indeed the Kandof the Painter is not accufable, but the judse- 
nmilof tbeconiinoaSpeAator '. conceiving be obferved this Afluoo of bit hair, 
beotufe be waia JV4&.(r>», and confoandtng ai^nt^cmrby vow, with thofcby 
birth or cducadoa 

The NsKMritt by vow is declared, Numb. 6> And was to refrain three things, 
driolung of Wine, tutdng thebair, and a[^roaching unto thedead; andfuch 
a ooc wu S*mfott. Now itiat our Saviour was a NutAriu after this kind, wc have 
no rrafon to determine ^ for he drank Wine, and wai therefore calleid by the 
Hdrifm, a Wine-bibbcr - he approached alfo tbedead,As wbenbe raifedtrom 
dench LtuAriit, ind the daughter of ?«>«/. 

The other N^ejiritt was a Topicall appcIlation,and appliafele unto fuch as were 
born in Nutjirttk, a City of f;*/«7«,andin the Tribe of JV^f/W*. Neither if 
Hridly taken was our Saviour in this fcnfe a N^tAriif ; for be wai b(M'n in 
•Btihltfiim in the Tribe of fitd^h; but might receive that name, becaufe be 
abode m that Qcy^ andwasnot only conceived therein, but there atfo pa0ed 
the lileiu part of hiilife, after his rtnirnfrotn <vf»r)»(- asisdelivcredby jWkr- 
ibrw, Andbcameand dwelt inaCity called MtatJtrrth, that it might bt ful- 
filled which was rpotenbythcProphft, Hefliallbe called a l<!»xjTnK. Boch 
which kind* of JintArlui^ as they arc difKnguifhable by Zdn, afld Tfadt in 
the Hebrew, foin the Greek, by yllfhaini Ortt^^j for a* Janftn'mi obferw 
cth, whert the votary Nn^Ar'ne if ment'Mitttd, tt is wiitteo, n^^*^'^' ^ 
£nft.6r aod £^1*0^.4. Where it is fpokea of our SaVioor, We read ic,' 


of ihc I- 



Enquiries into Vulgdr 

Book $• 

Men of cmh 
ncnt fame 


N<«?«®", as in Matthew , Z^ik.^ and ^(>A» •, only Markjwho writ his Gofpel a 
R§me^ did Latinize, and wrote it UA^ct^m ac. 

Chap. VIII. 
of the Pi£fMre of Abraham jdcrificing Ifaac. 

IN the Pifture of the Immolation of Ifaac, or Abraham facrificing bis fon 
IfAac isdefcribed asaUttle boy ^ which notwithftanding is not confentaneoa 
unto the authority of Expofitors, or the circumftance of the Trtt. Fo 
therein it is delivered that Ifaac carried on his back the wood for the facrificc 
which being an holocauft or burnt offering to be confumed unto afhes, we can- 
not well conceive a butthen for a boy •, but fuch a one unto Ifaac ^ as that whict 
it typified was unto Chrift, that is, the wood or crofs whereon he fuffered ; whicl 
was too heavy a load for his (houlders, and was fain to be relieved therein b] 
Simon of Cjrene. 

Again, He was fo far from a boy, that he was a man grown, andathisful 
ftature, if we believe Jofephus^ who placeth him in the laS of ^^^/f/rewj, anc 
makes him twenty five years old. And whereas in the Vulgar Translation he h 
termed fi^r, it mud not be ftriAly apprehended (for that age properly endett 
in puberty, and extendeth but unto fourteen ) but refpedively unto Abraham 
who was at that time above (ixfcore. And therefore alfo herein he was not unliki 
unto him, who was after led dumb unto the flaughter, and commanded by others 
who had legions at command •, that is, in meeknefs and humble fubmiflion. Foi 
had he refifted, it had not been in the power ef his aged parent to have enforced 
and many at his years have performed luch ads, as few belides at any. David wa 
too ftrong for a Lion and a Bear •, Pomfej had defer ved the name of Great 
Alexander of the fame cognomination was Gencralijfimoof Greece ; and Aniha 
but one year after , fucceeded AfdrnbaU in that memorable Waragainll th 


Chap. I X^ 

of the PiSfure of Mofcs with horns. 

IN many pieces, and fome of ancient Bibles, Mofes\s defcribed with horns 
The fame defcription we find in a (ilver Medal 1^ that is, upon one f;de Mofe, 
horned, and on the reverfe the conunandment againft fculptile Images. Wbict 
is conceived to be a coynage of fome Jews, in derifion of Cluriftians, who firf 
began that Pourtraft. 

The ground of this abfurdity, was furely a mifhike of the Hebrew Text, ii 
the hiftory of Atofes when he dcfcendcd firom the Mount ^ upon the affinity o 
Karen and Karan^ that js, an horn, and to fhine , which is one quality o 
horti : the Vulgar Tranflation conforming unto the former. Ignorkbat f m 
cornutaejfet fades ejus. S^ividebantfaciemMofesejfecornntam. But the CiEr^iifc 
paraphrafe, tran(]atedby Panics Fagius, hath otherwife exprefTedit. Mrft 
nefciebdt qsted mult us effet fplendor gloria vhUhs ejus. Et vidernntfilii IJroi 
quod multa ejfet claritas gloria faciei Mofes. The expreffion of the Sepcua 
gintisaslarge^ ^/i^a^ i :>P( 9i ^myArQ- ii ^is^v^, Glorificatw eft afftSn 
cntis^ fen color is faciei. 

-^ An 

Boo& 5. 


Aad ibtf palTagc of tbe Old Tettatanu, it well ex[>l3ined by luiotlicr of ttie 
New i whcran ii i> ddivfed, that they tould not ftcdCilWy bcboU the fka of 
Ahftj , /•-. ri < J'.Bv ^ w^*' i tbit 15 , for the glory of hit countcnnncc 
And furdy tli£ expoHimn of one Text it bell perlonned by anoilicr^ men 
ntoty iiutcpufiog [lieir conllruCtiom, where [Ik ficnpmrc detidcili the con- 
trovcifie. Ani cbercfore fonie have fccni^d cuo aAirc in cbeir exporuioru, 
who in che itory of JtAkdb the liarlo:, bave given nouce tbac die word nifo 
fiaifinb an Holicfti f>r in tbe Epilllc to the Hchfwj, Ihe is plainly termed 
mf,., which figTiiliesnot an Hoftcfi. lut a pecuniary and proltituung HjiIoi ; 
fttcnn appbedunio Lau by tbe Grnkj, and diltinguillicdtronijiu.i, or«R<- 
M, OS may appwr in ilie thirteenth of AthtintHi. 

And therefore more allowable i*tbc Tranflation of TrmwiCiw, Qued jf ten- 
ia fa3* rffrt' cKtH fACui tfM j or as F.fiiut bath inicrprcEcd it, fdcict rjm 
erdtrdJicfM, his fjcewai radizm, aad difperting beams &ke many horns and 
cone* aboiic his Ivead i which Is alfo c«ni;>nanf unto the original (ignihVatinn, ; 
and yet oblirrvcd in the pieces of our Savioar , and the Virgin Af^-j , who , 
arecommonly drawn with fcintilla(ion?,or radient Halo's about dior hcadj which I 
after tbe Frmch cxprellion are afually termed, the Glory 

Now if beiidcs this otcafional mitlake, any man (halt contend a propriety 
iotbisptAiirc, andtl)"C no injury is done unto Truth by iliis defcription , he- 
caufe an born is the Hieroglypbicli of authority, power and digniry, and in 
(his Metaphor « often ufcd in icriptore j the piece I confeli in ttiit acccpcion 
is harmlcfs and agreeable unto A^^^fii : and under futh emblematical con- 
Ilruftions, wc find that AUxn/nifr the Great, and jiih/A King of Huruiei^ 
in ancient Medal* arc difaibcd with horns. But if from tJic common 
miflaJic , or any foUry confidcrabon we perfift in this defcription •, we vihtic 
the myucrie of the irradiation, and authorize a dangerous piece conforma- 
ble unto that o^ fafittr H*mm*n ^ which was tbe Sun, and therefore defcrib- 
edwich h'lrnt; a»is delivered by AfAcrthim ^ Hummenem tjHrm Dmm film 
tciidmtem Lybitt rxijiim^ni, arittinu cernihm fin^fmi , efuibiti id dmMAlvMUt, 
ficHt radiu fol. Wc herein a!fo imitate the Pidiirc of Pm , and p4gMM «ao- 
Dlem of Nature. And if ( ai AfMtr^im and very good Authors concede ) 
BAcdtus, (who is alto dcicnbed with horns) be the fame Deity with the Sua ^ 
and if (as Fo^w well contendeth) ^/w/e/ and 'B-m-ci&«/ were the fame perfon j 
their defcnptionsmuilbcrclativ^, or the Tauricornous piAurc of the one, per- 
haps rfie fame with the other. 


m». t» t'i/a 

Maftt md 

ihe fime per- I 
fon, Dt milnl I 

Chap. X. 
of the Sfutcheons of ilie Tribes of tfrAct. 

Vt 7E Will not paft over theScurcheoniof the Tribe* of IfrAtl. ai they 
V are ufually drfcnbed m the Maps of Crfw^o and feveral other piecej^ 
generally conceived to be the proper coats, and diftindivebadgcfof their fcvcral 
Tribes. So Rti4i>cn is conceived to bearthrccBars wave, 7«i«A a Lyon Ram- 
pant, Dmi a Serpent nowcd , Simeon a fword inpalc the point creaed, d-c. 
The ground whereof is the lall Bcnedii!ion of Jacl', wherein he refpcaively 
dnwetb companfons from things Iwre reprcfentcd. 

Now herein alt hou^ we allow a confidcrablemcafnre of truth, yet whether 
atibeyareufually delaibed, ihcfe were the prosier cognizance!, and coat-artns 
of [be TriKi^ whetlier in thbminnerapplycd, and upon the grounds prefumed 
material doubts remain. 

For firft. They arcnotftridly nude out, Irom tbe Propficiical hklfiiffiof 

ff 1 h^ 

1 4lO 

JEnqmies into Fulgar 


K y 

Deit^ U 


Tfae like alfo 
?• FMgiiu up- 
on the Thar- 
(umor CM" 
die Paraphrafe 


Deut. ^. 

*Vt '• 

Tbe common 
PiUures of che 
4 Evangclifts 

Jacob •, for Simeon and Levi have diftind coats , that is, a Sword , atid the 
two Tables , yet are they by ^4^0^ included in one Prophefie, Simeon and Levi 
are brethren, Inftrumencs of cruelties are in their habitations. So fofeph bear- 
ethanOx, whereof notwithftanding there is no mention in this Prophefie^ for 
therein it is faid fofeph is a fruitfull bough, even a fruitfull bough by a well -, by I 
which repetition are intimated the two Tribes defcending from him, Ephrutm \ 
and Manajfes'^ whereof notwithftanding Ephraim only beareth an Ox : True it is^ 
that many years after in the benediftion of Mojes^ it is faid, of fofeph , His 
glory is like the firftlings of his Bullock; and fo we may concede, what 
VoffiHs learnedly dedareth , that the ^y£fjptidns reprefented fofiph , in the 
Symbole of an Ox ^ for thereby was bed implied the dream of Pharoah^ which he 
interpreted, the benefit by Agriculture, and provident provifion of corn which 
he performed •, and therefore did SerdfU bear a bufliel upon his head. 

Again, If we take thefe two benedidions together , the refemblances arc 
not appropriate, and Mofes therein conforms not unto Jacob ^ for that which 
in the Prophefie of facob is appropriated unto one, is in thebleffingof Atofes 
made common unto others. So whereas fniah is compared unto a Lion by 
Jacobs fudah is a Lions whelp, tlie fame is applied unto Dan by Afofes^ Dam is 
a Lions whelp,he (hall leap from Sajhan^said alfo unto Gad^t dweileth as a Lion. 
Thirdly, If a Lion were the proper coat of fuiah^ yet were it not probably 
a Lion Rampant, as it is commonly defcribed, but rather couchant or dormant, 
as fome Heralds and Rabbins do determine ^ according to the letter of the Text, 
Recumbens dormiftf-ftt Leo, He couched as a Lion^ and as a young Lion, who (hall 
roufe him ? 

Laftly, when it is faid. Every man of the Children of Jfrael (hall pitch by' 
his own ftandard with the Enfignof their fathers houfe ; upon enquiry what 
thefe ftandards and Enfigns were there is no fmall incertainty ^ and men con- 
form not unto the Prophefie of facob. Chriftian Expofitors arc fain herein to 
I rely upon the T^^^^i;?/, who notwithftanding are various in their traditions, and 
confirm not thefe common defcriptions. For as for inferiour enfigns, either of 
particular bands or houfes , they determine nothing at all ^ and of the four 
principal or Legionary ftandards, that is, of Judah , Reuben , Epkr^im , and 
Dan ( under every one whereof marched three Tribes ) they explain them 
very varioufly. /(?;w/i!;4;f who compiled the Thargum conceives the colours of 
thefe banners to anfwer the precious ftones in.the breaft-plate, and upon which 
the names of the Tribes were engraven. So the ftandard for the Camp of 
judahy was of three colours, according unto the ftones, Chalcedony, Saphir^and 
Sardonix. and therein were exprcfTed the names of the three Tribes, ffid^h^ 
Ijfachar, and Zabulon^ and in the middeft thereof was written. Rife up Lord, 
and let thy enemies be fcattered, and let them that hate thee flee before thee *, 
in it was alfo the pourtrait of a Lion. The ftandard of Reuben was alfo of 
three colours. Sardine, Topaz, and Amethyft ^ therein were exprelTed che names 
of Rubcny Simeon^ and Gad^ in the middeft was written, Hear, O Ifrael^ The 
Lord our God, the Lord is one : Therein was alfo the pourtraiture of a Hart. 
But Abene^a and others, befide the colours of the ficld,do fet down other charges, 
in Reubens the form of a man or mandrake, in that of fudah a Lion, in Ephraims 
an Ox, in Dans the figure of an iEgle. 

And thus indeed the four figures in the banners of the principal fquadrons of 
Ifrael are anfwerable unto the Cherubins in the vifion of Ez^kiel ^ every one 
carrying the form of all thefe. As for the likenefs of their fhces, they four had 
the likenefs of the face of a Man,- and the face of a Lion on the right fide, and 
they four had the face of an Ox on the left fide, they four had alfo the face of an 
i£glc. And conformable hereunto the piftures of the Evangclifts ( whofc Gof- 
pels arc the Chriftian banners ) arc fet forth with the addition of a man or Angel , 



Boo K ;. 

AiUCtmman Eikori 

an Ox, a I iop. nntl s jC^I«- And tbefc fymbolictlly rcprffcnt chc Office of 
Angc!<, aod MiniUerj of tiodtWill-, in whom uri'quircJ undcrliandinc at in 
a ana, courage anil viramv ni in the Lion, fcrvtcr and intnillciiAl oiliaoumcls, as | 
in (fie Ox, cxpidition or tclrnty of execution, m m the ^^gk. I 

Vrotnhcncc thcteforc wcnuyob(cr«tIui.iIicfedcffriptions, thcmoltautlwn- 
tifkcrfany, arc ncvtiiet agreeable umo one anoilier, not unioihcScutcltcowio 
qijcilion. Vor though ihcy agree in Efhraim Jud'j»iLh, (hat t*, die Ox and [ 
[DC r.ion, yecdoUieydiffer inthofcof Dof, indReaitn, a»furataii>f:lg!eudir- 1 
ftrentftomaScrpent, and the tiguie of i Nlnn, Harc,<»rManJra.W. froindjrecl 
liars wave. Wherein notwuhlbndin!'. we rather dctUre the twcrtamt/ of Arttii ; 
ID this particular, then any w^y <|ucfttont]inr anti<]iiiiy -, iw hereof more aiici- i 
enr examples there are, tlicn dicScuttbcoiivof the Tiil>ei, >iOfjnf, AtivAm or 
fiffitir die Jull, were iIk Son of Cbsm -, for of his two S<itB, a Dithrm ddi 
ve-cth, ibcoiKtbrJiisDcvitcgjvea Dog, tUeochera Wotr. Atid, belide the 
fiiield of MhiSii, and many ancient Grt<ki : if we receive the conjcdtirc of 
]'aJfiHi, that the LJow upon Cerwi»«/ his bead, was but the figure of tliai Ani- 
inallupon huhettnct, uisancxainplcof Antiquity amon^itie A«)<M«i- 

But more wvdclymull we walk, if wc follow [he doArmeof tbe C4h,*Bfit 
who in each of tlic h>ur banners infcribe a letter of i\x TetragratQOiatoo, or 
quadnhceral name of God : and myllerizing cheir enlignt, donitkc the parti- 
cular onc» of the twelve Tribes, accomniodable unto the twelve llgns in die 
Zodiack, and twdVc tnoneths in the year: But the Teirarchica! or genera! 
baiuicr*, of Juddh^ SMhtn, BfhrAm.mi DM.'umo thefignsof Aries, OiQcer, 
Libra and Capncomus ; that tt, tbe four cardtiul parts of the Zodiack* and fea- 
fon»of die year. 

Cha-p. XI. 
of tk FiUures »f the Sibyls. 

THe Pifturev of the Sihyts are very common , and for their Propbcfics of 
Chrili in high efteem with Chriftians ; defcribed commonly with youthfuil 
fjccs, and in a defined number. Common pieces making twelve, and many 
precilely ten-, obferving therein the account of learned ^'4rrfl ; that is, StbjtU 
Drhhicd, Erfthr^A, Samd, CMnand, Ciim<t>t, or CimmtrU, HilUffunuacA, 
LjhtA, Phry^U, TiifHfun4, Ptr/tcn. In which enumeration I perceive learned 
men are not fiiusficd, and many conclude an irreconcilable inctfruimy ■, fome 
making more, others fewer, and not thu certain number, for SmUm, thoutih he 
affirm that in dive* age* there were ten, yet tbc fame dcmmimation he aSbrd- 
ethunto more-, ^yy^Jnr in hi* Trad of Divinationhathfct fortbihclconsof 
thefe Ten, yet addeih two otiicrs, Efirotic*^ and -..^^ypiit ; and fome affirm 
diat Propbcfying women vferc generally named Sihyli. 

Others make them fewer : Md^tidnHt CAftJlj two-, Pliny and .Wi>« throe-, 
■~/ti!j,r. fouri and ^^/wrf/w in cffcd but fcvcn. For difcourfmg hereof in hi* 
PlintM ExerdtatioiK, he tbusdctermincthy Riaere Hcti hedirrius PiFi-irtr, fw>' 
utaUi p/vpt/mnt Citmatt^y C»mu, & Erfthr*x, 'ju.tfi trtMwi Jiverfaram Sibjl- 
Urum -, CUM MM ediimqjftttrii Citm4-u , Citmui , tf- Erjthrd* , tx flMrium &. 
Jitnijftmv-um Anthintm ftnttntit. Bajftr^Mt gives ui leave to opinion llierc was no 
morcihenone-, for fodoth he conclude, JittaittM Scripttritnt varitiAtt lihtrim 
wSmjuiitMi Ltberi crttUrc , KM «»* & esdim itt divtrfit rrfiamfnn ptre^f}''*t^%. 
e9fmmt»f»rtitA fu ab iit ItCu ui** srjtcuU reMdijfr C9mp(ritMr,mn fltirci extitrriiu, 
Andtfaerefore not difirbvcnog ftrerttlotion of diciioumbec&iWipeafof '^"^-< 

ifcf btduif 

R«liif ifr im. 



Empdrits ht0 Vulgar 


^ 5 

Afif Jim mefh 

Wriccers, we have no reafon to determine the fame firora the hand and pencil of 


As touching their age, that they are generally deficribed as young women, 
Hiftory will not allow -, for the Sibyl whereof Virgil fpeaketh is termed by j 
him iongdva fdctnUs , and Scrvius in his Comment amplitieth the fame* The ' 
other that fold the books unto TVit^m/^, and whofe Hiftoiy is plainer then any, 
by Livie and GeUins is termed Anns j that is, properly no woman of ordinary 
age, but fiill of years, and in the daies of dotage, according to the Etymoiogie j 
of Fefinsj. and confonant unto the Hiftory •, wherein it is faid , tkat Tarqttim ■ 
thought (he doted with old age. Which duly perpended, the Licentid fiaorU 
is very large •, with the fame reafon they may delineate old Neftor like Admis^ 
HiCHtd with Helens face , and Time with Ahfiloms head. But this abfurdi- 
ty that eminent Artift Michdel Angelo hath avoided, in the Pidures of the Cm^ 
meamnd P^Jidn Sibyls, as they Itand defcribed from the printed (culpturesof 
Addm MdntHdnHs. 

Ch a p. XII. 
of thePiSiurc defcribing the death of Clec^acra. 

THe Pidure concerning the death of Clecpdtrd with two Aljps or venemous 
Serpents unto her arms , or breafts, or both , requires confideration : for 
I therein ( befidc that this variety is not excufable ) the thing it felf isqueftionable ^ 
; nor is it indifputably certain wnat manner of death (he died. Plutdrch in the life 
of Antonj plainly delivereth, that no man knew the manner of her death ^ for 
fome affirmed (he periflied by poifon, which (he alwaies carried in a little hollow 
comb, and wore it in her hair. Befide, there were never any Afps difcovered 
in the place of her death, although two of her Maids peri(hed alfo with her ; 
only it was (aid, two fmalland almoft infenfible pricks were found upon her 
arm r which was all the ground that Cdfdr hacl to prefume the manner of 
her death. 6alen who was contemporary unto Plutdrch^ delivereth two waies 
of her death : that (he killed her felf by the bice of an Afp , or bit an hole 
in her arm> and poured poifon therein. Strdk^ that lived before them both 
hath alfo two opinions; that (he died by the iHteof an Afp, or elfe a poi(bnous 

We might queftion the length of the Afps, which are (bmetimes cicfchbed 
exceeding (hort ^ whereas the Cherfara or land- Afp whidi moft conceive (he 
ufed , is above four cubits long . Their xiumber is not unqueftino^le ^ for 
whereas there are generally two defcribed , Auguftuj ( as Plmtdrch relateth ) 
did carry in his triumph tlie Image o£ Cleopatra but with one Afp unto her 
arm. As for the two pricks , or litdetpots in her arm , they nther infer the 
fex , then plurality : for like the Viper , the female Afp hath four , but 
the male two teeth-, whereby it left this impreflSon, or double punfture be-{ 
hind it. I 

And la(My , We might queftion the place v ^ fo^fie apply them unto her j 
breaft, which notwith(binding will not confift with the Hiftory ^ and Petras \ 
Vi8$rins hath well obferved the fiune. But herein the miftake was ea(ie ^ it be- 
ing the cuftom in capital maiefiiftors to apply them unto the breaft, as the Km^ 
thorDeThcridca dd Pihnem, an eye witnds hereof in Ahxandrid^ where Ci^ I 
patrd died , decermineth : I beheld , faith he , in Alexdmdria , how fuddenly \ 
the(e Serpents bereave a man of life •, for when any one is condemned to this ; 
kind of death, if they intend to ufe him fitvourably, that is, to difpatch him I 
• ^^ fuddenly,' 

fudslenly, they Men an ATpunn) lMbrciAvU<JbKUlf)6bfn walk4fwat,^e 
' prefendy periflicih thereby. 

Cu A». X III- 
of the PiSurti tf the Nhe mrthiei. 

THe Piilores of the nin* WorthiCT arc rot unqiieilioiuiWe , and to cirical 
fpoftjtori Riiy Teem to ctmiain fiindry improprini«. Some Will enquire 
irby AltxMdir the Crcsc n iJcfcTibcd upon nn hlcphanr : tor, we ilo uui 
fiod he ufed thii animal in hu Armtu, much Idi in hai own pcrfon •, but his 
Hocre » liaiTKiiu in HiHory, ud its namenlivc to chiidiy. Beside, tie Ivughc 
but (IRC renwrkibte battH, wherein there were sny Klcphants, and th»t was 
with Farm King of /xJm-, m which notwirhilandrng , as Curlitit, ^-trriMitr, 
and Plmidrch T<port, Ik wai on HotfehacV binifdf. And if becaulc he fought 
a^infl tleplunif, he is wirh proprieiy f« upon their hacks ; with noJcfcor 
ereater reaton is the Utn* deftnpcion agreeaWc urao finlM Af^rnhm, as may 
Be obferved from ttie hiilory of the MMt^nt ; and alio onto )F»/i*/ C*/«-, 
wbofi; trdunpb wai hnnoaied with captive Etepdints, at tnay be obferved i6 ihe 
order thereof, I'ec fonh by fMthur LAm-ui. And tfalfo wc Oiould admit ihis 
defcription upon an HIephani, yet were not the manner ibcrcof iin<iocftionable, 
tbtt »! in ha ruling the beafl alone , lor beside clie Clmmpton upon their back, 
Ebere wasalfo a guide or ruler, wl<it.ti fac tnore forward to command or guide 
the bealt Thus aid King Ptrus ride when he was overthrown by AltxMdtr ^ 
and chusareallothetowtvd Elcpbantsdcfrribcd, Msce4bz.6. Upon the beads 
there were ftronf;towers of wood, which covered every one of them, and were 
girt fall unto tliccn by devices ; there were alfo upon rrery one of ibem thirty 
two ftroiig mm, bdide the IndLin thar ruled them- 

Others wtll demanJ, not only why AltxxifdirQ^ontn Ek(^iant. but HtBor 
upon an Horfe : whereas bis manner of fighting, or prelcniing hinifelf in battel, 
wajinaChariOf, as did the other noble Tn>}.ttnj, who a* Pihy afifirmcth were 
the tirft invemers thereof The fame way of tight is teilified by lyi^Sruj, and ihut 
delivered by Sr- iy»ltir Ka»lti(h. Of the vulgar httle reckoning was made, 
for they fought all on foot, (tightly armed, and comironly followed the fucccfs 
of their Captains j who rode not upon Hocfcs, but in Cbariois drawn by two 
or three Horfts, And this was alfu the ancient way of fight among the Sri- 
mm , as is delivered by Dioi^mtyCttfAt^iAi TMttut-, and there want not foinc 
who have taken advaniage htrwf, and made it one argunrtnt of their original 
from Tnj. 

Laftly, By any man vcrffd in Artrquity, thcqueHiOncanhapdlybtayoided. 
why the Horfcs of ihefc Wonhiet. efpcciallyof C*f^^ are de'cribed with the 
fiirfliture of great fadldes, and ftirrops ■, for faddlc* largely taken , tiwrngh fbmc 
.rfefence there may be, yet that they hsd notrhc ufc of itirrops, (cemetli of lef- 
fcrdoubt, as f-tnuMtm hath obferved, ai PtJfiUre Virgil, and Pftrni Viifm- 
us have conlinned, exprcfly difcourling hereon; as is obfcrvable from Pliny, 
and annotefiape our eyes in the unt'ieht monuments, rticdat* and Triumphant 
arches of the RtmMi. I^r is there inyaicienc claflTical word in Laciiw to cii- 
prcfj them, l-or SiAfhiA^^d^emv Unpriii u not to be foand in Authors of 
this Antiquity. And divefs words which may be urg|d of this ngrtihcatiiin , 
are either later, orfignifieJ not thus much inthetimeof C^/nf. Andthcrcfiircas 
lifftui obfervcih. leu a thing of common ufe fliould wanr a coalmen word, 
fritKiftmt PtisldphHt named their .' M/fiii , ind SuSiiKt Saihui , Pedal1W)s. 
Add wtKfeastheiuine miglit promife ftunc Antiquity, bccatilc among the three 
- fmtll 


flbiepj Ml 

! «. 


Di re Milif. 

Enquiries into Vnlgdr 


^ 5 

fmall bones in the Auditory Organ , by Miyfitians termed Incns , MalUus and 
fidfes , one thereof from fome rcfcmblance doth bear this name ^ thefe bones were 
not obferved, much lefs named by Hippocrates^ Galen^ or any ancient Ph\ fitian. 
But as Laitrentius obferveth, . concerning the invention of the Rapes or llirrop 
bone, there is fome contention between ColHrnbus and Ivt^rdjpas •, the one of 
ScicilUj the other of Cremona^ and both within the compafs of this Century. 

The fame is alfo deduceable from very approved Authors : Pohkins fpeak- 
ingof the way which Ambal marched into lulj^ ufeth the word :?.^ija*;.si^,; 
that is, faith PetrMs J'iBorlus^ it was ftorcd with devices for men to get upon . 
their horfes , which afcents were termed Semata , and in the life of Csums ' 
Gracchus^ Plutarch exprefleth as much. 'For endeavouring to ingratiate, 
himfelf with the people,befides the placing of ftones at every miles end-, be made at 
nearer diftances certain elevated places, and Scalary afcents,that by the help thereof, 
they might with better eafe afcend or mount their horfes. Now if we demand bow ' 
Cavaliers then deftitute of ftirrops did ufually mount their horfes^as Upfims inform- \ 
eth y the unable and fofrer fort of men had their dfAQt^-^^i, or Stratores v which 
helped them up onTborfe back, as in the praftife of Craffus in Plmsrch^ and! 
Cardcalla in Spartianus , and the later example of VaUntinianus , who becaufe \ 
his horferifed 4>efore that he could not befetled on his back, cut. off the right | 
hand of bisStrator. But how the adiveand hardy perfons mounted, Vegetimx \ 
refolves \xs, that they ufed to vault or leap up, and therefore they had woo- ' 
den horfes in their houfes and abroad : that thereby young men might en- 
able themfelves in this adion : wherein by inftrudion and pradice they grew 
fo perfed , that they could vault up on the right or left, and that with their 
fword in hand, according to that of Virgil 

Pofcit eqnos at^ arms fimal^ f^^f^fr fifpertuf 

Emicat. And again : 

Jnfranant alii cHrrus & corforafaltn 


So JhUhs PiUux advifeth to teach horfes to incline, dimit ^ and bow down 
their bodies , that their riders may with better eafe afcend them. And cbus 
may it more caufally be made out, what Hippocrates afiirmeth of the ScytU^ 
ans^ that uHng continual riding, they were generally molefted with the Scia* 
tica or hip-gout. Or what Snetonitu delivereth of Germamcsts^ that he had 
flender legs, but encreafed them by riding after meals ; that is , the humours 
defcending upon their pendulofity , they having no fupport or fuppedaneous 

Now if any (hall by that thefe are petty errors and minor lapfes, not cond- 
derably injurious unto truth, yet is it neither reafonable nor (afe to contemn 
inferiour &Uities ^ but rather as between falftiood and truth , there is no medi- 
um, fo fhoukl they be maintained in their diftances : nor the contagion of the one, 
approach the fincerity of the other. 


Chap XIV. 

of the P00re of JcT^t\\3h fdrifici/tg his d^t^hter. 

THe hand of the PaUiter confidently fetteth forth the Pidure of fephthab 
I in the pofture of Abraham , fecrificing his only daughter : Thus is it com- 
( monly received, and hatR had the atteft of many worthy Writers. Notwith- 
Tfcat jepbthdf ' ft^ding Upon enquiry we fiod the matter doubtfull, and many upon probable , 

grounds to have been of another opinion : conceiving in this oblation not a 
natural but a civil kind of death, and a reparation only unto the Lord. For chat 

^ be 

did not kU! 



And CcTHmtH E R n o n J. 

fw purrucd ooc liisvawuntoa lueraIo1>iation, there want not iigumoiu both 
from the Tcxi »ruJ rwfon. 

tor tirl^. It is cvidcni tliat (hr dcplora! her Virfiin'uy, and nut Iwr deatji ^ 
Let me go up anU don-n tbe tnountuni , snd bewait my Virginiiy, 1 Animy 

Secandly , Wlien ic is faid, tliat Jtphihdh diil unto licr according unto 
b'a vuw. It 15 iinincJUicly rul>]'oyned, Etmn ct*mvit virnm^ and Ihe knew 
no man^ wtiicbm iniiiicdince ia words, was probably tnolluciir in, faifeuoto 
the vow. 

Thirdly, Iti* Taid in tlw Test, that the daagbt«r» of JfrAiI wcntywrlyio 
talk wiiliiheiiaugIiterof"7i'/iWi.i.tfyur dai« in the yeai' ■, wbich lad ihc been 
tiimtice'd, ilicy could noc have done i For whereas die word is fomeiinw 
cranfUtod to lamcm , yet doth it alio figntde to taHi or hiv« conference with 
one, and byTrtrntiiin', who wa« well able en Judce of the Original, itisin 
this rciife iranllated ( liiuu fi/ii /frdtUt-iruin , mJ cmfthHU'xJMm cnm fUi* 
/tpliil/jci. qturtt'tr dieiut ifmtivnnt : \iA fo ic »* alfo let down in clieniargi< 
nalniKesofourTranniiuun. And from clusannaalcoiicuurk of the daughters 
or //><*//, i[ IS not improhablc in fiiturc Ages, the dauf^tcr of Icfhthahtinmt 
to bcwordiippciJ as a IJcity -, and had by the Sam^ritjii an annual fcftivity ob- 
frrvcd uDtuhet huouur, as Lphiph^niuf bathlcfr recorded in theHercTie uf the 

It is alfo repugnant unto rcafon ^ for itic oft:ring of mankind was againft 
the Law oi God, who fo abhorred humane facriiice, that he admitted nOtthv 
oblation of undcan bcaEU, and contincd his Altars but unto lew kind* of Ani- 
mals, the Ox, the Goat, the Sheep, the Pigeon and its KitiJi : In thecleanf- 
ingof the Lepei-, there isl contefs, mention made of the Sparrow-, butgrcat 
difpute may be made whetho- it be properly rendered. And therefore the 
Scripture with indignation oft-timev makes mertiion of humane facriikc among 
che GfniiUs ; whole oblations fcarcc made fcrupic of any Animal ^ facrificing 
not only Man, buc Horfcs, Lions ^glwj and though they come not in- 
ro holocaiitU, yet do we read iKe SjrUni did make oblations of tidies unto 
the goddcfi Dtrctti. It being therefore a facrilice To abominable unto God, 
although he had purfuedk, it is not probable itic Thriens and Wifdom of Jfrset 
would have permitted it; and thtt not only in regard of the fubjed or facri- 
(ice it fdf, but alfo the facriik.iror, which the PidHrc make.- to be pphthab; 
who was neither Pricll, nor capable of that Office .- for he was a Cilt.tSti, 
and as the Tex: atSrmcth, the fon alfo of an harlot. And how hardly the 
Preill-hood would endure cnct6achement upon their fundion, a notable example 
there is in the (lory of Oii^s. 

Secondly, Tlie otfcring up ofhis daughter was not only unlawful, and entrench- 
ed upon liis Rehgion, but had been a courfe that Iiad much (undcnincd his 
difrretion ; that is, to have punilhed himfelf in the ftri^cft obfervanccof his 
vow, when as the Law of God had allowed an evafion ; that is, by way of 
commutation or redemption, according n is determined, Ltvit.27. Where- 
by if (he were between the age of hrc and twenty , fhc was to be e(H- 
mated but at ten fhckcls, and if between twenty and fixty . not above thircy. 
Afumthat could never ddcourage an indulgent I'arent -, it being buc the value 
of fervant flam i the inconliderablc Salary of fuiai -, and \viH make 110 greater 
noifc tlicn threepound fifteen fiulhngs with us. And therefore their conceit 
is not to be exjiJuJed, who fay that from die ftoryof /'f^WW/facrificinghis 
his own daughter , might fpring tlic fable of vd'^^w/wMox , delivering unto 
facriticc Iu» daughter Iphifiru,; who was alfo contemporary unco ftphib^b -. 
wherein to aiifwer the ground that hinted it. Iphigtnta wis. not facriliced het 
fyr,botredccniedwicbauHart,whicbi>i4jrrfacceptMfocber. .. ,,, . 



% i^mgs j.i'- 

Zcb. 13. 

En^wirits int0 Vulgar 

Book s* 

Laftly, Although his vow run generally for the words , Whatfoevcr (hall 
came fortb^ &c. Yet might it be rellramed in the fenfe, for whatibever was 
facrificable, and /uftly fubjed to lawful immohtion: and fo would not have 
facri/iced either Horfe or Dog , if they had come out upon him. . Nor was 
he obliged by oath unto a drift obfervation of that which promiflbrily was 
unlawfully or could he be qualified by vow to commit a fad which naturally 
was abominable. Which dodrine had Herod underftdod, it might have faved 
John Baftifts bead ^ when he promifed by oath to give unto Herodioi what- 
foever me would ask ^ that is, it it were in the.compais of things, which be 
could lawfully grant. For his oath made not that lawful which was illegal be- 
fore : and if it were unjuft to murther John^ the fupervenient Oath did not ei- 
tenuate the faft, or oblige the Juror unto it. 

Now the ground at lead which much promoted the opinion,might be the dubi- 
ous words of the text, which conuin the fenfe of his vow ^ moft men adhering un- 
to their common and obvious4icception. Whatfoever (hall come forth of the' 
doors of my houfe (hall furely be the Lords, and I will offer it up for a burnt 
offering. Now whereas it is £ud , Erit fehovd , & offeram iUttd *•/#- 
caufinm^ The word (ignifying both & and out, it may de taken disjundive- 
ly ^ ant oferam, that is, it (hall either be the Lords by feparation, or dfe, an ho- 
locauft by common oblation ^ even as our marginal tranQation advertifetb ; 
and as TremeUms rendreth it, Erit inquam fehovd, dut offeram iffud bolocMMlttnm : 
and for the vulgar tranflation , it ufeth often ^, where am mud be prdumed, 
as Exoi. 21. Si (jtiu percujfmt pdtrem & matrem^ that is, not both, but 
either. There being therefore two waies to difpofe of her, either to fenarate 
her unto the Lord, or offer her as a (acrifice, it is of no neceiBty the later mould 
be neceinfary •, and furely lefs derogatory unto the iaaed text and hiftory of the 
people of God, muQ be the former. 

Ch ap. XV. 

of the Picture of John the Bdftifi. 

THe Pidure of John the Baptift, in a Camels skin is very queftionable, and 
many I perceive have condemned it. The ground or occaiion of this de- 
fcripcion arc the words of the holy Scripture , efpecially of Mdtthew and 
Mark^ for Luks and Jahn are filent herein •, by them it is delivered, his gar- 
ment was of Camels nair , and had a leathern girdle about bis loins. Now 
here it feems the Camels hair is taken by Painters for the skin or pelt with 
the Iiair upon it. But this Expofition will not fo well confift with the (Irid 
acceptation of the words ^ for Mark^ l. It isfaid^he was,e# AAs^^ vei'vxf j 
K^tMi/Ui «Lnd Afatthewi, «T;^ to hS'jyA hni lu^v rf^'?iu, that is, as tnej 
vuljgar tranflation , that of Bezjt , that of Sixtus ^uintuj , and Clement the ! 
eight hath rendred it, vefiimentum hdtetat e pilis camelinis- which is as ours ! 
I tranflateth it, a garment of Camels hair -, that is, made of^fome texture of i 
! that hair, a courfe garment^ a cilic^ous or fackcloth habit : futable to the ' 
' aufterity of his life ^ the feverity of his Dodrine, Repentance •, and the place ' 
thereof, the wildernefs, his food and diet, locufb and wild hony. Agreeable j 
unto the example of EUas , who is faid to be vir pilofns, that is, as fmrnMi < 
and TremeBins interpret , Vefte vHUfo cinSlns , anfwerable unto the habit of 
the ancient Prophets , according to that of ZMcbdrj. In that day the Pro- 
phets (hall be afliamed , neither (hall they T^ear a rough sarmenc to de- 
ceive ^ and futable to the Cilidous and hauy Vefts of the ftrtdeft Orders 


Boot S' 


of frier*, who derive i(ie inftiiuiiOn of (heir MonaHicX lift &WDthf etilnple 
of ?.i«ind fJi^j. ' 

A* lor the wearingof sJ£io», where thactl popcr)y irtteiidfti , ihc rtfffcni- 
on of tlw Scnpiarc it ptatu ,ioiiitfa$d, Hek 1 1 . TiMry wandrtj abbat 
if tiiy-uutJif^rn ihat ii. Id Goat* .iluns; nnd fo ic h fiiitl otour i\rl{ Pa- 
mic,&'m. ?. That God nxfldt ilicm -.t-^'tu Ar«'''><, ^y/" f^ffrf*/, or coat* 
of iKim-, which though a latuml mbit aaio all , het'ore the inventioa of 
Tenure, wai fomethihe n»orc unto Jj^m, who had newly hsuned todie-, 
Ibrumti him .1 gArmeiic from the dead, tm butidiAzteof dcsih, indiiolis- 
bitof momtity. 

Nww if any min will &y tWs hubk of fJ/n, was neither of Cflmdlsikiil, 
nor any conrft' Texnirt of it', hair, bm rather Ioedc liner Weiveof Camelot] 
Grosnin or tlw like, m as much as tbcfe Ouffs are fuppofed to be made of 
the biir of timt Animal, or becaufc daz »-*7i,m affirmeth , ilaw Cameli 
hair of Perfi*, is as fine as Mile/Un wool, wherewith the great on« of ihii 
place wae ctotbcd ^ they have difcovercd an habit, not only nnfuuble un- 
tohisleatltcrn cindure, and ttic courrene& of hu-hfc ^ but not tonuflentwitb 
ibe words of our Saviour, when rwloHing wiili ihc people tonccmiog ?(j&b, be 
&ttb, Whit went yoa out intoihc wddcrnefstofce?. clothed iaioft rai- 
mcM f Behold, ibey i tut wear foft raimcni, ate in Kings boules. 

J 17 


Chap. XVI. 
of lift Fi^nre tf St. Chriftophcr. 

Thfe PiAure of St. Cbrifttfbfr, tluc it, amanof a Giantlike Oature, bcahng 
upon hts ftiouldcrs our Saviour Chrif\i and with a ftaffin his hand, wading 
tborow the water, a known unto Children , comnutn over all Eurvff not 
eoly ai a Jign unto houfes, butiideltribcd ia many Uiurchei, andftandsCs- 
/yfitf like in the entrance of A'*y?rt /)4i*r in /"-trf*. 

Now from hence, cotnmon cyel conceive an htftory futabt« unto ttus d^- 
Icripiion , tlm Ite carried our Savibur in his Minority over fome river or wa-. 
ter : which notwUhnandinh we cannot at all make out. tor we read not thus 
much in auy good Author, nor of any remarkable Cbrijicfhtr, before the icigo 
o( Dtcifit: wtiolivcd ijoyeari after Chtift. J bit man indeed according untu 
Hfll'-iq' fuffcred as i Martyr in the fecond year of thai Empcrour , and in the 
J?piBitJt Calender takes up the 2 1 of July, ,1 

The ground that begat or promoted tt^u opiniUD, was , Grft the ^uluio 
adjcftwwi of luccceding ages, unto the veritable aAf ot t^is Martyr, who in 
tlie moll probable iiccouou waf reniartable for bis llaff^ anJa manofagcnd- 
iyftacuTc. .... , t 

The fecood might be a Oiinake or.mifapprclKnfton of the Pi^ure, tood. 
axa conceiving thai an Hiftory which wasv>ntrjvcdaifiiObucasaoEm.Uem. 
oc Symbcrfica) fancy : at from the AnnotatttM)!* of BamuMj upon iSe Rmmh \ 
Martyrotogie, Li^Btui in the li&of Sc. Chri^afhtr hatbobfervcd in thefc words ; | 
A84i S, Chrtffafheri i multit dffrnvti* invtnin/itiir : tfmd ^jtfidtm m» ttHtui- j 
lir origiitcm fmmfffc ctrtum tfi ; f ««« qmi fjm^lkdt f^irM imptriti dd vc- \ Llf - tu v-t 
ruMtm frntf^H teimftnt irMtfiiifint -■ tts^itr ttmCtft iStt Je fjjfiio Chrjjlophcr \ SiaOtum. 
rv pi»fi ctnfnet* , fymhU futiM , tfu^m hijim4 Mtifujm txijiimatdMm tfi t^i 
rxfnffamiiiM_(iicm -^ that is, The Ads of St. Chrifi«fhtr2Tc depraved by ma- 
oy.: which fucrly began from no other ground, ifttn. that inproccfiof time, 
iJBikiUul mcntnuillatedfyaibolkal (igures uowreal verities :' and therefore wfaat 
Gff _ » 



- - ' ■— ■ ' ■ ' •■ ■■■■■ ■■ I ■ » 

EnqmHts im§ Fitgir 

Book j. 

■ I 


AntotL CafUl- 
timutl antiqui" 
tates MediolM' 

is ufuaUy described in chePtdure of Sc. Cffri^ofher^ is rachcr to hft received 
as an Emblem, or Symbolical defcription, then any real Hidory. Now frhat > 
Emblem this was , or what ics figiaifica^ioa » amje^^^ 9xt maoy ^ Pkrim ; 
hacfa fee down one, chat i;^ of i^t Difciple pf Clvrift \Jpt he h^ diac ihfjU car- 
ry Chrill upon his (boulders , muft rely upon tkt S/afi ipf his direaion, wfaece- 
00 if be firmech himfeif, He may be able to overcome cbe.)>tllows of rcfifiiMC, 
and in tbe verciue of i:his ftaC lii^e cbac of ^Mpk^ p^ over the waters of /ip- 
J^an. Or other wife thus ^ He that will fubmic Ms IhouUiers uncp Chrift, 0im by 
ahe concurrence of his pow«r cncreafeinco cbe ftreng^ pf a Gianc^ wdkJng 
fupporced by cheftaffof his holy Spirit, (hall nbcbroverwhelocd by cbr wvto 
of tbe woria„ but wade through all refiftamie. 

Addalfo themyfUcalreafonsof ithis pouitraft «llwteed by Vid0$mi Xnifih 
Mu : gnd tbe recorded ftory of ChripflHr » that More his MarcyrdoiB be 
teax^tii of God, that where ever his body were, the places ihould be freed firpQi ! 
peftilencc and mifchiefs , from infedioo. And tbercfbre hif pidiire or pov-j 
arad, was ufually placed in puUick wayca, and ac tqe entrance ofTowof audi 
Churches^ according to the received Diitick. > 

ChriftcfhirMm vidcAf, poftgs t$t$m tris. | 


Chap. XVII. 

of the TiBure of St. George. 

THe Pifture oi St. George killing the Dragon, and, as moft ancient draughts 
do mu , with tbe daughter of a King (landing by , is famous amonsft 
Cbridiaas. And upon this defcription dependcth a (blemn ftory, how by this 
atcbievement he redeemed a Kings daughter c which is mor^ efpccially beiceved 
by the Englijb , whofe Proteftor he is : and in which form and hiOory, ac- 
cording to his defcription in the Emgiifi Cdirdge at Rome , he is fet forth 
in the Icons or Cuts of Martyrs by Cevdlerhs : and all this according to the 
Hifierid LomlardicM , or golden l^end of Jacobus dt Vcrsgim. Now of 
what authority foever this piece beanongftus, ii is I percrive received with 
diflferenc beliefs : for fothe bdieve ihe perfon and the ftory ^ fome (he perfim, 
but not the ftory ^ and others deny both. 

That fudi a (nnfon there was, we (hall not contend : for befides others. 
Dr. Heilsn hath clearly afferted it in his Hiftory of St. George. - The indifHa* 
ftion of many in the community of name, or the mi&pplication of the a As of 
one unto another, hath made fome doabt thereof. For of this name we meet 
with more then one in Hiftory , and no lefs then two conceived of CdppdJdcU. 
The one an ^rrian;who was (lain by the Aleximdrisms in the time of Julian ^ the 
other a valiant Soqldier and Chriftia^ Martyr, beheaded in the reign of' DUctefisff. 
' This it the George conceived in this Pi Aure, who bath his day in the Rnmam Qu 
lender, oh whom fo many fables are delivered, whofe ftory is fet forth by Meta^ 
^ phrafies, and his miracles by Turom^fi^. 

As for the ftory depending hereon, (bme conceive? as lightly thereof , as of 
thaf of Perfltes and JndromeJa;, ctoJeAoring the one to be the lather of the 
otiier^and fome too highly aflertit.Otbers with bectier- moderation, do either en^ 
ter taii^ thefiime as a fabulous addidon unto the er«e and au(hentick ftory #f$c. 
Georfo •, or elfe conceive the literal oeception to^^a mifconftruftionof tbe Syai» 
boHcal ezpreffion ^ apprehending a veritable hiftory, in an Emblem or piece cf 
Chriftian Poefie. Andcbis EmUemacical conftniftion bath been mtived by meo 


Boot 7. 

Md Ctmtn§a E 1 

^..-.r ■'. ---;t<-J to cttenoire rbc aflj of S'aioW; aifroin Bjnemuf,,->u die 

' hucli delivered in cbc life ofSr. Cwi^i*; Pidw-im «.7jiw J", (jcorgii 

■■uttfuej AnmASf, ijtii iiMJId cnf^dt htfttm iiiterftcir , juxiA-jtum 

-'■■• mjxJU fmffHeti UuJeat tjm (x^/i'-.i/ r--'p'-- SyjuMi 

■ : aluMjut ftmftiA* exfrt^A 'Mrf,^'-' •" iW 

.. f ttjuiflri iitM^nt rtftrri ■ ttui 1^, 1 ' ' 'X'* 

- - L.ibftlliica CunilTict or horfeman tou.i^- ; ii , .v. fl 

latiioi dlynibulxal iiuagc, tb«i any proper figmt 

N-m-mibc i'icturc (i( ihi* Saint and Soiilditr.mighc be implied tlieChrtfHln' 
Sonldier nndtnir Cbiinjiitin ofClirJ(l. A borfcman armed Of t fv.uiDont- 
mg ilvt r^o/^'j or tomplcit armour «f a Ctiridian ; combating with ihtf Dra- 
gon, tliat i*, with the Ocvil , in defence of the King* d.-mGbtCf. ifu: if, tl* 
Church of God. \nd cheretlKc ilthough chcbillocy be not maaflout, udoiboot 
dirpciagc the KnigbHandNobk order of Sr.C«r?f : wlioCccogniJiincf Is booou- 
rableintlicEmblcmofihc Souldier of Cfiriit, and i»b worthy mcniniia! town- 
form umo lumyltcric. Nor, were there oo fuch pcrlunatallihadibcymort 
rciioii to be alhanvi-d, then tlkc Noblf order oi BurgttnAj, and Koigbn bC 
tJK Cokicn 1 Icecc -, wlwfe badge is i cunlvfTcd fible. 

C«A.p. xvuu 
of tire Piiiiirc of Jerora. 

TrIePlAitre of fmm ufiially defchbcd at his Ihidy, it^itb a Clock hanging 
by, IS not to be omitted ; forthou(;htbemciningbea)loivaWc, andprob> 
bic it is that tndutinous V«(ier did not let flip bi^ time without actvunt -, yet 
mull t)ot perhaps thai Oockbo rndowntoluvebeenhismcafureihereof. lor 
Qock$ or Automatous orgins, wlicreby we now difUnguiQi of time , have found 
no mention in any aacicntWritert: but are of Utc invention, as PmKirtBm 
obfervetb. And PoljsUrt yir;^ti diltoarling of ncwinveniions whereof the au- 
tborrnrc oot Imuurti . mafc<« inllaiKe tii Clocks aod Gum. Nour fftvm it no 
Utc Writer, but one of the ancient Vail)crj, and lived in tbc fourth Century , in 
the reign ofTbtcdtfiM the (irrt. 

It is not 10 be dcmtdthat before the dlin of y^r^m tliere were Horologies, 
and fcvcral accounts of tune; for they meifured the hours not only by drops 
of water in glalTes called Clei>fydrz, but alfo by fand in gUftes called Oepfam- 
(nia. There were alfo from great antiquity, siwerical or Sun Dials, by the 
fliadow »f afiile or gnonoon denoting the hours of the diy : an Invcniion 
ifcribed uoto AiuucimiiKt by Plinj. Herrtd" a memorable one there was in 
C^mpM MATtitu, from anobcliik creAed, and golden tigurei phccd horozoo. 
tally about it; which was brought out oftyf^ptby AMj^MJim, anddefcrib^d 
by JanluM Limrm. And another of great antKjuiiy wc nieei with in itic rtorV 
of fiwrti-tt ; for fo It is(Wj?crcdin Kint.t. :o. That tlii Lord brou^hr the 
fhaduw backward ten de^Ytf-, by wtiic^ithad goned<.>wnihtlic Dialof /f't^c- 1 
That is, fay (bnWi ten dwrccs, not line* ; for tlie hours were denoted by cer- ! 
ttindivilions orfiepsintbe Dial, wbicbotbcrsdillinguiOied by lines, according 
Vil\uAQi Ptrjim I 

Sttrtimut inJimtmm <jmJ dt/ptrndn fMlrr»um' | 

TlMtir, tiKlincneatilicMeridun, or wiilunanhourofntMii. 

Of later years ilwe fucceedcd now invcntioiH , and boroltigiescompofed 

by Trochiitckor tttcartilicc of wbcelsi^ whereof iomc arc kepcm motJon by 

G B : weight , 

C'tlti nu n 



it i 


Enqulriei into Vulgar 


It s 

weight, others perform without it. Now as one age inftruds another, an< 
time that brings all things to ruine perfeds alfo every thing • fo are thefe in 
deed of more general and ready ufe then any that went before them. By the Wa 
ter-gjaffes the account was not regular : for from attenuation and condenlaci 
on, whereby that Element is altered, the hours were (horter in hot weather thei 
in cold, and in Summer then in Winter. As for Scioterical Dials, whether o 
the Sun or Moon , they are only of ufe in the adual radiation of thofe Lu 
minaries ^ and are of little advantage unto thofe inhabitants, which for roa 
ny raoneths enjoy not the Luftre of the Sun. 

It is I confeis no eafie wonder how the horometry of Antiquity difcover 
ed not this Artifice*, how ^rri!fi>4^ that contrived the moving Dove, or rathe 
the Helicofophi'e of Archimedes , fell not upon this way. Surely as in man] 
things , fo in this particular , the prefent age hath far furpafTrd Antiquity' 
whole ingenuity hath beenfo bold not only to proceed below the account o 
minutes- but to attempt perpetuall motions^ and engines wiiofe revolution 
( could tneir fubflance anfwer the deilgn ) might out-lall the exemplary niobi 
Uty , and out-meafure time it felf. lor fuch a one is that mentioned oy Joh\ 
Dee, whofe words are thefe in his learned Preface unto Euclide: By Wheel 
fhange works and imredible are done : A wondrous example was fccnin m^ 
time in a certain Inftrument, which by thelnventer and Artirictr was fold fo 
twenty talents of gold ; and then by chance had received fome injury, ant 
one faneBus of CremonA did mend the fame, and prefenced it unco the Emperou; 
Charts the fift. feronimtts Cardanus , can be my witnefs , that therein wa 
one Wheel that moved in fuch a rate, that in feven thoufand years only lu 
own period (hould be finiflied ^ a thing aJmoft incredible, but how far I Aeej 
within my bounds, many men yet alive can tell. 

DMgon the 
'idol, of wfaat 

I form. 

I Smb. 5* 

Chap. XIX. 

Offbc Piilures of Mermaids, Unicorns, and fome others. 

FEw eyes haveefcaped thcPidureof Mermaids-^ that is, according toH^- 
rdce nis Monfter, with womans head above , and fi(hy extremity below ; 
and thefe are conceived te anfwer the (hape of the ancient Sjrcns that attempt- 
ed upon Vljjfes. Which notwithftanding were of another defcription, contain- 
ing no fi(hy compofiire, but made up of Man and Bird ^ the humane medie- 
ty varioufly placed not only above, but below ^ according unto c/l //^w, Suidas^ 
Servhs, B9ccdiius.j3i/xd A/drovAndtfs : who hath referrea their dctription unto 
the ftory of fabul<]^f. Birds ^ according to th^ defcription of OW, and the ac* 
count thereof in HjginHSy that they were the daughters of Melfomeve^ and mcta- 
morphofed into the (hape of man and bird by Ceres. 

And therefore thefe pieces (b common among us>4t) rather derive their orU 
ginal , or are indeed the very dcfcriptions of Dsgon ; which was made with 
humane figure above, and fiftiy fliape below ^ whofe flump, or as TremcHim 
and our margin reiiders it, whofe fifliy part only remained, when the hands 
and lipper part fell before the Ark. Of the fhape of Artergates^ or Dcrcao 
with the PhcemtisMs •, in whofe fifliy and feminine mixture, as fomc conceive, 
were implied the Moon and the Sea, or the Deity of the waters ■ and there- 
fore, in their facrifices, chey made oblations of fiflies. From whence were proba- 
bly occafioned the Pidures 61 Nereides and Tritons among the Grecians, and fuch 
as we read in MacrMtts , to have been placed on the top of the Temple of 
iatnm. We 

0c ).' mJ Cemmn E r n o n -^ 

We are nnwiHingto quelHondir r.> ' ■ i 

approved licfcripotir^ot the Lcun a 


r K. tiic ijrtit, 

IK (Kjlif ion t>! the piici be proper, anj > : .it uitlbrhifd 

Hnmilkc ouc ihcir raruaipulaiirin, or ilitir i.jUi'ling ind yii\in^bltktntd,K-' 
Hiding tothc dcKrmimiion tit' Jlnfuilt -, All thatumiebacitf^ildocopalliS 

yKi fot die llnitorn, ir it (uvc ilw bead utt Oeci' ' " ' '■ ^ Piir, 
OS rAnm^/Rfv ^cfcnbedt it. Ixiw agrrenblc it it in [ . i;\-t^ 

nay diftcrn. li it be made bilultoiis or ilfiVcn rotjcJ, 
dcftripnoaiif t trtammMimt , but Ihircr ol' AflV oiher , ni.n /('i,/.:.',-i!;[)]>oli:th 
thoE luch as divide the hoai\ do allb double ibe liorn ^ itic)' boRf ho:h nfific 
ftmc naiurc, itid idmiiting dmiioo together. And bHly, if the burn haw 
this fiiuanoo, iukI be To hirwjiciily Ailixcd, .11 it dclcnbed, 11 Kill notbcea<- 
lily cooreivcd, how ii can feed ftom the ground i anJ clifrcforcwc obferve,'- 
ibat Nasure in other conitgrr*m( aninisU, butx placed thelHtfnshighcrandt't*" 
climng, if in Buckt; inlbtnc mvcncd upwaidf, avin the Rbinurerm, tlv/w" 
Ji4nA,(i, and UnicomousBcr-iJa •, andcbus have lome tlfirmed it bfeiied'ttf^ 

Wc caanoc but obfcrvc that in tlic Pifture of J*.j».*A and others'; Wfu1c<t 
ale dcfcribed witb two pconiincnc /pouu on their heads; whereas iiidtiej 
the)' have but one in the turebetd , ttnd terminaciitg over the wind-pipe. 
Nor cin we ovcrlooli the I'lifhirc of Elcphanu with Cadlc* on tbeir badsj 
made in tlie form of land Caftlcs, or (Utionary'tiiriiticaciom. andanfwera- 
blc unto the Arm* of Cd^iU . or Sr. phii Old Caftlc; whcreiis the towers 
they bore, were niade of wood i and gift unto their bodies; as is delivered 
in tbe books of MMcattti, and as they were appointed in the Army of Ai*- 

We will not difputc tbe Pifturts of Retiarjr Soidcri, and ibeir-poOtiaa' 
in (b« web, whitti is rominonlv made lateral, ana regarding, tbe Kari7.0H; 
although , II be obfcrved, wc ftiall commonly find it downward , and flufef ' 
heads rcfpcCbng tlwGenter. Wewill not controvert the Pictiirrof thefuVfn 
Stars^ altbnugb if thereby be meant the Plcixdn, or fubconflellunon Ui-ion itw 
b*chof Taunts, withwhatcongruitythcyarcdefcnbed, cirhermlite ormagt^ 
lude, inaclcar mglitanordinary eycmaydifcovcr, fr%>mJulyumo April, Wc 
will not quellion the tongues of Addcrsand Vipers, defcribcdiikean Ancbdr -, 
nor tlwPidurcof the Viewer dc Luct -. though how far they agrenuicotblip 
cMtural draughtj, let every SpcAator dcicrmiiic. 

Wheiher the ClKtubiins about tk Ark be rit^htly defcribcd in the ctHnmon 
pifture, cliat is, only in humane hndi , with two wiags; or rather iffthr 
fiupe of Angeli or young men, or ftMnewhat at kail with i'cct, a? the-Scrip^ 
ture fccms to imply, Wheiber the Crofs feea in theavr by CtmliJmniu,' 
were Q^ that Hgurc wherein wereprtfent it; orrathermaJe oncof X'and P, 
rir two lirrt letters of ^n^. Wbolier the Croli of Chnll did' anfw^rthe^ 
common ligurci whether fo far advanced above his head ', whctherthct feet 
!wcc io di^>fed, ihut ii, one upon anotber, or fepiratdy nailed 1 as fouw 
witJi rcaJbn dcrcribe it! we ftwtl out at all contefldi Much Icfs wbrtheriho 
honfe nf /Jinfra^y were a Tub framed of wood, and after the manncrofours, 
or rather miade of e.i^th , as learned men cnnctitvc , and fo more deiily inah:« 
out tliat etprcllion of /»tnM/. We fhonld be too cribcai to (]iH:bi>n th«< 
letter Y, or Wornoo*ele»eiw ai Pjih*prMf, tbatis, the nulinigii)rtliehoi:nf 

rual : or iltc left lc!s then the nghi, and (b dcltro) ing. the SymbrfitJl intent of ' 
figure; ronfijundmgdie narrow lineofvcrtuc, witliiiwUrgcrrtntdof vjccj 

ifwerublc umo the narrow door of heaven, aod ibeainplcgJifi*'* hoil. «x- 
^^dbyoorSivionr.andnotforgoncD byi^tMiv, iuihitEfnctiiircJoi^iPAwt'i 
ifc. Many 

Whrrc Ae|^ 
vtn 'kin be | 



Enquiries into f^algar 

Book 5; 


Aikric, de de^ 
rum fWtfgMW" 

Many more there are whereof our pen (hall take no notice , nor (hall we 
ut'ge their enquiry ; we (hail not enlarge with what incongruity , and bow \ 
diflenting from the pieces of Antiquity , the Pi Aures of their gods and god- ; 
defTes are deicribed , and how hereby their fymbolical fenfe is loft • although 
herein it v^ere not bard to be informed i^omPhornmus^ Fulgentius^ and y//- 
bricHs^ Whether Hercules be more properly defcribed llrangling then tearing 
the Lion, as ViSorius hath difputed , nor how the charaders and figures of 
the Signs and Planets be now perverted, asSslmafifis hath learnedly declared. 
Wc willdifpence with Bears with long tails, fuch as are defcribed in the Hgurcs 
of heaven-, We (hall tolerate flying Horfes, black Swans, Hydra's , Centaur's, 
Harpies and Satyrs^ for thefearemonftrofities, rarities, or clfe Poetical fancies, 
whofe (hadowed moralities requite their fubltantial falfities. Wherein indeed 
we muft not deny a liberty •, nor is the hand of the Painter more reffarainable, 
then the pen of the Poet. But where the real works of Nature, or veritable ads 
of ftory are to be defcribed, digreflions are aberrations; and Art being bur the 
I Imitator or fecondary reprefentor, it mud not vary from the verity of the ex- ; 
ample -, or defcribe things otherwife then they truly are or have been. For here- 
by introducing falfe Idea's of things, it per verts and deforms the face and fym- 
metry of truth. 

C H A P« XX. 

of the Hiercglyfhical PiSturesofthe ^Egyptians. 

CErtainly of all men that fuffered from th^ confufion of BAbel , the e>£- 
gyptians ioMtiA the beft evafion^ for, though words were confounded, they • 
invented a language of things, and fpake unto each other by common notions I 
in Nature. Whereby they difcourfcd infilence, and were mtuirively undcr- 
ftood from the theory of their Expreflcs. For they aflamed the (hapcs of 
animals common unto all eyes- and by their conjundions and compolitions 
were able to communicate their conceptions, unto any that co-apprehended the 
Syntaxis of their natures. This many conceive to have been the primati vc way 
of writting, and of greater antiquity then letters-, and this indeed might ylddm\ 
well have fpoken, who underftanding the nature of things, had the ad vantage ! 
of natural expreffions. Which the lyEgjptians but taking upon truft , upon 
their own or common opinion ; from conceded miftakes they authentically ' 
promoted errors •, defcribing in their Hieregiyphicks creatures of their own ' 
invention^ or from known and conceded animals, ereding fignificationsnotin- ' 
farrible from their natures. j 

And firft. Although there were more things in Nature then words which \ 
did exprefe them ; yet even in thefe mute and filent difcourfes , to exprefs 
complexed fignifications, they took a liberty to compound and piece together 
creatures of allowable forms into mixtures inexiftent. Thus began the de- { 
fcriptions of Griphins, Bafilisks, Phoenix, and many more • which Emblema- j 
tifts and Heralds have entertained with (ignirications anfwcring their innituti- \ 
ons; Flieroglypbically adding Martegres, Wivernes , Lion-ri(hes, with divers! 
I others. Pieces of good and allowable invention unto the prudent Speda- ! 
tor, but are lookt on by vulgar eyes as literal truths , or ablurd impoilibi- ! 
lities ; whereas , indeed they are commendable inventions , and of laudable 

Agaiii, Befide tbde pieces fiditioufly fet down, aud having no Copy inNa* 
jture; they had many unqueftionably drawn, of inconfequendigniHcation, nor 
. __« naturally 

Book 'i. MiCMmtH^%i.oiii. 

mtuaiUy verifying tlieit tnimciiin. Wt <hM inftnnre bat la few, ns tlic^' ihnd te- 
corded by Oriu. The oule (ex they «t»re(r«J trr i Vutrurc. becauft of Vul- 
ture* all arc trmalcs, and jropregnMcd hy the «vmd; wlurh authcfiiicilly 
tnnfinircffl b«b piflcd many prn», andbrramctht sircftionof t.'f-tiM, Am- 
knfr, B4f.l J /fiMrf, r««rt, Plahr, and (kIicT!. Wlirtcin nocwidJlan tic| 
Jwnic injur)' :s offered unrochc CreA:»(>n m cins cwfincmcni of fex, and whi( 
dtfturbince utiu> I'tiilvlopby tn tfac cenff irwn of winciy cnnuj-mons, trcftiiill 
net here declare By two dcagms thrf jbougbt it ftlliLicm lo HfimSc &n 
bearc; bccaufc iltc hcacc at one ynr K-ciglii-tlt twn dra"ms cluf t°, lauv- 
tcf of an ounce, »nd unto lil'cy ycaw annuarty mcrciifeili lUe weight or one 
dr^in, after wbtch in llie Cioie proporcibn ii yearly decrcafctti^ ruttiutbe 
life ofannhduih cut iiacurilly dxena itbovc «n hundred. And citif wisoot 
only a popular conceit, but conicnc«oeuus utKO their Pb)Tical f nnclplci, iU Hew- 
nmi batlt accoQntcd it. j 

A wo'iian dm luili but one child . thcy csprcfv by 2 Lioodt'^ ht that, 
conceivcih bin ootr. («und»iy they fa fortli by « Ooar, bccaufe but ftven I 
daie$old, ic bcgmMtb loare to>tion. The abortion of a woman they d^tltibc 
fcy In Horfc kicking a Wolf; bccaulc a Mart will c.i(l her fos\ if QlS trtid 
in the track of tlui auioul, DcJ'ctfmity they fignific by a Bear ■ and an Ud» 
flable nun by an Hyma , bwaufc that animal yearly exthangrtn i» fcx. A 
woniin dtlivcrcdof a Cemnle child, ibey nnply bys BuHlooliing overhijiefi 
(boulder ; lieaufcif in coition a Bull fdrt h'om a Cow on that fide, tbeCalf 
will prove a fcniaJe. 

All wliich, witlinujiyinore, licnv faritwy confent with truth, we fhajloot 
difparage our Reader lo difputc, and though fome way allowable untowifcr 
conceits, who could dtftjnftly rrceivie their fignificauons: yet carrying the 
I maidly 6f Hieroglyphicki, and fo tranfmicted by Autbot* : they crept inty 
a belief witli many, and lavourablc doubt with molt. And thut^ I fear, it 
bach fared with the Hieroglyphical Syaiboln of Scripture: which eicelleiuly 
Intended in [hefixxiCSOtlJiingflacriticiNJ.inthc prohibited mcati, iotbedreams 
of FharsAk, ]o/cfb, and (uarty other pafTagcs: are oft-times wrackt beyood 
their fymbohzaiions, and inlarg'd into conftrudioni difparaging their tioe 




Cti A?. XXI. 

CttoftftdiMfi) fif mMj tfittptHdile Cnfi^nts^ftpinhtittfiliwrtSj 
erMlfifejf m4 Ptfat^ OpftrvAttom. 

If an Hare croti ilic Iiii;h way, there are few above tlireefcore yearj that 
are ni>c perplexed thereat : which noiwiclillandutg it but an Augurial 
terror, according tothacreceivedcxprclTion, In Anfficatitrm iMt Otr M*ttu 
ttpu. And the ground of the comeit was probably no greater then dbs, cbac 
a RarfilU aninial palling by u«, portended unto us fonieduagtobeftsrvd: a^ 
upon the like cnnftdcraciun, the meeting of a Tos preTaged fititie ftitare im- 
pollure, which unu a fupernitioai obfervatioa prohibited unto theft»t, aiif 
exprcffed in die Idohtry of Malmoiiidei, and it cdcrced uiuo tbc tin of an obfer- 
VLToftonunes.oritnr.abiifetheventsuntoguodor bad figns.forbidden by tbe 
Law oi Mtfu; which notwithftandingfumetiniesrucceediiig,acqordingto fears 
or dcfireij have left imprenjonsand tiineroui cupedBcioos in credulous minds 
forever. , 
z. That Owb and Ravens aie'omlRousappearers.andprc'fignifyiiigui^ucitji. 
■ — --' €9&a. 

0»i. IB. 


iinqmries htu Fnlgtr 

Book 5 

The Fttblcm 

cmfm fipa. 

Tkc original 

of taCpcO- 


events, as Chriftians yec conceit, was alfo an Augurill conception. Becaofc 
many Ravens were feen when Alexander enured SaByloH^ they were thovgbc ; 
to pre-ominate his death ^ and becaufe an Owl appeared before the battle^ it . 
prelkgedthe niine of CmJ^i^. Which though decrepite fujperftitions, ai^dfiich 
as bid their nativity in times beyond all hiftory, arefrefti in the obfervacioo : 
of many heads> and by the credulous and feminine party fti!l in fome Ma je'Ay • 
among us. And therefore the Emblem of Supierftition was well fet out by Rifa, ; 
in the pidure of an Owl, an Hare, and an old woman. And it no way confirOK 
eth the Aiigurial confideration, that an Owl is a forbidden food in the Law of i 
Mofes'^ or that ?rr/»/4/f/ii was threatened by the Raven and the Owi» in that! 
expreflion of Ejnyi^ That it fhould be a court for Owls, that the Cor-t 
morant and the Bittern (hould poflTels it, and the Owl and the Raven d wdl \ 
in it. For thereby was only implied their enfuing defolation, as is eippuikUl 
ed in the words mcceeding •, He uull draw upon it the lineof confufion^aodi 
the ftones of emptinefe. j 

3 . The falling of Salt is an authentick prefagement of ill luck, nor can eve- \ 
ry temper contemn it ^ from whence notwithftanding nothing can be nam* I 
rally feared : nor was the fame a general prognoftick of fiiture evill among! 

jhe Ancients, but a particular omination concerning the breach of friendlhip. ' 
For Salt as incorruptible, was the Symbole of firiendftiip, and before the other ,- 
fervice was o0ered unto their gueils •, which if it cafuaUy fell, was accoanted 
ominous, and their amity of no duration. But whether Salt were not only 
a Symbole of friendfliip with man, but alfo a figure of amity and reconcilia- 
tion with God^ and was therefore obferved in facrifices •, is an big&cr fpe- 

4. To break the egg-(hell after the meat is out. we tCe taught in oar child- 
hood, and piraftife it all our lives t which nevertnelefs is but a fuperftitious re- 
liA, acccNrdtng to the judgement otP//«7, Hue j^rtitkt overufh ; kt exrobMrii 
jfdf^'j calicis frotin$$s frangi^ mu e^piem veUirikus ferf$rdti ^ and the intent 
nereof was to prevent witchcraft ^ for left witches ihoutd draw or prick their 
names therein, and reneficioufly mtlchief their perfons, they broke the fhell, as' 
Dakcampius bath obferved. 

5 . The true Lovers knot is very much magnified, and (till retained in prefents 
of Love among us •, which though in all points it doth not make out, had perhaps 
its original from N^dtts Hercnldnust or that which was called Htrcmlei his ktiot, 
rdembling the fnaky complication in the caduccus or rod of Hermes : and in 
which form the Zone or woollen g}rdle of the Bride was ^ened, ssTftrmeim 
obferveth in his AdverfaHa. 

6. When our cheek bttmeth of ear tingleth, we ufually fay that fome body 
is talking of us, which is an ancient conceit, and* ranked among fuperftitious opi- 
nions by Flinj. Abfentes tinmtM atirium frdfentire ferments die fe receftmm eft, \ 
according to that Diftck noted by DaUcMmfins. 

GdfrnU qmd tot is refinoi mlhi noEHbtis attrisf 
Nefiio qnem diets nunc memittijfe met. 
Which is a conceit hardly to be made out without the conceffibnof aiiifni-^' 
fying Gcnius/>r oniverfal Mercur)'*,condufting founds unto their difbnt fub jeds, 
and teachic^ usto hear by touch. 

7. When we defire to confine our words, we commonly lay they arefpokefi 
under the Rofe •, which ezpreffion is commendable, if the Roft from any natii* 
ral property may be the Symbole of fitence, as Ndziamini (eons to imply in tbcle 
traoflaced verfes : 

Vtj^ Utet Rofii Verns ftto itUdmine clanfii. 
Sic $s vimU firat^ vdlidij^ strBetHr bsibenis, 
ImScsug, fnit fr$lixd filemia labris : 


5. and Cemmtn E k R o x i . 

ilfo tolerable, if by dcHnng sfccT«ytowocd>rpolceonilcr[tl?R! 
we only main in focicty ana com[>oi.iti<»n, from dKUioentrnfiom inSym 
fiock matmgt, to wcu' cliaptcu of dole ilxjut tlieir ticadf ; indibwec 
Jcmri '"iO{ [tw (iermdm ciifionj, vvhith over the Vablc dcfcnbcdiA ICofrin 

l.titmorctonfittcrablciti!, if Uic onginii were fiichis ttmiUM/ ,u\i 
■ recorded , ilat tliellorc wai ll»c flower of r«wi, wliidi Cufii 

■ i unco HdrpecMn chc God of liJciKt , iud wat ihcreforf aii Em- 
blem ft.crcof, CO coaccil (he pranU ol" Vcoeryj if ii dcdarcd m tliw Tb- 

Efi Stfi fUi vtntnt^ cujmi fM faUti Latrtut, 

AJt Refitm mru/ii bifpa fufprfulii AmKu, 
CMfvivt tn [nil tk Jiiln ncncU /cumr. 
S. Thac ioiotlc doch tbUow die fuirrit, U .in udinl tiying mtliiu, and in 
nianyparu of Snrtfe-^ whereof alilioug!) tlicrc rccmmi nniural ptound, vet 
is it tiK coniinuatjon of a vct>' ancient opuuon, as Pitrm I'lfhriui and C4«- 
r^tiai have obfcrvedftomi laTugc in Mbmiut : wticrdn a PAnjiu Lhttt de- 
fuibecb bimrdr: 

7* twry tuile jirfiJ C9mf, 
Whtuet Perrid^t I *meAfdijfime : 
A CMfdntMt 4t fi*rn I mu, 
T« ttntT day Sctm 4 iUm ; 
Li^ whtfs diUthitf^it* .tSI^lj, 
Like fm*tik, «w< thtfdir Jfij. 
g. To fit cro& legM , or with our fingers pcoinatod or (hoc together, ii 
accounted bad, and fricndi wUI perfn^c us from it. Tbe Janie cuoreit rcligioody 
poffelTcd the Aiwicnts, as is nbfervaWc from Plitj. PofUin idnnii ftfiimt 
impomre wfiu olim , and allb froiQ Atbatdmi^ thac it wu in old vencticioiu 
pradici;, and ^ivfutismade tn thij poHurc to hinder the driiveryof AUmiM. 
And therefore, as /'jcnwj obliirvcih, in thi Medal of /^i-tPw, the right hand 
of^>«»/ wa* made cxtendoi with the mfcripcion of I'miuCiMctrix -, tor ttw 
complitationor pectination of the fingers was an Hieroglyphic]; of iinpeduniaic, 
as in that place he dctlare(h. 

I o. The fee and (tatary times of pairinC of nails, and cutting of hair, is tboa^ 
by many a point of conjideration ^ which is perhaps but the commuanon 
or an ancient fui-CTftition. lor piaculous it was unto the ^i-»j.ji/ to pare 
their nails upon thcNunduiMc, obfcrvcd every ninth Aiy^ and was alfotwred 
by others in ccruin daics of the week ; according ti» tliat of Am/mimj, Vn- 
imi Mercurit, Bdrkdm fitvt, Cyfridc Crims -, and waiooe part of thewick- 
edncfs that filled up^hcineafurcof MMU^tj, when 'tU deUvtred that he ob- 
SsTcd times. 

A common faOiton it is to nourilk hair upon tbc mouU of the &ce \ 
which is the perpetuation ef a very aiKient cufh^m ^ and chougli innocently 
ptvtifcd among us, may have a ruperDitiotis original, nccording totJut of 
JVw| , jY^Jo/ w Ucie tojidert rilifitfnm kdhtitt mtKC mMlti. From dlC like 
might proceed the tears of poling Elvdocks or complinucd hnin oi cbc 
head , and aifo of locks longer then the otiier hair • iliey being Totflrj' at 
rtrft. and dedicated npon onafiun ^ prcfcrved with grat cure, and according- 
ly eheemed by others, as appearsby ilwt of AfiiJtittj, Adjun ftr duUtmtd- 
filli mi MudMimm. 

II. A ruftoB) tbereis in modpansof Enrsfr lo adorn Ai{ticduas,ipoDts, 

and Cil\enu with Lions heads: tThtcli though no illaudable ornament, it of on 

i-'f^l/iUt gcneologie , who praaifed the fame under « fymbolical illation. 

Tor bcaule the Sun being in Leo . ttie flood of NOm was at the full , and 

Hh water 



Enquiries intp VulgAr 


O K 5 

of the girdle* 



J /Pr.i3 

I Certain H^rf- 
j ttchi who af- 
cilDcd humane 
figure unto 
God. after 
which they 
conceived he 
created man 
In his llkncft. 

water became conveyed into every part, they made the fpouts of their Aqi 
ducts through the head of a Lion. And upon fome cccleftial refpccts ictsr 
improbable the greic Mogull or IndUn King doth bear for his Arms a I.i 


1 3 . Many conceive there is fomewhat amils , and that as we ufually (i 
they are unbleft until they put on their girdle. Wherein ( although m 
know not what they fay ) there are: involved unknown confiderations. I 
by a girdle or cincture arc fymbolically implied Truth, Refolution, and Readir 
unto aftion^ which arc parts and vertucs required in the fervice of G 
According whereto we find that the IfraeUtcs did cat the Pafdial Lamb w 
their loins girded •, and the Almighty challenging Joh , bids him gird up 
loins like a man. So runneth the exprcflion of Peter , Gird up the loins 
your minds, be fobcr and hope to the end : fo the high Prieft was girt ^ 
the girdle of fine Knnen : lo is it part of the holy habit to have our 1< 
girt about with truth; andfois italfo faid concerning our Saviour, Rigl 
oufnefs (hall be the girdle of his loins,and faithfulncfs the fjirdle of his reim. 

Moreover by the girdle, tlie heart and parts which God requires are di 

ed from the inferiour and epithumetical organs ; implying thereby amemc 

unto purification and dcannefs of heart, which is commonly defiled from 

concupifcence and affcAion of thofe parts ^ and therefore unto this day 

Jews do blefs themfelvcs when they put on their zone or cinAurc. 

thus may we make out the dodrinc of Pjthagoras , to oflfcr facrifice ^ 

our feet naked, that is, that bur inferiour parts and fartheft removed from re 

might be free, and of no impediment unto us. Ihut Achilles^ though di| 

in Styx, yet having his heel untouched by that water-, although he were 

tified clfewhere, he was flain in that part, as only vulnerable in the infer 

and brutal part of Man. This is that part of Eve and her poftcricy thct 

dill doth bruifc •, that is, that part of the foul which adherech unto earth, 

walks in the paths thereof. And in this fecondary and fymbolical fenfe it 

be alfo undcrftood, when the Pricfts in the Law walhed their feet befor 

facrifice-, when our Saviour walhed the feetof hisDifcipIes, and faid unt 

frr. If 1 walh not thy feet thou haft no part in me. And thus is it fymboll 

explainable, and implyeth purification and cleannels, u- i in the burnc ^ 

ings the Prieft is commanded to waftithe inwards and l.^s thereof in \\\ 

and in the peace and fin-offerings, to burn the two kidneys, the fat wt 

about the flanks, and as we tranflate it, the Caul above the Liver. Buc wli 

the Je^s when they bleffed themfelvcs, had any eye unto the words of Je 

wherein God makes them his Girdle ^ or had therein any reference unc 

Girdle, which the Prophet was commanded to hide in the hole of the r< 

Eufhrdtesy and which was the type of their captivity, w*e leave unco 1 


14. The Pidurc of the Creator, or God the Father in the ftiapeof a 
Man, is a dangerous piece, and in this Fecundity of feces may revive th 
thropomorphites. Which although maintained from the expreffion of I 
I beheld where the Ancient of daics did fit, whofc hair of his head w; 
the pure wool! •, yet may it be alfo derivative from the Hieroglyphic 
fcription of the C^gjptUns ^ who to exprefs their Eneph, or Creator 
world, defcribed an old man in a blew mantle, with an egg in his mouth ^ 
was the Emblem of the world. Surely thofe heathens, that not withftand 
exemplary advantage in heaven, would endure no pictures of Sun or M< 
being vifible unto all the world, and needing no reprefentation, do evider 
cufe the practice of thofe pencils, that will defcribe invifibles. A 
that challenged the boldeft hand unto the picture of an Echo,muft laugh 
attempt, not only in the defcription of invifibility , but circumfcrip 


41^ Cemmfa £ n a o a i . 


Ibiauuy 1 and Niching under liitcs incomprdicnfible circalariiy- 

Tnc Piccufcsof the ^-^^iz/irMw/ weic more tolerable, andmtbeirracraJIet- 

ri more vcniably cKprcdcii die Jippcchenfioii ot'Divinicj'. Forcliough tlicy 

ipli«l liic fjine by an eye u^a i Stcptcr, by an i£agl» head . a Cnxodiic, ai;d 

dike - yeldid[belentii[>u4ldcrt.TipTiompretc:td nocorporal rcprcfematioiu { 

lor could the people nurc'-tfitcivc i!»c lame unto rcall cinrclpoDdcncic*. So 

High ihc Cherub can led fume apprcbcnfionof Dirimty, yet was it nor tan- 

■cf,vr,i.i.l.^iiT(linpc ilicrcof ;andlo pcrhapi becaure ii U cncupbimcally prc- 

i, ' , tliot he is a lonruming fire . he may be hannlclly dcttrrbcd 

h ( 'cfcniationj Yet if, as (omc will have ic, all meviiucrity ot fully 

1' ' ■■..'iitfcananrcnuirahle evil nray cnfuc, an ioditfcrcnt convenience 

mufi lie uoiiued i wcfliaUnoiurgcfadireprelenimexiis; ffc could rp3rcilielx>~ 

ly (.jtmh for [he picoire of our Savmur, and the X>q\ e ur fiery Tongiio to reprc- 

lenttbcholy Gholl- 

ij- Thciun and Mu«n arc ufually dcicirbrtlwiril hummcfacc*; whether 
hrrcint!icrcbcnol*/'^,^iC«i(nitation, andrhofcvifagMatnrfVithplieij AfuSt and 
lHaM, wcmay makcftHnedo'jbt , and wetindthcitama of thcSunwa* framed 
with rues about ifte head, which were ttie indiciduom and tinfhiv<Mi lf>ck$ of 
^piiU. We fliould be too Iconooiical toqtielhoiuhcpictaraof ilic winds, as 
cumnionly drawn m bunune heads, and with thar chccitt diltenJcd ^ 
which flocwithQanding wc tind condc^uied by Mitnaim, as anfwenng poc- 
[icfllfuDcicf, and the gentle defaiption of £«/«/, BortM, inA thefeign^Dei- 
ti« of winds. 

1 6. Wc (hill not, I hope, difjiaragc the Rcfurrcction of our Redeetnd". !f 
wc fay the Sun dotli not dance on Eaflerdiy- ^nd though we would willing- 
ly atfcnt unto any lympathetical exultacion , yet cannor cDnceive chcreinany 
morechcn a Vropical cxprcflion. Whether any fuch motion there were in that 
day whtrcinChrill arifed. Scripture hath not revealed, wliich Iiath been punctu- 
al! in other records concerning folary unradc* : and the Areopagite thai was 
a[ii,i7ed at the Eclipfc. took no notice of this. And if mctnphohcal expref- 
lions go fo for, wenwy be bold to affirm, not only that oncSun danced, buttwo 
ftrofcdistday : That light appeared at his nativity, and darkncf>at his death, 
ind yet a iighi at both ^ for crcn that darkncfs was a light un[oibe(?nifi7», 
illuminated by that obfturity. That 'twas the firfl time tlic Sun fet above die 
Hi>riion j that although tlicrc were darknef«abovcthccarth,thcre watligbtbc- 
ncatb it, nor dare we fay that hell was dark if he were in it. 

1 7. Great contein are raifcd of the involution or membranous covcrinc, com- 
monly called ilie Silly-how, that fouictimcsisfOHnd about the heads of cuddren 
upon tlicir hirth, and is therefore prefcrved with great care, not only as me- 
dical in difcafes , but cffcdual in foccefs, concerning the Infant and otiicrs ; which 
is furcly no more then a continued fuperrtition. Vor hereof wc read in the lifeof 
/imtmitttf delivered by SparttAnus^ tnat children are born fomeitmes with this na- 
tural api wliitli Midwives were wont to fell unto credulous Lawyers, who had an 
opinion It advantaged their promotion. 

But to fpcakl^iAly, the cffeA is natural, and thus to be conceived ; Animal 
ctmccption* have three teguments, or membranous films which cover tbetn in 
(he womb, tlutis,the Conon, Amniot, and Aliantoii; the Corion ittbeout- 
wardmcmbranc wlierein arc implanted the Veins. Arteries and umbilical vcJTcIs. 
w Eiercby its nouriOiment it conveyed-': the Allanioit a thin coat feated under 
the Corior>, wherem arc rrceived the watery fcparationi conve)*ed by the Ura- 
chus, that the acrimony thereof Ihouid oot otlend the ikta. The Amnioi is 
a gcneraU mvcHmcni , containing the fudorut or thin foodty perfptrable 
through the skin. Now about the time when the Inf^r breakcth tbefe co- 
Tcrings, It fomecime carrieth with it about the bead a part o\ the Atnnios 
Hfi2 or 

Or qM(r<l - 
fom wiih i'l- 

lum:& Pit. 
Htll Mt in 



228 I 

En^uiriii htoFutgdf 

Book 5. 

Why the devil 
Is commonly 
ikfd to appear 
wirh a cloven 

JUv'.t, 17. 

In his Ditm/i- 

or ncareft coat; which faith Spieielius^ cither procccdcth from the tongh- 
ncfs of the membrane or weaknefs of the Infant that cannot get clear 
thereof. And therefore herein rigni(ication<» are naturail'and concluding upon 
the Tn&nt , but not to be extended unto magical iignaliries, or any other 

18. That 'tis good to be drunk once a moncth, is a common flattery of 
fenfuality, fupporting it felf upon Phyfick, and the healthfull effeAs of inebria- 
tion. This indeed fccms plainly affirmed by Aviccnna^ a Phyfitian of great au- 
thority, andwhofercligion prohibiting Wine, cou'd Icfs extenuate ebryrty. But 
Averrots a man of his ourn faith was of another belief; rcitraining his ebriety un» 
to hilarity, and in effeft making no more thereof then ^f;tfr4' commendetb, 
and was allowable in C4^o •, chat is, a fober incalefcence and regulated srfluation 
from wine •, or what may li conceived between Jofefh and his brethren, when the 
text ezprefleth they were merry, or drank largely ; and whereby indeed the com- 
modities fet down by Avicennd , that is,alleviarion of fpirits,refolution of fuperflu- 
icies, provocation of fweat and urine may alfo enfue.But as for dementation, fopi. 
tion of reafon,and the diviner particle from drink, though American religion ap- i 
prove, and Pd^nn piety of old hath praccifed it, even at their facrificcs, Chriftian ' 
moraliry and the doctrine of Chrift will not allow. And furely that religion which 
excufetn the fact of N^h, in theag^d furprizalof fix hundred years, and unex- 
pected inebriationfrom the unknown effects of wine, will neither acquit ebriofi- 
ty nor ebriety, in their known and intended perverfions. 

And indeed, although fometimes effeds fucceed which may relieve the body, 
yet if they carry mifchief or peril unto the foul, we are therein refhainable by 
Divinity, which circumfcribcth Phyfick, and circumftantially determines the ufe 
j thereof. Fromna:ural confiderations, Phyikk commendeth the ufeof vcncry^ 
and happily, incell, adultery, or ftupration may prove a<; Phyfically advanragi- 
ous, as conjugal copulation , which notwithftanding rr.uft noc be drawn into 
praftife. And truly cffefts, confequents, or events which we commend, arifc 
oft-times from waies which we all condemn. Thus from the faft of Lot , we 
derive the generation of ii«ri!r, and bleffed Nativity of our Saviour- which noc- 
withftanding did not extenuate the inceftuous ebriety of the generator. And 
if, as is commonly urged, we think to extenuate ebriety from the benefit of 
vomit oft fuccecding, Enptiar* fobriety will condemn us, who purged both 
waies twice a moncth, witnput : his perturbation : and we foolilhly contemn the 
liberal hand of God, and ample field of medicines which foberly produce chat 

19. A conceit there is, that the Devil commonly appeareth with a cloven 
hoof, wherein although it feem excelfivelv ridiculous, there may be fomewhac 
of truth ; and the ground thereof at firft might be his frequent appearing in 
the ftiape of a Goat, which anfwcrs that defcription. This was the opinion of 
ancient Chriftians concernnig the apparition of Panites , Fauns and Satyrcs ^ 
and in this form we read of one that appeared unto Antony in the wilder- 
nefs. The fame is alfo confirmed from expofitions of holy Saipture^ for 
whereas it is faid, Thou (halt not offer unto Dbvils, the Original word i^ Segh- 
nirim^ that is, rough and hairy Goats, becaufe in thatfhapc the Devil moft 
often appeared ^ as iscxpoundea be the Rabbins , as TremeUlus hath alfo ex- 
plained ; and as the word Afcimah^ the god of Emath is by fome conceived. 
Nor did he only affume this (hape in elder times, but commonly in later daicf , 
efpecially in the place of his worfhip : If there be any truth in the confeiOon of 
Witches, and as in many ftorics it ftands confirmed by BoMmhs. And thA^eforea 
Goat is not improperly made the Hieroglyphick of the devil, as PiVr/'/v/ hath ex- 
preffcdit. So might it be the Emblem of fin , as it was in th6 finofl^ing • 
and fo likewife ot wicked and finfuitf 'men , according to the cxprellion of 

ripture in ibe meiliod of the hft diftribution j wbfa ovr Savkmr lldii f«- 
uetbrSbcqifromtbeGauS] tbatis. ibcSom of die Lamb from tbechiUrm 

Chjl V. XXII. 
of l«mt 0Sbert, 

temperamental (jignotioos, and coaicftureof prcv.i ■ 
may be colkiS^cd from fpots moor nails, we arc notavf i 
Bit yet not rcad^ to admit fundry Jivinatigns, vulgarly Taiii 
Nor io wc oblcrve it verihcd inotbers, what C*-^* difcoverci ai « [i:iij>er- 
ty in himrdf : di have t'lnuid therein fbmcfignsof moll events thit cvci' ni(M| 
pcned unto tiira- Or that there is nmch ccmfldcrahlff in that dwrtrine of Chiiro= ' 
mancy, that fpotsintbe mpof the nailf dolignilic things palt; in thi mlddli!^ 
thing* prefenc ; and at ihe botiom , events to come. That white fpccki, 
prclagc our felicity , blew ones our miilbnunes. That ihofe in the nail, of 
the tfiomb have iigoificatiom of honoor. thofe in the forennger, of richftj 
aixl fo refpecfively inother fingers. { according to Plaoeucal relations, from 
whence they recove their names) as Trieajfut hadt taken up, and Piccittm 
well rejeciah. 

Wc (hall not proceed to querie, what truth there if in Paltrin-Fie, or divi- 
nation trom thofe liitcs in our hands , of high denomination. Although if 
any thing be therein, iifeem* not confinablc unto man j but other creacura 
are aIRt conliderabte; as is ihi; forefoot of the Mool, andef(>e<:ial!y of the 
Monkey-, wherein we hare obicrved the cable line , that of lite, and of the 
lifer. ' 

2. That Cliltdren committed unto the fthool of Nature, without inflinjci 
on would naturally fpeak the primacive language of the world , was the opi^ 
nioQ of ancient hcftdtcm, andcontmued (incc by CtiriiUanii who will have it 
oar Hetrrm tongue, as being the language of A<Um. That ihis were trne, 
were much to be dclired, not only for the caftc attainment of that ufefullcongUe, 
but to determine the wuc and primitive Hebrew. For whether the prefent 
Hebrew, be the onconfoimded language of S*hel, and that which remaining 
in fi'btrvita continued by Al/r^ham and his pollcrity, orraihcrthc language 
of PhxmcU and CAMnn, whcrien he lived, fomc learned men ! perceive do 
yer remain unfaustied. Altt-ough i contirfs ptobability ftands fiirelt for the 
|>rnier : nor are they without all reafon , who think that at the confuiion 
of [ongaes , there was no conftitution of a new fpecch in every family i bwt 
a variation and penmitation of ihcold. out of onccomoion language raiiing 
fcvcral Dialects: the pnmiiivc tongue remaining Ibll incite. Whiclithcy who 
retained might luakea ihift to undcrlland mofloftbc reft. By vercuc whereof 
in thoft primative times and greener eonfufions. AhtAham of the family of 
Bthtr wat able to converfc with the ChdUfMs , to underftand MtfofttA- 
mi*»u ChAiuniw, Philifhxt, and E^ypiUm: wliofe fcV^ral Dialects he could 
reduccumo the Original and primitive tongue, andfcto be able tounrffirHand 

3. Though ufelefs unto us, and rather of moleflacion, wc coipmonly rcfhain 
firom killing Swallows, and efteem it unlucky to delh-oy them .- whether herein 
there be not a P^fma nitqpe, we barefome rcafitnto doubt. Tor we read in 
BliAtt. that thefir birds were facred unto the Prmttj or hou(TioMg"d* of the 
joiacnts, and therefore were preferred. The fame they alfo lionaured as the 


Ho* At/«h»m 
mllht unJcr- 
Rand iht l>n> 


ttaat In the 


Enquiries ifU$ Vnlgdr 

Book )• 

Wby candles 
may born 
blcw> before 


Ve ft metMlli- 


nuncio's of the fpring ^ and we find ^RhodumshaA a folemnibngco wdcome 
! in the Swallow. 

4. That Candles and Lights barn dim and blew at the apparition of fpirics, 
maybctrue, if the ambient ayr be full of fulphurious fpirits, as it happeneth oft- 
times in mines •, where damps and acide exhalations are able toexcinguifh chem. 
Andmay bealfo veru^ed, when fpiritsdo make chemfelvcsviiibleby bodies of 
fuch effluviums. B ut of lower conlideration is the common foretelling of llnui- j 
gers, from the fungous parcels about the week<; of Candles : which only figoi- < 
fieth a moift and pluvious ayr about thcm,hindering the avolation of the light and 
fkvillous particles : whereupon they are forced to fettle upon thcSnaft. 

5. Though Coral doth properly preferve and fiden the Teerb in men, yet is ic 
uTedinChilorentomakeaneanerpairageforthem : and for that intent is wora 
about their necks. But whether this cuftom were rot fuperftitiouny founded, m 
prefumed an amulet or defenfative againll fafcination^is not beyond ail doubt, tor . 
the fame is delivered by Plinj. Armfpices rcUgUfum Cora/ii gefidmen dmUiemdit^ 
fericula drbitrdntur •, (^ fHrcaliinfdntid dlUgdii^ tuteldm habere crcduntwr. 

6. A ftraoge kind of exploration and peculiar way of ilhabdomancy is that whicb 
is ufed in mineral difcoveries^ that is, with a forked hazel, commonly called Mofts 
his Rod, which freely held forth, willftirandplay if any minebe undent. And 
though many there are who have attempted to make it good, yet untill better in- 
formation, we are of opinion with AgricoU^ that imt felf it i^afruitlefs explo- 
ration^ ftrongly fcentingof Pdgun derivation, and the virguU DiviMd, proverbi- 
ally magnified of old. The ground whereof were the Magical rods in Poets that 
of Pa/lds in H$mer^ that ot Merenrj that charmed Argus ^ and that of Circt 
which transformed the followers of Vljjfes. Too boldly ufurping the name of 
Mofes rod, from which notwithftanding, and that of Adron, werepropabJy oc- 
cafioned the fables of all the reft. For that ofAfofii mufl needs be fiimous unto 
the lyfgjptidHs; and that of Adron unto many other Natio?.s, as being prefcrved 
in the Ark,untill the deftrudion of the Temple built by Solomon. 

7. A praftife there is amon{; us to determine doubtfull matters, by the opening 
of a book, and letting fall sr (laff ^ which notwithfhnding are ancient fragments ot 
P^^^w divinations. The firft an imitation of SortesHomcricd^or } ir^i/uttje^dnw- 
tag determinations from verfes cafually occurring. The fame was pradifed by Stat' 
nuy who entertained ominons hopes of the Empire, from that verie in / ir^U^ Tm 
rtgere imferio populos Romanc memento \ and Cordianus who reigned but few daies 
was difcouraged by another, that is, ojiendxnt rcrris hnnc tdntnmfdtd , nee mlrrd 
effefinunt. Nor was this only performed in hcath:n Authours, but upon the (acred j 
text of Scripture,^s Grcgorius Turonenfis hath left feme account and as the pradife 
of the Emperor Herdclius, before his Expedition into Afia minor, is delivered by 

As for the Divination or decifion from ch » flaff^ it is an Augarial relique, and 

the pradife thereof is accufed by Godhimfelf-, My people ask counfel of their 

frocks, and their ftaffdeclareth unto them. Of this kind of Rhabdomancy was 

that pradifed by JV4^i^/^4^o»c/0r in xhuCdtdedn mifcellany, delivered by Ez^ 

kjel'^ The King of Bdbjlon flood at the parting of the way, at the head of two 

waies to ufe divination, he made his arrows bright, he confulted with Images, he 

looked in the Liver^ at che right hand were the divinations of ferufdlem. That is, 

as EfliHi expounded it,the lefr way leading unto Rabbdh^iht chief City of the Am- 

mimtes, and the right unto Jerufdlem^ he confulted Idols and entrails, he threw up 

I a bundle of arrows to fee which way they would lipht- and fallingon the right 

hand he marched towards ferufdlem. A like way of fielomancy or Divination 

by Arrows hath been in requefl with Scjthidns, AUnes^ Germdns^ with the Afri- 

cdfts and Tttrki of Algier. But of another nature was that which was pcadifed 

lK^.I3.I^ ' by JE//j/!&4, when by an Arrow (hot from an Eaftern window, he pre- fignified the 

' deflrudion 




Book 5. 

and Commm Errors. 

idcflnjAi'.io of 5Tri4;orw!i*n3£cnr(!ineunto tlictbrpcflroakcf f^uip,, wi(h«»| 
Arrow upon ihr ground, he forewldtlic nuinbcr of hij vifloncv lorthtu-cby 
dicfpirit i)t' Gou particuUr'Jiiic dmc- anddctrj'inmeJ (tic lirtoiksiif the King. I 
I ' mo (hrce, which die !v>pc5 of ilic Prophet csp.'fli.-d in rwicc tliat nmiiber. 

Wc arc unwitlmg to cnisrg; coivteininR miiiy other ; onlv rcfcring unto 

iChnlltAn coniidrracioisi, wliai naturs!cffc^:cnnr«if<tnaWy be expcfled, wticii 

I to p.crci>[ die Epliblic* vr niglit-Marc wc bang up an hollow fidivc in our llablcs, 

when for amulwy agamll Ague* wtufc the chips ofGallowiand phcwofexeni- : 

I rion- Wltm for Warn we rub our hands Serorc ih^yoon, t^r commie any nva- 1 

I culntcd put unto wc toficb of the dnd. Swurp't licrcot' our learned XeUot and j 

1 cnriQ.\I pliilologcTf might illufbitc; whofc abler pcTk>riit3ritCi*>ur aJventura | 

do bur folicitc- Mean while I hiipe iheywill pLiut'ibly Jtieiveouractcmpff, or 

cindidly corrcCT our mifLX)niMturcs. 

S. Wci-annot omiciooolcrve, ihetoucliy of anciranulloms, in tbcnomi- 
nsloWervationof tlicfeveraldiietof tbe wccK atcording loCrwi/^ stnipM^m 
■ppcllaiiom : for chc OngiMl it verj' high, and as old a* tV antieoi ty£nfriMu^ 
who o.imed the fameactording to tlic feven Planets, the admitcd lUr* of hca?cn, 
jod repyied Deiiies amongthcm. Untocveryonc alligning afcvcral day j not 
according to Ebeircalcft:aloder, or as thej-arc difpofcd in beaten ^ but uicra 
diarcfferon or nmlica! fourth. For begmning Saturday with Saturn, the fupraneft 
phn« ihcy accounted by jupilcr and Mars unto Sol, making Sunday, from Sol ia 
like manner bv Venus and Meicury unto Lima, making Munday-, and fo through 
all the rcll. And the fame order they conrirmcd by numbering tiic hours of the day 
untoiwJnty four .according to chc narural order of the Planets, lor bcgfnmngto 
account from Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, and fo about wnro twenty lour, tlic next day 
will Fill unto Sol,whcncc accounting twenty- four.the next will happen unto Luni, 
making Mundy. And (b with the reii; .according to the account and order obfervcd 
^-ftiil among us. 

HiThc ?rw/themfclvci in their Af\rologic3lconf!dera:ions,concerningNati vines, 
^Bnd Planetary hours, obferve tbefamc order, upon at witty foundations- fieoaufe 
^Rvan e«ua) in:erval,ihey make fevcn trianglcs.the bafci wbereofarc the feven (ides 
of a fcptilatcral (igurc.dcfcribcd witliin a circle.Tha: is.I f a fiipirc of fcren fides be 
defcribed in a circle, and at thcangles thereof chc names of the Planets be placed, 
in their natural order on ii : if we begin wichSaturn.andfucccliivcly draw lines 
from angle to angl:, untill fcvcn et^uicrural triangles be defcribed, whofe bafes are 
the feven fides oV the fepcilueral figure, ihetriangles willbcmade by thi»ordcr. 
The firfV being made by Saturn, Sol and Luoa.that is, Saiurday,Sunday, and Mun- 
dav; and fo the reft in the order llill retained. 

But cbttsmiich is obfcrvable, that however in ccaleAial confidcrations they em- 
' braced the received order of the Planets, yet did they not retain cither characters, 
' or names m common ufe amongft us -, but declining humane denominations, they 
! aiiiencd thcin namesirom fomc remarkable qualities - as i« very obfcrvable in their 
red and f^L-ndcnt Planets, that is,of Mars and Venus, But the cliangc of ilicir aamet 
difparacednotcbcconlideriuionof their natures^ nor did they tnereby rejeiS all 
memory of chefe remarkable Starsj winch God him fclf admitted in his Tabernacle. 
if conjcfture will hold concerning the Golden Candlcftick- whole flufr refcmblco 
die Sun, and lis branches the Planets about it. 

Omm VTttrtt ttviM tihi dt pMlimnt rivtitt . 



tfuj 4»a.uf- 

Ml F^ril. ft- 






Boo K 6. 

tmd Csmmtit E k r o it s . 


Of Jundry common opifiionr Cofmogra^hkall 
and Hrjioricaii. 

Ibefirjl Di/cQur/e cmprehendid in fe'veraJi Chapters. 

C H A P . I. 

concerning the itginfing »/ t^ World^ tb/u the time thereof it n^ frtdftly 
It he knmn , m men gemrdUj juffofe : Of mens enjjttiries in afhat ftdftn 
sr point of the Zodiickit bttan- Th/tS m they iregentrdliy oudethej 
Are in vain , dnd m firtfCHlnrly iff lied uncertain, of the divifiM af 
tbefeafons andfounjaariers of the year, accBrdingto AHrtnomerf And 
Phjfftidns. That the eemmcn C9mf»te of the Ancients, aadwhiehis yet 
retantd hy msfi, is unreafffitahle And errenieus. of fame DivinAtifns nnd 
ridicuUus didultisnt from one part pf the year t» Another And tf the 
Providence atjd fVifdom of Cod tn the fite and motion of the Sun. 


Onccrning the World and its tempor^ cironnrcrip- 
tions , wno cv« ftwll flrifily cxanunc both cxtrcamt, 
will carilypcrceivcihcrc isnotonlyobfturity iniwend, 
but id beginning, that as its period is inTcruiable , To 
is its luttvity indeteiinjjiable : That as it it prcfuniftti- 
00 to entjuin; alter tbe one, fo is there no rellorlatir- 
&flory dccillon in th« other. And hereunto wefluU 
inoie readily alTent , if wccxxmincibe inforinatioiu, 
andtai^ea view of theTevcral diffioilcinin tbu point; 
which we (hill more eafily do.if we confider ibcdifirent 
conr6t«of mea.and duly p«rp(;nd the itnper^ionsof their diftovenes. 

Andiirlt. ThchiOorinof the C^ntriVfi aff:>rd usnei)d<r faiitbdion. nor can 
:ibe\' relate any dory, or affix a probable point to its begiiming. 1 or fomc there- 
of (and tbofc of the wifeftatnongft them )arcfo&r from determining itsbcgin- 
ninn, that they opinion attdiDamain it never had any at all ; as the dodnnc of 
£^r unit i(r\fi\<iU, and more pofitivcly yfri^w/f inhisbooks/Jf Cir/udeciarnh. 
Endeavouring to confirm it with argument* of reafon, axul thofcapj-iearmgly de- 
1 1 monftartivci 


TIk If of 

(dlainly dt- 



Enquiries int$ Vulgar 

Book d« 


Why the Athe- 
nians did wcir 
a golden Ir' 
fed upon their 


That mfn 
fpcik not by 
ni:ural in- 
liind,buc by 
and imicatxjp. 

monftractve -, wherein Ins labours arc rational, and uncontrouble upon the 
grounds affudtodfChac is,of Phyfical generacion.and a Primary or fix[\ matter, 
beyond wbicb' no other band was apprehended. But herein we rcoiain fuffi- \ 
ciencly fatisfied from Aiofes, and the Doftrine delivered of the Creation -^ chat 
is, a prodaftion of all things out of nothing, aformationnoc only of mac* 
ter,buc of fbrm,aBd a materiation even of matter it felf. 

Others are fo^ from defining the Original of the World or of mankind, 
that they have held opinions not only repugnant onto Chronology , but 
Philoibphy ; that is, that they had their beginning in the foil where they I 
inhabited ^ aifumingor receiving appellations conformable unto fuch conceits. 
So did the ^^iS^rnkfiii term thcrafelvesttU7t>r.^Fiff or Aborig^ines^ and in tefti- 
mony thereof did wear a golden I nfeft on their heads-, the fame nameisalfo 
given unto the Inlanders, or Midland inhabitancsof thisKlandbyCtfy^ir. But 
this is a conceit anfwerable unto the generation of the Giants-, not admitta- 
ble in Philofophy , much le(s in Divinity, which diftinctly informeth we are 
all the feed of Adam^ that the whole world pcrifhed unto eight pcrfon* 
before the floc^d , and was after peopled by the Colonies of the fons or 
N9nh. There was therefore never any Autochthon^ or man arlfing from the 
earth but Adam •, for the woman being formed out of the rib, was once 
removed from earth, and framed from that Element under incarnation. And \ 
fo although her production were not by copulation, yet was it in a manner! 
(eminal : for if in every part from whence the feed doth flow, there be 
contained the Idea of the whole -, there was a feminality and contracted 
Adam in the rib, which by the information of afoul, was individuated into 
Eve. And therefore this conceit applyed unto the Original of man, and the 
beginning of the world, is more judly appropriable unto its end. For then in- 
deed men (ball rife out of the earth : the graves (hall (hoot up their concealed 
^eds, and in that great Autumn, men (hall fpring up, and awake from their 
Cbaos again. 

Others havebeen fo blind in deducing the Original of things, or deliver- 
ing their own beginnings , that when it hath fallen into concroyer(ie, 
they have not recurred unto Chronologie or the Records of time : but 
betakeh tbemfelves unto probabilities, and the conjcAuralities of Philo- 
fophy. Thus when the two ancient Nations, t/Egjptians and Scythi- 
ans contended for Antiquity, the t^gjfti^ns pleaded their Antiquity from 
the fertility of their foil, inferring that men there firft inhabited, where they 
were with moil facility fuftained ; and fuch a land did they conceive was 

The J'cjf^/if^iM/^altbough a cold and heavier Narion ikrgfdmorcacQcdy, de- 
ducing their Arguments from the two adive Elements and Principles of all 
things. Fire and Water. For if of all things there was firft an uflion,|ind that 
Fire over.ruled the reft :furely that part ofeatth which was coldeft,wooId firft 
get free, and afiford a place of habitation. But if all the earth were firft iovolved 
in Water, thofe parts would furely firft appear, which. were moft lug^^ and of 
moft elevated (ituation, and fuch was theirs. Thefe reafons carried indeed the 
Antiquity Irom the n/Egjftians^ but confirmed it not in the Scjtbmns : for as 
HerndBtfts relateth from Pargitaus^tbcit firft King unto I>^irMf/,thqf Counted 
but two thoufand years. 

As for the ty£gjptians they invented another way of trial ; for as the fiune 
Author relatech, Pfammitichus their King attemped thisdecifion by a new 
and unknown experiment, bringing up two Infants with Goats « and where 
theyncver heard the voice of man ; concluding that to be the ancientcft Na- 
tion, Whofe language they Ihonld firft deliver. But berdn he forgot that 
fpeech was by inftniAion not inftind, by imitation, not by nature ^ that 


Mi Cvmmtn E « a o r s. 

:n do fftik m fome traj but like Parrett , and u ihf y arc inftrudfti , that u, 
Umplc !crm» ami words, cxprcfRng tJve open nocioM of rhingk^ which 
iftrconjaflof Rt;.ir<)MciiinpDi)ntiEJiintopro(>i>(itii>m, nnd the UllincoSyl- 
'MigirmtarHl foDin ft tatiocirutioii. And llawfbevcr die acconnc of M^uf 
thUrlw -.+;^)r^/i4i«Pne(l run very higli, and it be evident tbac -Wwj-*!* peo- 
pled thit 0>uniry f wliofe nimcwitJitlic Httrrtu itbareth untotbit day) 
and I here be many ihinn of great Antiquity related iiiHoIy Saipcure, yet 
vnt tbcir eutt aonjuat rot very aneicnc j for Pidtmy (lirir Country-man 
hcginncih his Alirommi'iil compute no Iiiglicr llien A'dtmu^rr , vtUo u 
conceived by fume itic fame wich Sd/mAiuftr. Ajforttc Argument dedu- 
ced frtim the Fertility tif th; (bd, duly enquired , it nthet ovcrchrowctb 
thcrt ptoraotwh their amiquic)' ; for ihit Country whofe tercility they fo 
advanre, was in ancient trnieii no firm or opcnland, hut fome vaU Ulte oc 
pirtiif the Sea, dnd beome a gtjned gjruuna by tticmudand limoD» matccr 
bronglir down by the river Nilut, wtiidi fctlodby degceisinto afirmLand. 
According as i* MprcfCrd by Strji/j, and more at large by HtrnUtmt^ both 
fmcn ibc«-^|:7f/M/i iradkion and proliahle inducemcnu from reafooi, called 
ihznSottflaruii^num, aaacceflian of earth, ortradof landacquired by the 

Laflly, Some iniee J there are, who have kept Reoirdi of time, and of a con- 
fidenbkduration, yetdo the esaiflefl thereof afford no fatitiadion concern- 
ing the bo^nning of die world , or any way point out the time of its crea- 
tion. The mod Autbcndd; Recordiandbcflapprovcd Aotitjuity arc itiofeof 
the ChMlJeMMt ; ye: in the time of AUxAnder the Great, they attained not fo 
high as the flood, l-or as Simfiicims retateth, Arifietle rcaoircd of CdUfihtna^ 
wboaccotnpanied that Worthy in bnexpcduion, thacatnitarriveat li^tjhnt 
be would enqoire of the Antiquity of their Recordt; and thofe upon cotn- 
pute hefbandio amouoc unto 1901 years • which account notwithflaod- 
ir^ aiifeth 00 higher then 9; years after the flood. The Arcit^MmiX con- 
feft, were eflecmcd of great Antiquity, and it wai ufually £iid they were be- 
fore the Moon, according unio that of Srutcd. Sjdm foji vttntt Arettdti 
tStum ; and that of Ovid, Lun/t ^riu friar iU^fuit- Botchisai Cr^on- 
MKt obferveth,muft not be taken grofly,a<>tboagb ibeytwere cxifteni belbre 
tharLuiirinary ^ but were fo dicemcd.becaafc th<y nhfervcd a fa couric of 
yeifjberorcrhcCrwf:/ conformed dicir year unto die courfc and motion of ibc 

Thus ihe Heuhcni afTording no fatis^Aion herein* they arc aioft likely 
to manifi^ dHs truth, who have been acqtiainced with Holy ScriptUtc, ana 
the facred Qironology delivered by Mtitiy who diilinAly fetidoirn this 
account , computing by ccrt:iin intervals, by iDemonble tylr^/, Eftebt/.fx 
tenm of time. At trom the Creation unto the flood , from thence tiaio 
Airthtm , from AbrMhum unto the departure from rj€fyfc, <^c- Now 
in thii number have only been S4ni4Tii4Mt, ftwt and ChrijiUai. For thc7«T»/ 
they agree doe in tfxir accounts, as ZfoAw in his method of Hiftory bath 
obfcrvedout of BmI Stdir, RM't Najl'em, Gtrfim, and others; ia whofc 
compute the age of the World a out yet 5400 years. The tanieit more 
evidendy obfervable from two moft leariied ^rw/, Phil» and ^fftfkmt j , 
who very much differ in thcaccountsof tiine, and varioully fum up thefc | ^°"'' 
Intervals aHisitcd unto by all. Thus fhilo from die departore out ofi 
■^'i^rjpt unto the building of the Temple , acxooots but 920 years . buc ! 
luftfhHf fets down io6z. phih frtim the building of the Temple 10 iu 
dcftniftion 440. fefifhui 470 ; Phih from the Creitioo to die dcftrufti- 
onof ilw Temple )J75. but f^fifbmt iji). P^U from the Dduge to the 
dcAcudioD of the Temple ]7tS.but ^o/rp^wi 191 1- IQ which CompuiailKTt 

Sabiuie con- 
cerning tbe 


Enquiries into F»lgdr 

Book 6. 

Gal I 

Vy whit ac- 
counc the 
world hach 


are manifeft difparicies, and fucb as much divide the concordance and harmony : 
ofcimes. ! 

For the Sdmsriuns ; cheir account is different from thefe or any others ; ; 
for they account from the creation to the deluge, but 1302 years- which 
comcch CO pais upon the different account of the ages of the Pratriarks fee 
down when they be^ac children. For whereas the Hebrew, Greek and La-i 
tine texts account fared 1 62 when he begat Enoch , they account buc 62, 
and fo in others. Now the Sdtnaritdns were no incompetent judges of times .' 
and the Gironology thereof ; for they embraced the five books of Mtfei^l 
and , as it feemetb, preferved the Text with far more integrity then the Jews ^ 
who as TertnllidH , Chrjfoftcme^ and Others obferve , did feveral wayes cor- 
rupt the fame^efpecially in paAagts concerning the prophefies of Chrill ^ So that 
as fenme profcfTcth , in bis tranflation he was fain fometime to relieve him- 
felfby the .f^vf^nr^ii Pentateuch ; asamongft others in that Text, DeMsri»$- 
my 27. AiaieMSlMs emms qmnon fermdnferit in omnibus ^ttd fcripta fmu in 
lihro Legis. From hence Saint Paul inferreth there is no julliHcation by the 
Law , and urgeth the Text according to the Septuaginr. Now the Jews to af- 
ford a latitude unto themfelves, in their copies expunged the word *?3 or Syn- 
categorematical term ommV ; wherein lieth the flrengch of the Law, and of ihe 
Apollies argument; but the .$'4iRMr/V^ Bible retained it right,and anfwerable I 
unto what the Apoflle had urged. ! 

As for Chri(\ians from whom we (hould exped the exadeft and moQ con- j 
curring account , there is alfo in them a manifed difagreement , and fuch as j 
is not eafily reconciled. For firO, The Latines accord not is their account ^ 
to omit the calculation of the Ancients, of A^iftin , Bcde , and others, the 
Chronology of the Moderns doth manife(\ly difTent. Jofeflms Scanner , 
whom HelwMs fecms to follow , accounts the Creation in 765 of the 
fniian period ; and from thence unco the Nativity of our Saviour allow- 
eth 3947 years;. Buc Dionyfitu Petavins a learned Chronologer difTenteth 
from this compuct almoft 40 years ; placing the Creation in the 730 of 
the fntinn period, and £pbm thence unto the Incarnation accoonteth 35)83 

For the Greeks-, cheir accounts are more anomalous; for if we recur un- 
to ancient computes , we fhall find that Clemens Alexandrinns^ an ancient 
Father and Ptdcefur unto Ori^rrn^ accounted from the Creation unto our Sa- 
viour, 5664 years •, for inthc firftof his Stromaticks, he colleftcth the time 
from Admn unto the death of Commodns to be $ 8 5 8 years ; now the death of 
rommodmi he placeth in the year after Chrift 1 94, which number dedu Aed 
n'om theformer, there remaineth 5664. Theophilus Bifhop of Amiocb ac- 
coumethunto theNativityH>fChnft55i5. deduceable firom the like way of 
compute, for in his firfl book dd Antolychnm^ he accounteth fi-om AjUm 
unto Amrelim Verns 5 695 years ; now that Emperour died in the year of our 
Lord 18a; which deduded firom the former fumme, there remaineth 5 5 1 5 . 
fnliHt Afrtcanms an ancient Chronologer, accounteth fomewhat lefs, that is, 
5500. Enfetiw^OrofinjMd others diffent not much from this, but all exceed 

The latter compute of the Greeks, as Petdvius obferveth, hath been reduced 
unto twoor three accounts. The firft accounts unco our Saviour 5501, and 
this hath been obferved by 2(icefh$r0s, Theophdnes, and Mdximms. The 
other aoconnts $509 ; And this of all atprefent is generally received by the 
Church of Conftdntinopte , obferved alfo by the Mofcovite, as I have ieen in 
the date of the Emperours letters ^ wherein this year of ours 1645 i< 'rom 
the year <ff the world 7^54, which doth exadly agree unto tbislaft accoaoc 
5509»<<>tifunto that fumme be added 1645 ,tbeproduA will be 7 154^ by 
^______ this/ 

t' □ □ ^ 6m 

jMicMUMMEn aov • 


i Chronnlngy a 

fit, 6tjCj(. Nu( 

I chcllabbin 

nnd itiuc i< I 

r^:5'-, (tnc 
:cy or' /Tff*/ 

? moth in rciiucfl with the fov», aniJ in fomc tredit alfi) wiUi 

Chnlharu, ihit the worid ftiouM Ufl but (is thonfanj jrtrvj uncn thcfe 
[ fay, it hiiJi b«n long and om of mmiory dilpioved . tor the Sabbart- 
call and 7000 yeir wbcron rhc wnrM Ihnnld end ( u did th- Crarim 
onthc fcvoiihday } onto ibem ii lungtgocspifed; theyarc pmcirMiiig 
in [he rigb: ifwufainJ year, and ntimberi exceeding tSorc divfi; whmh Lncn 
have raidet!is niKs and ihidow* of thefe. Dnirtrcamly whit Af^na Ln 
the Jew concoT«li of ihe end of the h«ivoii , cscwdfth the «cr>oot of all 
that ever ftuU be v fi>r though Ik cuntftveth the blrmcnta! frimc fttuJI 
end in ibc Seventh or Sabbatical Millenary , y« cannot he cpinkm the 
heavens and more durable psrt of the Creation flullpcrifh before ferentitije* 
tcvcn, or 49, ibatm, the Quidtantof tlicoftcr fcvcn, awl petfett Jubdee of 

Tlitu may wc obfcnirc the diflrrcncc and wide difTent of mens opinioiw, «nd 
thereby the great it:eertainty in tbu crtaHiAwncnt. The Hebrew* not tinly 
diff-muigfrom ilie SamaritaiK.iheLaiinetfrom the Greek* ,biit every oocfVofti 
another. Infomurfi that all can be in the right it it urpoftible; thit any 
onenfo.not with affurancc determinable. And therefore at Ptrjt'tKt coo- 
feflirth, to effrft the ratnt exaflty w;choui infpiration it is impollible, and be- 
yond tbe Arithmacick of any hut God himfclf.And therefore ttfo what f»tirf»<li- 
on may be obnioed irom (bofc Tiulcnr difpote!, and eager enquirers in what 
day ofthemooeth the world began, cither of Marthor Oflober j likewile in 
wnat&ccorpofitionoftheMoon, whether attbcprimeer full, orfoonafter, 
letouricconaandfertoiuconfiderations dctermtne. 

Now the reafon and ground of tbii difTcnr.u the utihapfty difierencc between 
the Greek and Hebrew Bdinom of the liible.for unco chcfe two Languages have 
all Tranflatt'om conformed ; the holy Scripture being firft delivered in Hebrew, 
and firfttraDliated into Grcclv. For tbe Hebrew; it i» incontrovertibly Uie 
primitivcand furefl tcxttorclyon,and to prcferve the fame entire and uncor- 
rupt there huh been ufcd the hichetl caution humanity could invent. For as 
H..Btn.MMm6n !mh dtclatcd, rt in the (opying thereof one letter were written 
twice, or if one Icitcr but tovicbed another, that copy was not admitted into 
ihcir Synagogues , bat only allowable to be read ioSchoolsard private faini- 
liei. Neither were thej'taremll only in the cxaft number of their SefiiofB of the 
Law, but had alfo the ruriofity to number cvcryword, and affiled theaccoiiot 
Unto their fcveral books. Notwitbftanding til which, divers corruption! enfued, 
and fcveral depravations fliptin, ariitng from many and manifcit grounds, as 
hath been cxidly noted by Atarltms in his preface tinto the Scptuagmt. 

As fi»r the Septuagint, it is tlie Krlland moftandencTranflation; and of 
greater Antiquity thenilieChaldeevcrlion} occafioncd by the requeft of PtP- 
UwKui PhiUailphHi KingofEgypf,for thcornaracntofhismemoraWe Library \ 
Onto whom the high priefl ad£efl«l (ix Jews out of cvtry Tribe, which amount- 
ethnotoyl; ana bythefc ivaseffirAedtlmTrannition we ufually term tbe 
SeptBa|int,or Tranllation of feventy. Which name, however it obtain from the 
norabcr of their pcrfotw, yet in rcfpcA of one common Spirit , it was the 
TrandatioD bat as it we're df one man. For ai the (lory rdatetb, although 
they were let apart and fevered from each other , yet were their Tranf- 
lations found to agree in every point , according as is related by Fhil^ and 
7«/fpt*/ialtboa^wefind not tbe fame in Anffmif, who hath exprcfly creat- 
ed thereof. 

Tbe ouftoC 


HebKW Text 
of ihe ftlble. 

of the ItpuU' 
glnt tmtQj- 

Ariflul «4 



Enquiries inu VulgAr 

Book 6. 


De Hebtitl & 
^neei textiu 

This Tranflacion in ancienc tiroes was of greac aucboricy , by cliis many of. 

the Heathens received feme notions of the Creation and the mighty works of t 

God • This in exprefs terms is often followed by the Evangelilb , by the 

Apoflles, and by oar Saviour himielf in the quotations of the old Teitament. 

This for many years wasufed by the Jews themfelves, that is, fuch as did Hel- J 

lenize and dilperfedly dwelt out of Paledine with the Greeks ; and chis alfo the j 

fucceeding Chriftians and ancient Fathers obferved ; although there fuccceded i 

other Greek verfions, that is, of A^mU^Theodofius Md SymmachHs ; tor the | 

Latin tranflationof yrrom called now the Vuljgar, was about 800 years after | 

the Septuagint -, although there was alfo a Latin tranflation before, called ^ 

the Italick verfion. Which was after loft upon the general reception of the 

tranflationof Saint Jerom. Which notwithftanding ( as he bimfelf acknow- 

ledgetb^ bad been needlefs, if the Septuagint copies had remained pure,and as 

they were 6rft tranflated. But, ( fadide that different copies were ufed, that 

Alexdndria and S^t followed the copy of Hcfjchius^ Antioch and Comfiami- 

fMple that oiLucUn the Martyr, and others that of Origen ) the Septuagint was 

much depraved, not only from the errors of Scribes, and the emergent cor-i 

rupcionsoftime, but malicious contrivance of the Jews; zsjuftin M^rtjr hach 

declared, in his learned dialogue with Trjphon^ and Morinns hath learnedly 

fliewn from many confirmations. 

Whatfoever Interpretations there tiave been fince, have been efpecially eife- 
Aed with reference unto thefe, that is, the Greek and Hebrew text , the 
Tranflators fomecimes following the one, fometimes adhering unto the other, 
according as they found them confonanr unto truth, or moft corrcfpondent 
unto the rules of faith. Now however itcometh to pafs , thefe two are very 
different in the enumeration of Genealogies, and particular accounts of cime i 
for in the fecond interval, that is, between the flood and Ahrahdm^ there is 
by the Septuagint introduced one Cdinan to be the fon of Arfhdxad and father 
oiSdlah, whereas in the Hebrew there is no mention of iuch aperfon, but 
Arphdxddis fet down to be the father ofSaUh. But in the firft interval, that 
is, froln the Creation unto the flood, their difagreement is more confiderabie ^ 
for therein the Greek exceedeth the Hebrew, and common account almoft | 
600 years. Andtis indeed a thing not very ftrangc, to beat the difference 
of a third part, info large and colledive an account, ifweconfider bow diffe- 
rently they are fet forth in minor and lefs miftakable numbers. So in the 
Prophefie of 7«;i4i, both in the Hebrew and Latine text, it isfaid, Yqc forty 
dayes and Ninevj (ball be overthrown : But the Septuagint faith plainly , and 
thatin letters at length, 7fH< it^k^f^ that is, yet three dayes and Ninevy ihall 
bedeftroyed. Which is a difference not newly crept in , but an obfervacion 
very ancient, difcuffed by Auftin^ znd Theoderet, and was conceived an er- 
ror committed by the Scribe. Men therefore have raifed different com- 
putes of time, according as they have followed their different texts; and 
fo have left the hiftory of times far more perplexed then Chronology hath re- 

Again, However the texts ware plain, and might in their numerations agree, 
yet were there no fmall difficulty to fet down a determinable Chronology, or 
^ftablifh from hence any fixed point of time. For the doubts concerning the 
time of the Judges are inexplicable -, that of the Reigns and fuccefUon of 
Kings is as perplexed i it being uncertain whether the years both of their lives 
j and reigns ought to be taken ascompleat, or in ;heir beginning and but currant 
. accounts. Nor is it unreafonable to make fome doubt whether in the firft ages, 
I and long lives of our fathers, Mofes doth not fometime account by Full and . 
I round numbers, whereas ftridly taken they night be fome few years above or 
; under; As in the age of i\r04i&, it is delivered to be juft five hundred when be 

_^ bggat 

ftOIMt Till-! 

prcafc nouibcr was icvciuy two. 

lewiutabnrcorbclou' thtc roDnd I 
l;>ecrli ijutualu) divcn othcrcx- ' 
•nd uling the full and nrcicuUrel 
i wbcrniwclMVc (hewn bcibre, 
^0 It it (lid that Chriti was three 

M in tlic gra»c , accAniing to that ofAtailirw , at ftmt was three 
!i ind three nigb» in the Wfnte« belly, To flmll the Son ormubc 
tdiyoBtid ttireenightsin dxr iicarc of die earth : wbidi necwitblbiul- 
mult be taken Syreoiodiicatly; or by undcrllwuJinE a part for inwlwle 
^ (iifhe remainwJbuttwo nighuin the grauc j fornc wai bunnliniiie 
moon oftbe ^rUiiiy-, andirole very cirly in the morning on ibethirdi 
: is, be wu interred in the eveof tbc Sattbaili,«Qd arolieueiiiorntog af- 

toreoveraltbouglitlie number of yeart bedetcnmncd nnd rigbtly under. 
id, and there be without doubt accrtain truth herein ; yet the tni fpeatung 
orelyordubioiifly, there i< oft-times no Hcndcr difficulty at what pome to 
Bor lerminareilieftccmmi. So when itii fjtd Bxod. 12. the Ibjuurning 
ke children of //>«/ who dwelt in £y/i wu Hjoycars, itcinnot betaken 
lly, and from their firft arrival into Egypt, for tlieir liabiuiion in that 
Iwtt far leli; but the actount mull begin from the Covenant of God 
t Aitdhgrn, and mud alfo coni^O'eheiid thctr lojourn in the Undof C« 
r, accordingas ijcxprefTed. GaLi. TheCovenamttiatwa* confirmed be- 
ufGod in Chrift, the Law wliidi w«543o years aftercannot difanul. 
abatb It alio hap^tened tnihc accoant ofthe 70 years of their capiivity, 
irdingroilntof ytrfin;, chap. zo. This whole land Ihalibe a defohtion, 
ibefe Nations ftial! fervc the King of8*iy/M 70 year*. Now wlwre to begin 
od chiB co(ninitr,arifetIi no fmall diRicnliy ■ for there Were three re- 
kable capcivitiet. and deportatioiuof the Jews. Tbefirdwaiin thcthtrd 
bttrth year of ^imcl/im, and firll of NatiKha^mt4r, when Daniel was 
fcdaway t llw lecond in the reign of /kmi.*^, and the eighth yearoftbc 
EXing; the third and moft deplorable in the reign o( Ztdechui , and in 
iwitteenth year of jV**i*irW»Ji«^, wbcreatboth the Temple and Oty 
ebuftved. Nowruchiiiheditrrrcniconceitoftberetimes, that men have 
pQtedfrom all ; butihe probableli-iccountand mod concordant unto the 
ncion of Irrrmy , is from iIk lirtt of Naituhcaonstjr unto the firlt of 
tCymt over SMijloit ; ulthough the Prophet Z-ici^rj-accounteth from 
Uft. O I-ord of ho!l5,How long f Wilt thou not have mercy on /fn0i- 
, tgainll which thou haU had indignation thefe thred'concand ten yearrf 
bt maketh thii cxpolUjlaiion in ihc fccood year of /)4r/j»/ Hifinffei , 
ntnbe propheftcd , which ii about eighteen years iii accoomaiter the 

rhus alfo ahhough there be a certain truth therein , yet is there no cafie 
btconccmirtgihcfeventv weeks, or fcventy times fcven years of iXotiW- 
thertbey Iwvcrcfcrcntcuntothc nativity or paffion of our Saviour, and 
dally Irora whence, or what pomt of time tncy areiobctomputed. Tt>r 
I i> ic delivered by ih: Angel Cairiel : Seventy weeks arc determined 
n thy people; and again in the following verfe : Know therefore and 
eribnd, that frotn the poing forth of the Commindmtnc to reflore and 
Hiild ItrnUltm unto the MeflJas the prince, fliall he feven weeks, and 
xrcotcaoatwowceb^ihcftrectftuli be built again, and the wall even in 
ibldbme times; andaficr threcfcorc and two weeks fhall MdOah becut 
Now the going out of the Commandmcnc to build (he Ccy, being the 
It frotn whence toctMnpuie, there isnoncndcrcontroverilcwbentobcgin. 
dbeit are 00 left then four fcveral HdiAs to [hii cfitft -, tbc one in the 
^ fiift 





Of our B. 

Enqmrtes into Vulgar 

B oo K 6 

firft year of Cjr/i/, cbe ocber in the fecond of Dari$$s^ the third and fboi 
in the (evencb, and in the twentieth of Artaxerxes LonfninuMHs ; akbough 
Prr4t/Jiviaccoanteth, it beftaccordeth unto the twenty year of Artdxtrx 
from whence Nehemiah deriveth his Commiflion. Now that computes ; 
made uncertainly with reference unto Chrift, it is no wonder, (incel percr 
the time of his Nativity is in controverfie,and no kk his age at his Paffion : I 
CUw$ens ond Tertullidm conceive he fuffered at thirty ; but Iten^us a Fatl 
••jj^s ag« I ^^!^^^ ^^5 ^*°^^> " farther oflf in bis account, that is.betwcen forty and fifty, 
at his Pafliom I l^n£omenu$ms a late Aftronomer, endeavours to difcover this fccret fir 

A ftronomical grounds, chat is, the Apogedm of the Sun conceiving the £ 
centricity invariable,and cheApogeum yearly to move one fcruple.two fecon 
fifty thirds, &c. Wherefore if in the time of Htffdrchus^ihzi is, in the year 
the IntUn period 4557 it was in the fifth d^ree of Gemini^ and in the dayes 
Tjcho Brake ^ that is in the year of our Lord 1 5 fe 8 , or ot the world 5554, t 
iame was removed unco the fift degree of Cahcct ; by the proportion of : 
motion, it was at the Creation fird in the beginning of Aries^ and the Perig 
urn or neareft point in Libra, "^But this conceit how ingenious or fubtile foev< 
is not of facisfaftion ^ it being not determinable, or yet agreed in what time pi 
cifely the Apogeum abfolveth one degree, as Pttdviw haih alio delivered. 

Ladly, However thefe or other difficulties intervene, and that we cann 
fatisfie our felves in the exad compute of time, yet may we fit down with ti 
common and ufual account ; nor are thete differences derogatory unto the A 
vent or Paffion of Chrift, unto which indeed they all do feem to point ^ for tl 
Prophecies concerning our Saviour were indefinitely deUvered before that ofD 
«iV/; fo was that pronounced unto Eve in Paradife, that after of BmUmi 
tbok of Jfdidh and the Prophets^ and that memorable one of /^r^, theScept 
fh^ll not depart from Jfrael nnullShilocomt'^ which time notwithflanding 
did not define at alLln what year therefore foever,eicher from the deftrudion 
the Temple, from the r e-edi^ing thereof, from the flood, or from the Creaci< 
he appeared, certain it is, that in thefalnefs of time he came. When I 
therefore came is not fo confiderable, as that he is come : in the one there 
confolation, i^ the other no fatisfadion. The greater Quere is, when be wi 
come again ^ and yet incteed it is no Quere at all • for that is never to be koowi 
and therefore vainly enquired 4 'cisa profefTed and authentick obfcuric^^ uc 
known to all but to the omnifcience of theAlmighty. Certainly the ends of tbioj 
are wrapt up in the hands of God, he that undertakes the knowledge thereof 
forgets bis own begiiming,and difclaimslis principles of earth. No man know 
the end of the world, nor afTuredly of any thing in it : God fees it, becaufe um 
his Eternity itisprefent-, heknowetb the ends of us, bucnotofhimfelf.- ao 
becaufe he knows not this« be knowech all things, and his knowledge i$ cndlet 
even in the objed of himfelf. 


B oo K 6- 

tadCBmmtn E mi o n i. 


, II. 

of meat Sitquirits in what /m/w ar Pfim */ tk 29tli*tk H ht^M^k*t 

COnccfoliigtheS<fa{ons.thatis,lhe quarter* of the year; forte arc rea- 
dy to enquire, odiers whti fulbn, wtictha in the Au- 
tumn, Sp*ing, Wmttr or Sammcr tbc World hid iti begiriring- Wherein 
wcaAinn. ihic atchcijoellion ii generally. aaJ in rcfpcA of the whole 
earth propofeJ, it is wuh (n.iiiifclt injury iificti rci(oi^ in any parttiuUr 
determined j hccaufc whfn cverdic world hid iu bcgmaing ic wis cre- 
ated in ill chefe four. For , at vrc bare dfewherc delivered , whatfberer 
(ignihe ^un pofiifTch ( whofc recelsor Vicinity dcfincth thcqiiartcnof the 
ycir ^ chofc Tour feifom wereaAually eiident -, it being the auure of thxc 
l.timitury to dillinguifll the fevers) feifoni of the year ; all which it miiicth 
u oni tun: in the wtiolc earth, »nd fucce/Cvdy in any pare thereoE Thia 
if wcfuppofcilic Suncreitedin Libra, in whith figo unto fame it makcth 
Autumn ■, at the Cirne time It had been Wintrr unto the Nonhren-p^le , 
for unto them at that time the Sunbfginneih to be invifibic, and to (hew 
itfclf again unto the Pole of the Sooch. Unto the pofition of a righr 
Sphere, or dire^ly under die £(]ustor. It had been Sammcr | for unto 
that fituition the ^un it at that time verticaT. Unto the latitude of Ca> 
pricoro , or ihi: Winter Solfticc it had been Spring ^ for unto that po- 
(idon it hid been in a middle point , and that of afctnt , or spproximaii- 
nn, but unto the Utitiiieof Cancer or the Summer Solftice it had been Au- 
tumn i tVir then had It been placed in a middle point, and that of defcenii or 
elongation. l 

And if we fhalltake it litetally what Mifes defcribed popularly, this vfai 
alfo [hc'ton()itution of the lirft day. For when it was evening unco one' 
longitude, it wae morning unco another; when mght unto unto ano- ' 
ther. And therefore th n queftion,* whether our Saviour fliail come again in ] 
ihetwiltghtf as i* conceived he irofc J or whether heftnU come upon us in 
;lie night, according to the eomparifon of a thief, or the Jcwiflr tradition, 
:haihewiUcome*booc the time, of their departure out of t^fjp!, when 
they eate the Paftover, and tlic AngclpalTedby thcdoors of their houfes ;' 
thii Qiterc I fay necdech not further difpute. For if the earth be almoft 
every where inhabited.and his coming ( as Kvinity a.'Rrmeth) mutt needs be 
unto all ; then mnll the time of his appearance be both in the day and night. ' 
Forif unto 'jtr»fAltm^ or what part ofthcworldfocvcrhcihallappcarinthc 
ntgltc, at the famccimeunto the jf»(/pfl(/(/, icmuftbc day^ if twtUghc uoto ' 
ihcm, broad day unto the /ifiixMi ; if noon umo them, ycc night onto ch: 
.■*oif«r*»/iaodfo with variety according unto various habitations.ordiScrent 
potition* of the Sphere, as willbeeafily conceived by thofc who nndcrlland 
the affcAiom of different habitationt, and the conditions of ..tofn, Ptriici,' 
and .Iniiptl't. And fo although he appear in the night, yet may the dayof 
JudRement or Doomf-day well retain that namci forthactmplictbonc rcvo.| 
liitionof the Sun, wh.cbnialcrththedayflndnighc, and th^tooe natural day. ■ 
And yet 10 IpeakltriAly, tf ( as the ApolUc affitmeth ) we fhall becbaoged in 
Kk the 



of die for. 


Enquiriti inu Vnlgdr 

Book tf. 

Between the 
Tropic ki two 
Summers In a 

the cwinckling of an eye (^ and as the Schools decermine J the denruftionoP 
the world (hall noc be fuccefiive but in an inQant ; we cannot properly apply I 
thereto the ufual difiinAions of time •, calling that twelve hours, which admits | 
not the parts thereof, or ufe at all the name of time, when the natu A thereof 
(hall perifli. 

But if the enquiry be m&de unto a particular place, and the queftlon de- 
termined unto fome certain Meridian •, as namely, unto' Mefipctamia whert- 
in the feat of Paradice isprefumed, the Query becomes more reafonable, 
and is indeed in nature alfo determinable. Yet pofltively to define cblac lea- 
fon, there is no flender difficulty ; for fome contend that it began in the 
Spring • as ( befide Eufcbins^ Ambrofe , Bede , and Theodora ) fome few 
years psid Henrico /'Wi^pf in his Chronology of the Scripture. Others are 
altogether for Autumn ; and from hence do our Chronologers commence 
their compute ^ as may be obferved in Helvicuj^ fof. Sc^Uger, Cmlvifims 
Sind Petavius. 

Ch A p. 1 1 L 

of the Divipcns pf the fed fens and four garters of the year^ 4C^ 
cording unto Afironomtrs and Phyfitians : that the common 
compute of the Ancients, snd which is pE ret dined bj fome ^ is^^erj 

AS for the divifions of thei year, and the quartering out this remark- 
kable fiandard of time, there have pafTed efpecially twodiftindions ^ 
the firft in frequent ufe with Aftronomers, according to the cardinal interfe Ai- 
ons of the Zodiack, that is, the two iEquinoAials and both the Solftitial 
points; defining that time to be the Spring of the year, wherein the Sun 
doth pafs from the i£quinox of Aries unto the Solftice of Cancer • the 
time between the Solftice and the ^.quino3( of Libra , Summer ^ from 
thence unto the Solftice of Capricornus, Autumn ; and from thence un. 
to jthe iEquinox of Aries again. Winter. Now this divifion although it 
be regular and equal, is not univerfal ;/or it indudeth not tfiofe latitudes 
which have the feafons of the year double ^ as have the inhabitants under 
the iEquator, or elfe between the Tropicks. For unto them the Sun is 
vertical twice a year, making two diftind Summers in the different points 
of verticality. So unto thofe which live under the Equator, wbcntbeSun 
is in the .^uinox it is Summer , in which points it maketh Spring or Au- 
tumn unto us ^ and unto them it is alfo Winter when the Sun is in either 
Tropick ^ whereas unto us it maketh alwayes Summer in the one. And the like 
will happen unto thofc habitations^ which arc between the Tropicksand the 

A fecond and more fenfible divifion there is obferved by Hippocrdtes^ and 
moft of the ancient Gr^i^/ according to the rifing and fetcing of divers 
flars ; dividing the year ; and eftablifhing the account of feafons from 
ufuol alteration^ and fenfible mutations in the air , difcovered upon the 
rifing and fetting of thofe ftars , accounting the Spring from the iEqui- ' 
noxial point of Aries ; from the ridng of the Pleiades , or the fevcral | 
ftars on the back of Taurus, Summer •, from the riling of ArAurus,a ftar i 
between the thighs of Bootes, Autumn ; and from the fetting of the Pleiades. ^ 

Winrer. ' 

Boor 6, 

dni c»mm»» £ b ■ o n s- 

1 »4* 

Wimcr. Of tlide divi(:on» beciufe tiiir)- were unequal, ihrywcrc fain to 
Atbdiiidf cbeCH'olaf^puruonFjChat I9 of theiiuninicr and Winiertjuaricng 
ihe 6r(l part of the Summer thqr named v-ifK, the Iccond uoio {Iieririiig iiU\^ 
Dog fliir, j.e, IromtliciircuiKochrfctcingor Arfturm.iW,^. TheWimer 
liicy diviileJ alfo into rlirce p«ri»i cite firft p»rt,or ijjwof Ccedtimfihey 
nimcd«>^r'"',ihc mtJdle or proper Winter, 70'"^, tlicia[t,whicli wMthot 
I pUming or gralring time r^-^'st, jhw waf of ilivifionuwi in t'ormcr ages 
received, i^ vc.->'otn!imenrionpd inPoeit,trao(U(cdfpcmioneN'fliiontoino- 
ttierj iVom ilvGrtti'i unto thr l^tiwj^* ii received by good AutliorSi and de- 
livered by rtiyui:ianc,even our timei. 

Nuwot" [licfetwii, aitbooghthe firfl in Ibme latitude miy be retained, yet 
i* not the other in any to bcadmittcJ. for jorcgiidof iinic ^si we declare 
in tbc Chap, of canicular Jjyct) (he i\u% do vary their longitude*, and confc- 
qucmly tbe timei of cbcir arcenfioR and delirenfion. That liar whtcbitihc 
term of numeracioaj or point from wlicnrc we commence the accconr, alter- 
ing hi5 fuc and longitude in proccfi of ume, and rcmaving fran Wed to 
Eaft, ilmoft one degree in the fpacc of 71 yea:?, fa ihat tlic fame liar, finre 
die 9ge of Hi^pn-rxicj who ufcd (his arcour,!, it reimive^ in cimfo^MtnUA 
about 27 degree*. Which difference of iherr lofl8ttudei,dcjch much diverlific 
thetimaof their afccnu, and rendercth the accoatttunniMe which fliallpro* 
ceed ihercby. 

.\{;ain, InrcgAtdof difFcrentUiicudei, ifiiictnnocbeafetledrule, or rea- 
fonibly applied un:o many Nacionn. For whcie-isihc frciingof tbe PlcMdct 
orrcvenlUrf,udcl1gnedclieicrmor Auramn, and the beginning of Winter ; 
uotofome ladiudei (befe Dnrs do never fee, at unto uU beyond 67 degreei. 
Andif in rcvcralandlirdilUntlaiitudes we obferve tlie lAmc flar aiaccHn- 
faon icrm of account unto both, we Hull (all upon an unexpected, but an 
anTuffcrable abfurdity ; and by ibc fame acconmic will be Summer nntOQt 
in (be North, before it be fo unto thofe, which unto us are Southward and 
Bnuivd^reeiapproaching nearer the Sun. Tor if we confute the Doarine 
of the ^bcte, and obti;r¥e th: afcenfion of ilte l>leiad«, whidi makeih the 
b^iniuRgof Sammer,wefhalld<fcovcr[hatinihelaiitudeof 40. Thc&fltfl 
anfe in (he 1 6 degrccof T3an»;btu in the latitude of 5o,tbey afcend in tbe dc- 
vcnch degree of the £ime(ig[ii chat is, ; dayet fooncr ; f« (liall it be Soniner 
unco /.•)Ww»,bcforc it be umo T<>hil> brgin to fcorcli in BniUnJ, before it 
grow hoi in SpMn. 

This i( therefore no general way of compute, nor reaibn^le to be derived 
I from one Nation unto another -, che dt(cA of which conflderttion hftth cAufed 
divers error* inLatine Poet-:, trannatingthcfeexprelfions from the Grttkj i 
and many difficulties even in the Grttkj tliemfelves ■, which hving indiven 
ladtudc), yetobfcrvcd the fame compute. So ihattoraakctbem out, weare 
Eiin to ufediltinfiioni ; fometime computing cofmicalty wiMt they intended 
heUacaliyj and foraetimeintbcfafne cxptelHon the rifIngbcllacally,thefet• 
dngcof(nically. Othcrwifcit mill be hardly made out. wlut is dehvered by 
approved Authors; and if an obfervation very confiderable unto thofe which 
meet with fuch cxprelfioni, as they arc very Itequenr in the Poets of ehfcr 
time*, cfpecially Htfmi, Araim, yirt^/.Ovid, MtmHimi ; and AuthonOtO" 
ponicaliOr which have created Jt ri ritJIieM, a Crtfiintiiie,M4reKj CM;C*bh 
mtllM, PdltsJiHt and y^re. 

I.aftly,Thc aWurdity in making common umo many Naiion* thofe confide- 
rations, whofc verity is but pirticularuntttfome, wilt more e?tdeotly appear, 
if we examine the Rulei and Precepts of fome one cliitMte.and fiill upon coo- 
fideration with what incongroity they are iratrtferrible obtoothcrt -, ThOf "11 

Kk z_,_ ,.. . f /lB<trffa(|l 

3 O O K •£. 

40j C'ttiimii B H KOI 

1 difpcfliooand baLtMUon itrCouiicri«, whole conlliLQiioiu adnlc not fuch 
tein^idliviiyof lurvclbj. and many ro: before ihctancr end ol'Summcriiioc- 
wiilifiandingiljcaJvamai^otilKir I.unary «couni, and H'.KroUri' morrib 

I Veulcr,iiHu:d unco die brgi(inii)g oiibeycir, tbercwillbeluund a ffcu. 

• dilpariiy tatbririkblervationi ^ nur cantbcy Ondly tnd aitb: faaic Icalon 

: wiibibcTturcriulicnubreivciltctumiDaDdiof God. 

I To add yet lurcher, drnfe Geoponical ruin aod prcrrpii of Agneoltiiie 
whitb lie delivered by divers Ambon, arc not ro be gencraliy reteiwd; buC 

I rcfpertivdy uaderfUiod umocbireiwberrtocbcyarcd^crniMied.l^OF where- 

. atoiteadviretlitofowilianr tiatat one kalbn,a lecmid lo ki this ortbac at 
anotber, it nufl be cootrivcd rciativcly , and every Naboo muLl baveiu 

j Country tarm ; for herein we may obferve a tnanircll and viiiblc diSrrcnc«, 
not oflly tnibefeafooiof faarvdt, buiinil:cgrau«tiicniftlv«. lor wtthus 

1 Barky-Mrvdl « (nadcaftcrwbeat.harvcfl.boE with tlieV/'-^^'w/ and t^^/>- 

j ri4ii/ it waiothcrwire, lbiii[expre0ed by way at'priorKy , ^r6 the z. So 
JiMihkt^ BUby tbcmnidcniot' JTi'4£C(tgEca(i untothceiidofBarley-banrefl 
andofWbcac-harvdl; which inchcpUgucofbayl inty£^^pt is more plainly 
dclirered, ExtJ.g. And the ttax and (he Barley were fmictcn, for the Barley 
waiin tbecarandthcllax wasbollA), but the Wheat and tbe Rye wcrcoui 

] fmitccn, fordicy were noc grown up. 

I And thu> wtffee tbc account aublinied tipotitbe anfeordcfcencof the 
Hart can be noreafinaUc rule unto diOani Naiiont at all, and by reafonor 
their rctrogrelTion but temporary unco any one. Nor oiuft tlicfc rcfpcftive 
cxpi'clTions be cmcTtamcd in abfoluce conlideratiunf , forfodidinA is the 

I relation, and fo artificial the habitude of this tnfiriour globe unco (be fupoi* 
our.andcrcn of one thmg in each onto the other : tbat general rulc>*re 
dingcrouf ; and arplcations (nod life that ran with frcuricy ofcircQfnftsDce. 

I Which rightly (o c9ed,is beyond ibc fubtlety of fenfc, aod reqnite* tbc artifice 

C H * 



Oflomt cemfHtAttoH of dtp Md di^^itas tftne fart of the jtdr Halo 

Fourthly, Tliere arc certain rujgaronnionsconcerning daytof the year, 
and conciulions popularly deduad tfOD) certain days of che nionetli : 
(ncncommonlybclievingdie dayi increafe and decreali; equally m die whole 
year : which nolwilbiUnding is very repugnant unto truth, tot they in- 
creafeinchc mnnechofMarth.abnofl as much a^ tn tberwomoiietbvt Ja- 
nuary and February •. and dccrcafc much as in September .as they do :n ]4y 
and August. I'orthc daysincicafe o( dccreafc according co tbe deciimttoii 
ofthcSun,chic is, it« deviation Northward or SuucJiwaid iron chejE^ua- 
cor. Nowtbudi|;rcfTioii it not equal, but near the ji^quinoxtat inierKdr 
ons, itisrigbtaoagreaier.nearihe SolQices more oblique and Icflcr.So from 
the eleventh ofMarch the vernal jE^jumox, unto the eleventh of A[TiI tlfe Son 
dedincth totheNonhtwcIvedcgicc*, from the eleventh of April unto the 
cleventhofMaybyteifiht.froni thence unto the tiftrtnihof/une, or tbe Su(n.. 
mcrSoUlicc but three andahalf: all which maiutwemy two degrees tnd lA 
hair.tbc greatcA declinacion of tbe Sun. 
■ And 

Th)i the ity, 
JDctcalc ind 
Jracift tia- 


Enquiries inU Vnlg^r 

Bpok 6. 

The nuural 
proportion of 

In the worldj 

and in the 

Andthis inequality in the declination of che Sun in the Zodiack or line of 
life, is correfpondent unto tbe growth or de€linationx)f man. For fetting out ; 
from infancy we increafe not equally, or regularly attain to ourftare or per- ; 
fieftion : nor when we defcend from our (late, is our declination equall, or car • 
rietb us with even paces unto the grave. For, as Hippocrstei affirmetb , a 
man is hotted in the firftdayofhislife, and coldeft in tbe lad ; his natural 
beat fettetb forth rooft vigoroufly atfirft, and dedineth moft fenfibly at lad.' 
And fo though the growth of man end not perhaps until twenty one, yet is bis ; 
flaturemore advanced in tbe fir ft feptenary then in thefecond,andintbefe- 
cond,moretben in the third, and more indeed in the firft feven years, then in 
tbefourteenfucceding-, for, what ftature we attain unto at feven years, we 
do fomedmes but double, moft times comes ihort of at one and twenty. And 
ib do we decline again : For in the latter age upon the Tropick and firft de- 
fcenfion from our fiiJftice, we are fcarce fenlible of declination t but declin- 
ing further ,our decrement accelerates, we fet apace, and in our laft dayes pre- 
cipitate into our graves. And thus are alfo our progreffions in tbe womb, that 
is, our formation, motion, our birth or exdufion. For our formation is 
quickly eifedled, our motion appeareth later , and our exclufion very long after : 
if that be true whidk Hippocrates znd Avicenna have declared, that tbe time of 
our motion is double unto that of formation,and that ofexcluflon treble unto 
that of motion. As if the Infant be formed at thirty five dayes, it moveth at 
feventy , and is bora tbe two hundred and tench day, that it, the feventh 
monetbi or if it receives not formation before forty five dayes, it moveth' 
tbenineciecbday^aftd i; excluded in tbe two hundred and fevency, chat is^ the 
ni nth monetb. 

Thcire are alio .certain popular prognofticks drawn from feftivaJs intheCa- 
Iender,and concdred opinions of certain dayes in nuMieths-, fo is there a ge- 
nnrai tradition in moft parts of Europe, that inferretb thecoldneft of fuccediop 
winter from the (hining of the Sun upon Candlemas day, or the Purification <? 
the Virgin Marj^ according to the proverbial diftich. 

Si Sol fplendefcat Maria purificapite. 
Major eritglaciesp^fifeftumqiumf Hit ante* 


So is it ufual amongft us to qualifie and conditionate tbe twelve moneths of the 
year ,anfwerably unco the temper of the twelve days in Chriftmasj and toafcribe 
unto March certain borrowed days from April ^ all which men feem to believe 
upon annuall experience of their own, and the received traditions of their fore- 

Now it is manifcft, and moft men likewife know, that the Calenders of 
thefccomputers,and the accounts of thefe days are very different ; the Greeks 
diflentin^ from the Latines, and tbe Latines from each other ; the one obferv- 
ing the Julian or ancient account, as great Srlttain and part of Germamj •, 
the other adhering to the Greprian or new account, as Italy ^Trance ^ Spain^ 
and the united Provinces of the Netherlands. Now this later account 1 
by ten dayes at leift anticipateth the other ; fo that before . the one be- 
ginncth the account, the other is paft it ^ yet In the feveral csrf'culations, 
the fame events feem true, and men with equal opinion of verity, expedf 
arttfconfefsa confirmation from them all. Whereby '\% evident tne Oracu- 
lods authority of tradition, and the eafie feduftionof men, neither enquiring 
into the verity of the fubflance , nor reforming upon repugnance; of circum- 
fiance.' ' 

And thus may divers eafily be miftaken who fuperftitioufly obferve certain 
times, or fet down unto themfelves an obfervation of unfortunate moneths , 





»iidCfimmt/i Bn ro« t. 

peaca ^ 
Martb, t. 
bruary. ' 

' iy«, an«l '.i,.,,. ui,,,..^,,-. .^il.. i^.^^ j. :.uC...ii 
Tud'cr ihcflcntunc b? mnile , and even by ■ 

poflible cliiitNavigatorsm»i'bcout. For i. 

iflifig Wcflward through /j-ffftw/f Ujy.-, 


-:i.-n:in our 

■ '. liQwftrift- 

il«. yetii 

J..TS , who 

... ,:-!.i:Globc,np' 

on their rccuroioto thor^own Conntrc^', found tlut i[i---y liiul loft adiy. 

I ForifrwomAat ibe lainf tim* cr.ivcl firomtlie Time plact, the dtw Ealt- 

, ward, the other WdJward roond about the cwth , jir.d mew in tlic fitat 

pbcc IVum whence ihrtinl lee forth; it wtll fo tkll out, chit he wliidi bacf) 

tnnvnl HitSivard ngiinfliSe diarnnl motion of thes'un,by jintiopating day- 

!^ rn.ii;;I]:ngot' tticirirlcwith hit own motion, will giio one day t but 

'vcKctfiWHtwiird, with the motien of thc5un,by fccohdirtg ttj 

I nialllofc or come fliort 1 diy. And therefore alfo upon [(left 

uOf/jrWM fcatedmthe middle of the earth, it w«* no MaA 

doci;k'n, bctiufe two Eigi« let fly Baft and Weft by fifittr, tlieir mcccing 

ftlloot juftin ttieinand DrUi. 

CHAf. V. 

HAv[ngtliu*1>dK!dtheienpriioce ofmaniafoine things, bit erroc and 
^linatwfs ta'oHicn, that It, ia the mcafure of duration both ofycirt 
andfdfom , let u$ awhile admire the Wifdomof God in [bii dillinguiflier 
ofu/nej, andviTblc Deity f as fomc have termed ic .J the Sunj which 
chough fome tVoin in glory adore , and all for ics baichU adiuirc , we 
fhall adviTice from ochcr conlidcauons , and fuch a iJtudnice the arti- 
fiteof itsMakor. Nor dowc think wean excufc the duty of our know- 
ledge, if we only bellow the (lourifli of Poetry hereon, or thofc comroen- 
dacory tunceit* which popularly /ct forth tiic cminency of this cnamrc ^ 
except we altcnd unto fubtiier confiderations^ and fuch as rightly unJeriloud, 
convmnngly d«Iarc[hcwj(ilomof ihcCrcaior. Which fintca.SpanJihPhy- 
lit>an hach bcf^n, wc will enlarge with our doluAiont ; and Uiis wc fliaU 
endeavour from two conlidcration* -, its proper fituation, and wiJily order- 
ed tnoiioo. I 
And nrl^ we cannot pa(i over hif providence, in that It muveth at all ; for r 
had It (looJ Hill, and wcrcli tiicd liki: tlic cirth, there had becalficnnr) | 
dillinftionoiiimcf, cttlierof day orvear, tri'Spring, of AutuoiD.ut'^uniAier, ' 
<trofW>nicr; for thcfc fcafom arc oetincd by the biotioni of the Sun ■, when 
chat ^iproachcch neareO our Zenith or vertical point , wc-call ic Siini- 
mcr, whrnturthelloff, Wmtcr, whcnin themiJdle fpaces, Sphiig or Au- 
lumn . whoeas renuirung in one place thcfc diibndtoni had ceafed , aiid 
cnnfcfiucntly the gateration of all thingi depending on thnr viplittudci % 
, making m one lieniifphrre a perpctuaJ Sutnmct, in die uihcr adeploiahle ^„ t^Bt- 
I and cocnfottlels Vfxtaec. And thiubod it alfo been continual day unto (asx, nual div I 



Every part of 
the £3r(h ba • 

Enquiries inu Vulgsr 

Book 6. 

and perpetual nighc unco others; for the day is defined by tbe ^t)ode of the Sun : 
abovt the HprizoB) and the night by its continuance below *, fo (hould we: 
h^ive needed afiptber Sun, one to illuftrateour Hetnifphcre, afecondco eo-j 
lighten the ojtber -, which inconvenience willenfue in wnat fite foever v/t place , 
it, whether |n the Poles,or the Equator, or between them both ; no fpherical J 
body of what bignels foever illuminating the whole fpbere of another,altboug|i 
it illufliinate fometbing more then 'halt of a leffer, according unto the do Arine 

His wtfdom is again difcernable^ not only in that it.movetl^atall,andiB 
its bare motion, but wonderful incontriiingtbeline of its revolmion •, wbich 
is fo prudently efifefted, that by a viciffitude in one body and light ic fuf- 
ficeth the whole earth, affording thereby a poffible or pleafuraUe habitarion 
in every part thereof ; and that is the Une Ecliptick ; all which to eflfed by | 
any other circle it had been impofsible. ¥or firft, if we imagine the Sun to j 
make his courfe out of the Ecliptick, and upon a line without any obliquity J 
let it be conceived within that Circld that is either on the J^uator, or eUe 
on eitherfide:(forif we (hould place it either in the Meridian or Colures, 
beddethe fubverfion of its courie from Eaft to Weft, there would enfuecbe 
like incpmmodities. J Now if we conceive the Sun to nK)ve between the ob- - 
liquity of this Ecliptick in a line upon one (ide of the ^Equator , then ! 
would the Sun be vifibie but unto one pole » that is the fame which - 
was nearefl: unco it. So that unto the one it would be perpetual day ^ ' 
unco the other perpetual night, the one would be opprefled with conftant 
heat , the other with infuflerable cold •, and fo the defeft of alteraadon 
would utterly impugn the generation of all things -, which naturally require i 
a viciffitude of heat to their produftion , and no lefs to their increafe and' 

But if we conceive it to move in the /Cquacor ; firft unto a parallel fpbere , 
or fuch as have the pole for their Zenith, it would have made neither perfed 
day nor night.For being in thejEquator it would interfeft their Horizon, 
and behalf above and half beneath it : or rather it would have made perpe- 
tual night to both ^ for though in regard of tbe rational Horizon, which! 
bifeaeth the Globe inco equal pares, the Sun in the >Equacor would in- i 
terfeft the Horizon .* -yet in refpeft of the fenfiblc Horizon ( which is defined ■ 
by the eye) the Sun would be vifibie unto neither. Tor if at ocular wit- 
neffes report , and fome alfo write , by rcafon of the convexity of the I 
Earth, the e}'e of man under theiEquator cannot difcover both the poles ^ { 
neither would tbe eye under tbe poles difcover the Sun in the .Equator. Thus \ 
would there nothing frudifieeither near or under them : The Sun being Ho- I 
rixontal to the poles, and of no confiderablt altitude unco parts a reafonable 
didance from them. Again, unto aright fphere,or fuch as dwell under the ; 
i£quacor,alchough ic made a difference in day and nighc, yet would it not \ 
make any diftinftion of feafons; for unto them ic would be conftant Summer, ' 
ic being always vercical, and never deflcfting from chem : So had there been j 
no frudification at all^and the Countries fubjedcd would be as unhabitable',as j 
indeed antiquity conceived them. 

Laftly ,It moving thus upon the iEquator,un:o what pofition foever, al- 1 
though ic had made a day,.yec could ic Irave made no year : for ic could noc \ 
have had thofe two motions now afcribed unco ic, that is, from Eaft to Weft, \ 
whereby ic makes che day, and likewife from Weft to taft, whcrebj' the i 
year is computed. For according to Aftronomy , the poles of the ^Equator . 
are the fame with chofe of che Pri/num Mohilc. Now ic is impoflible that on 
the fame circle, having che fame poles, both thefe motions from oppofite> 
terms, (hould be'at the lame time performed; all whichi$falved,if weal-; 


FBoo R 6> 

•uuiC»mm»a E a n o ft i 


ttie Sun in Abltqatcy ui tii* iitnuail lOoLun, and conceive htm to move up- ■ 
lie Pu\aof lix laitKk, diltaailronitlMl'eol' tbcworld zi dcgrcci aod | 
an lu\t. Tbutmiiy wedikcni tlicacccincy of itiubiiquitViaml tiow incoDvc- 1 
nicnt its monon bad be:a upoaa circle piral!etcatticj&c)tmor,ocupoaih« 
i^juaior it fclf. | 

Nuw withwhacProv.tiencechiiobliqaicy ixlcurmined, wefbiU pcrcdrc 
aponcbecnTuingincoavenicnccf frominyacviicion. l^or liril, tfioobliqai- 
^ j had been Id's f « billeid of twenty thfccitcgree*, twdve or the h»l( there- ' 
tf J the vitirticude of Icafyr* appuintcd t'oi the generation of ail things, 
rouldl'urely have been too Aiott ; Rjc iliSercnt feifjm wou'd have budted : 
>on eacb other ; and umo ioaie it had not been much better then if it hvl , 
invcdon the Equator. But hadtiK obhquity bccagrcaterchennowit ii, 
double, or of -to degrees ^ Icrcral piru of die cairb had mk been abEc to 
endure tlicdirproporTioiiable diifercnte$ ol Tealbnt, occaTioned by the great 
receis , and dilUiKC of the Son. l^or unto Tome liabitattont the Sumnur 
would hive been extrcam hot, and the N^iotec exucam cold -, liliiewitc the 
Sutniner tcmpcrste unto rume, buteXceiiivc and in uttemityuntooibers, 
at unto thofe who fiiould dwell under ibe Trof&cic of Canctr, astben would 
do fomc piTtal SfMin, or.teadegreei beyond, ai GirmAnj, and r;>me part 
of Eitjil4»d ; who would bare Sumtnen u now the Matrt of AfricM. l-or 
the Sun would Ibmetiioc be vertical umo them : but they would have \fimxti 
like thofe beyond the AiticJt Circle j for in that I'eafon the San would be re* 
movcdabove 8odcgrce*fromilic(n. Again, it would be temperate to fomc 
habitations in the Summer, bur vcrycxtream in the W inter ,■ temperate to 
tliofc in two or three dcgreri beyondtlie Artidt Grcle, tSROwit is unto 
ut- Jut they would be cquidiHint firomtlutTropick.cven at we arc from this 
atprefcnt. But the Winici- would beextrcam.theSun being removed above 
an hundred dccr<«,and fo confequenily wovSA not be vifiWein their Horixon, 
no poficion of fpherc difvovering anyAar dilhnr above' -50 dcgreet.which 
tithe dillaotr of every Zenith from die Horiion. And' tjius if the ofc- 
hquiry of ihii Circle had been left, the vidftitudc of fc-iloni had been fo 
fmall a* not to be dillinguifhcd i If greater, fo large and dirpVoportiowthlc at 
no: to be endured. 

Now for its (ituation, although it held this EcliptJck lii»e, yetbadithfcn 
feaced in any other Orb, inconvenicncci would enfue of condition liJtcihe 
(brmcr ; for had it been placed in the lowelt Iplierc of die Moon, the year 
would have tonfirtcd but of one tiwneth j for in U»u fpace of time it 
would have paffcd through every part of the Echptick : ia would there 
have been no rcafonable dillinftion of fcifons required for the generation lad 
frudilying of all things- contrary fcalbns which deftroy the effeits of one 
another, (0 fuddenly fucceeding. Bcfidcs by this vicinity unto iheearth.itt 
heat had been iotoIeraWc : for if j* « many affirm ) therc-ii a different fenfe 
of heat from the different points of its p;oper Orb, and that inthe Apogeuni 
or bighdl point (which happenetb in Cancer^ it is no: fo hot undcrrhai 
TropicK, onthii[iiiethe£qoator,a* unto the other fide in the PcrigcumOr 
loweft p.irt of tbectteacridt ( which bapptneih in Capricomm JfurHy being 
[)Uced in in Orb far lower, iu heat would be uafufferaDle, nor noded we t fa- 
ble to fet tlic world on fire. 

I But had it been placed in the highclt Orb, or thit of the eighth fplKre,th(rc 
I hid been cone hut PUioa year, and a fjr IcU dirtin^tio/i of fiafote : for 
one year hid tijcnbecn many, and atcording un:o the (low revolution of 
that Orb which nbfolveth nothiicourfc in many ihuufand yeart, no (tUfi 
had lived to attain the acci;u lit therctff.Thcrc arc ibfinconveniticcicnfumg up- 
on its (ituation in the extreaia oibs.and had it been placed in (^e middle otu 01 

A compeitni 
( ifoni n-cef- 


■ KP*^ 


Bnqmrits inU F^lgar 

Book 6. 

the Planctsichcre wookl have enfued abfurdicies of a middle nature unto them. 
Now whether we adhere unco the hypothecs of CofertticHs^tSirming the earth 
to move, and the Sun to (Und ftill ; or whether we bold, as fomeot lace have 
concluded , from the fpots in theSun,which appear and dibppear again ; that 
befides the revolution it maketh with its Orbs, it hach alfo a dinecical motion, 
and rowls upon its own Poles . whether I lay we affirm chefe or no, the illations 
before mentioned are not thereby infringed. We therefore conclude this con- 
templationiind are not afraid to believe^it may be literally faidof the wifdom 
of God,what men will have figuracivcly fpoken of the works of Cbrill ; that if 
the wonders thereof were duly defcribcd^the whole world.that is,all within the 
iaft circumference » would not contain them. Por as his Wiidom is infinite, fo 
cannot the due cxpreffions thereof be fintte»and if the world comprife him not, 
can it comprehend the ftory of hitn. 

Chap. VI. 

Ccncitning tht vnlgir ifinm^thsi tht Eiftb upms fte^Jerly fe^fUdbt- 
fort the fUtfd. 

BEHde the (lender confideration men of latter times do hold of the Hrft ages> 
it is commonly- opinioned, and at firft though^ generally imagined, chat 
the earth was thinly inhabited , at leaft not remotely planted before the 
flood s fo. that fome conceiving it needled to be universal, have made 
the deluge particular,, and about thofe parts where Nuda built his Ark. 
Which opinioUt becaufe it is not only injurious to the Tekc, hucnane hiftory , 
and common xjeaton^ but alfo derogatory unto that great Work of God, the 
univer&l inun^lation; we (hall n9t pad over without (Irift inquifition. And 
( although predetermined by opinion) whether many might not fufier in 
the firft flood, i& they (hall in the laft tlame, chat is, who knew not Aiism 
nor his offence ; and many perifh* in the deluge, who never heard of No^ih or 
the Ark of his pfe&rvation. 

Now for the true enquiry thereof, the means are as obfcure as the matter, 
which being naturally to be etoforcd by Hiftory.Humane or. Divine, re cei veth 
thereby no (mall addition of bbfcurity. For as for humane relaiions, they are 
fo £ibuIous in DtMc'sJioMj^ flood, that they are of little credit about Oj^x^s 
and Noahs. For the Heathens ( as Vdrro accounteth ) make three diUia- 
dionsof cime : the firft from tne beginning of the world unto the general 
Delusie of df^/fi, they term Adehn, that is, a time not much unlike that 
whicn was before cime, hnmanifrft and unknown^ becaufe thereof there is 
almod Nothing or very obfcurely delivered : for though divers Aurhors have 
made fome mention of the Deluge, as Manet horn die 9y£gjptiMMPricO^ Xem^ \ 
fiEwwdeatquiyocis^ jP^Mn^ FiSor de Aureo fcculo. Mar, Cato de originibus, ' 
and AnhihcbMs the Greek, who introduceth alfo the Teftimony of Afofis in I 
his fragment Ji ttmfmbm : yet have they delivered no account of what pre- ; 
ceded or went before. Jofcfhm I confefe in his Difcourfc againft Apfien mduc- , 
eth the antiquity of the Jews unto the flood, and before from the tcftimony of' 
humane Writers ; infifting efpecially upon A/^/ifAr of Damafum^ Jcronlmm ; 
t/£gJPtim^ and ierefus-^ and confirming the long duration of their lives,not' 
only from thefe, but the authority of Hefiod, Erathius^ BelUmcm and Arefi- 
iMmi. Berefm the ChdUean Prieft, writes moft plainly, mentioning the City 


■fc. i 

Book (T. 


or £mr, the name of J^M^aadbuSoM, die building of die Ark, aqjaUb 
ibeplaceof m Umling. \Bd 0,tjtrmj Situ/Mi huh \nh;% xhirdhaok ayai- 
fjge, which txaminMi,advancnb asfugb as jijum : for die ChdliUaiUf^:li He, 
dcrt«ilwOngiml ofllwir Aflriinoiiiy lud Uitcrj fony ibr« ihoulaod yeiti 
bciflretbcWoMriby of /iltXdpAtr tocGrear : now ihc ycari wbtreby Uief 
compoinl the Antiqutry of tbeir lntcr$, being u Xtntpbam inttxfias to be 
sccountcd Luiury : [bccofDpuiewiUarifeumoEiicume of ^.lu». For fijc- 
^ ibfcc thodiaod Lunar y you» iDakc about tbrmboulinid fix hundred thktf 
loor years, whicb anfwereih the Chronology of Eirae frotn tbe bcginmngof 
the world unto die nign of AltXMiier,i\ v^miuj of Viitrbt computcdi iabii 
Commem o^onBtrtfm. 

Tbe fccandfpacc ofiacerwalof time itaecountcd from the flood anwdie 
firft Olympiad, diacis, ihc yeacof ibc world j 174, wbicb extendcth uwo 
ibcdayi of IfjUh the Prophet, aDdfooiL* twenty ycori before the four/lation 
ot Bfou: ibistbey ccrm J^rifticM ortabulous, bccuUe tbe account thereof, 
efpca»lly of die rirft part.iiwbuloflfly or impcrtcftly drljvcccd. Hereof fomc 
things bavebecnbricBy related by the Authors above tncntioncd : morepjir- 
Dcularly by iWw Phrjpus, DUlyt Crritnfu, Hrradttmi, Dti/JarMt SiciUiU, 
and TngMt Ptmptiin ; the moii Cannous Grttk, Pocu lived alfo la this imer- 
vaI,aiOrf/M»j, /jjtju.-, M/tftui, Himtr , fitluJ t and bereiaarecoaijiicbcaded 
the grounds and liift mvencionsof roetictl tables, which were ialfo taken ap 
by hi(torical Writers, perturbing the ChsUuM ttad t/EnvhAn Recordiwidi 
^bulous additioiu ^ and confounding their nainctaQdiiories.wiib their own 
jnventiont. t 

1 be third time fucceeding uotilt their prefcui aget.tbcy term Hip*ncen,tiiii 
is, luch wherdn mactcri have been more tnily bifb>nlied, and may therefore 
be believed. Of tbefe tiroes alfo havebeenwri«enH^)-»iijf«/,Tj&«c^ViJ«/, 
XtMfbtn , DUJtmt ; and both of tbcfMnd the ocbei preccdir^ fudl as bare 
delivered UDiverfalHifloriesofChrOBOiofti«i« ( ti} omit WiiiWhofe Nar- 
rations CODCCTn die ti(hrf)H)B»fti>iMt^H!iiflAfrietnHs,OMpiU^AdeQtyi- 
HUM^MArtoMt Scatm , HifivrHt rrif-iriiUt Vrfftritiljit ,C*rkit,Pined4tS*li' 
4jff,aml with us Sir \V4tl1cr BMttigb. 

Now from the liril hereof dm mofl concerneth us we have littleorno 
ilHftancc ; the fragments and broken r<cordt hereof ioforctng not at all 
our purpofe. And although fomcthingi notufually ohfcrveJ, may be from 
thcDce collcAed, ^-ct do cbcy not aUraniagc our difcourfc, nor any way 
mikc evident the point in hand, tortbclecood, though it diredly coo- 
ccrnt ui not, yet io regard of our l«(t mediuiQ and fome illuftrationi thereb, 
wcfhalibcconflraincd to make fome n(e. thereof. Atfor iliciafl. It con- 
ccriMUt not at ail ; for treating of times far below oi. it can no way ad- 
vantige us. And iltougbdivert in (hit Ulk Age have alio written of tbe firO, 
at all that have debvereddK general accouDta of time, yet are their TraAaic^ 
little auxiKacy unto ours, nor atford us any tight to detcsebntciad cicaribis 

As for holy Scripture and divitK relatiofl, ihcre may ilfb feem therem< 
i but llender tniorm8tion,ibcre being only left a brief narration hereof by Mv-' 
/f/,and fucb ai affordi no poliiivedncrminaPQa. l^r the Text dclivA'cth btlt 
two genealogies, that i», of C<»'«and.)'f/ii in the line o( Sah thereareODly 
tendcfccDif, inthatof CrfrMbutfeven,and tbofeinan^lliucwithmenti»n 
of tatberandruiii excepUngthuof /«fcMti&, where iiaUomemioa of wives, 
foni, and a daughter. Notwicblbmdingif wcfcrioufly coniider wbat isdeU- 
vcred therein, and what isaUodeducibIc, it will be probably dedared what 
ifbyui intended, that is, die populous and ample habitation of tbe earth be- 
^« the flood. Which wc IhaU labour to iiuuce not from pofhdaia nod 



TIac tlic eanli 

ms «n^Iy 
peopled before 
the flood. 


A Million of 
Beeves yearly 
killed tn Ertf- 


Enquiries intoVnlgar 

Book 6. 

entreated Maxims, bat undeniable Principles declared in holy Scripture ; that 
is, the length of mens lives before the fiood,and the large extent of time bom 
Creation thereunto. 

We (hall only firft crave notice,thit although in the relation of M9fes there 
be very few perfons mentioned,yet are there many more co be prefumed ; nor 
when the Scripture in the line of Seth nominates but ten perfons , are 
they to be conceived all that were of this generation ; The Scripture fingly 
delivering the holy line, wherein the world was to be prefcrved, firft in NoiA;, 
and afterward in our Saviour. For in this line it is manifeft there were many 
more bom then are named ; for it is (aid of them all, that they begat fons 
and daughters. And whereas it is very late before it is faid they begac tbofe 
perfons which are named in the Scripture, the fooneftat 65, it muft not be 
undcrftood chat they had none before*, but not any in whom it pleafed God the 
holy line (houldbe continued. And although the evprefliion that they be- 
gat (bns and daughters be not determined to be before or after tbe mention 
of thefe, yet muft it be before in fome •, for before it is faid that Adam 
begat Seth at the 130 year, it is plainly affirmed that Cdin knew bis wife,and 
had a fon ^ which muft be one of the daughters of jiddm^oneof thofe w/K:re 
of it is after faid, he begat fons aiid daughters. And fo for ought can be dif- 
proved there might be more peikbns^pon earth then are commonly fuppofed, 
when Pain flew jitdl •; nor the farft fo hainoufly to be aggravated in the cir- 
cumftance of the fourth perfon living/ And whereas it is (aid upon the nativity 
of Seth, God hath appointed me another feed inftead of ^fr/, it doth not im- 
ply he had no other all this while^ but not any of that expedation,or appointed 
fas his name implies )to make a progrefiion in the holy linejin whom tbe world 
was to be faved,and f^rpm whom bdlhcAild be born,that was myfticaiiy fliin in 

Nourouf fidl ground to induce th^numerofityof people before the flood, 
isthe long duration of their KVes^^-btyWd 7,8,and9,hondred years. Which 
hdw it condttceth unto' populofi^ wi| Aall niike but bttle doubt, if we confi- 
der there are two main caufes jof'^numero/ity ^iti any kind or fpccies , that is,a 
frequent and multiparous way of breedings wHereby they fill the world with 
others, though they exiftnotlon^ttemfelves'; or a long duration and fub 
(iftence, whereby they dd not only Teptenifli tht world with a new annumera- 
tion of others; but alfb maintain tbcfomtef account in themfelves. From 
the firft caufe we may obferve examples ifi i^reatures oviparoni, as Birds and 
t^ilhes ; in vermiparous,asFlies,t6diftsand Gnats *, in animals al(b Viviparous, 
as Swine and 0>nies. Of'thef^ there is a great example in the nerd of 
Swine in Gale/ec , ' althougfr^^ao^hlcAn beaft , and (brbidden unto the 
fews. Of the other a remarkable one in tAthenens , in the Ifle Afiip^ \ 
7^4, one of the Cyctades ri6W^cai!ed5hii»^4/f4, wherein from two^ 
imported, the number fo incfdifed, that the Ihhabitants were confiraincd 
to have recourfe unto the Oracle of Delphos^ for an invention b<M! co deftroy - 
them. . _ . j 

'Others there are which make good the paiicify of their breed with the ' 
length ^d duration of their daies,whereofthere- wartt not etamplesin animals ' 
uniparous : Firft,* in bifiilcoiis orcloven-hoofc^ asCamels,aiid Beeves,wbere. | 
of there is above a million antiuaily flainin Englmd. Ttisalfo faid of fok^ 
that he had a tboufand ybak olf .Oxen, and (it thoufand Camels ^ and of the j 
children of IfrMel paffing into the land of CriUM^n^ that they took from the j 
ili;iP4ir/fr/tbrce(coreand^tentbopfand Beeves'^ and of the Armyoif Semiror i 
mis^ that therewerethereitrttncfhiHidi^ttiOttiandQmels. For Solipeds or | 
firm-hoofed a^tt^ls, as Horfes, AHes, Moles, &e. they are alfoin mighty 
titimbers , fo'is it delivered that fo^ had a thoufand (he Aflfes^ that the| 

- -■ ' Mididmitti 



••*rf Ctmmen He h o 1 1. 



MUhnittt lott fory oo; Uwuftind Arte*, I or Horf« it U aifinned by Diom- 
rm, that/Vwrn/broogfrtagaioftth* J^WnUn/iwo Imndrcd eighty tlwufand 
Horle*; aftfr him .ffmirjivutivc hundred thouCand Horrn, atidChanouaoe 
huadr«d ibou&nd. HvcninaeaiurullcriUnd rudiatdttooc generate, die 
length of life cHoJunaii much unto ttw muliiplitlty ot the fpccici ; for the 
[foambcrof Mule* which live fir longer Uicn ilicic Ditrn or Sirw, in touit- 
triu what tbcy arc bied, it very reoiarLiible, and nir more conmoa tben 

Fnr Aoimils oitiJtifidoiu.or focb at are digiaicdot bavc federal dlTifioiu in 
tbeirfeet-, iheresrebuttwo cbatareuniparotu, tliat U, Men and Elcphaou - ,: 
who ib-Migb (beir produdiuns be but flogle , are aonviUiftanding very I 
nnmeroiu. Thcblepham (a* AnptfU -i&uaah J cariicthtbcyoungtwo 
years, and conccucth ikk a^aio (a EdvArdmf i-i^ft affirmeih) in cuny 
afVcr , yn doth tiKir n^e requite thii dJadvantige ^ tbcy living lucnibualy 
one bundled , (bmetinie cwo huodcrd j'ear*. Now .ilthougfi cheybe rare with 
D* in Ej»r«f/,nndat£ogeibcf unJuiown unto Amrric4,yct in lie cwo other paru 
of cfie world ihcy arc in great abundince^s cVtdenily appears by tlic rclicion 
nf Ah Hem, I'hyliciaotodte Vic«roy a: G'r^ ; who rcUicf that at 
lone veiMiiun the Kmg of Sijn took four ilujufand ; and it of opjition they 
li ire in odwr part* in greater numbee ilien heardu of Bee»e» in Em-ift. And 
tliough this ddfTered from a Spttmard unactjuaiiiLed wttb our Nortbren 
drove*, mayfcem vcr>' far to exceed ^ yet tauilweconcdvechciii vcr^' ou- 
tnerous, if we ronl'idcr the number of leah craiifpmrtcd frutn one Cooncrcy 
coanotber-, they havingonly twogreat teeth, and tbo(i:nDt falling one- 

Asrorm^n, (he difadvamagcinhiifiiiglc ifTue Utbc fame with cbcfe^and 
in the brenefs of bitgenerationfomewIiugTcatcr tlicnany-, yet in the conti- 
nual and nocincernipud time thereof, and the extent of hu days, he becomes 
atMclient, tf-noE ibcaany other fpccies, ,atJcanmore outneroustbcn tbeie 
befcire meaiioned. Now being thus QUflicrousatprelimt, and in the mcafDrc 
of thrrcfcor*, fburl'core OC an hundred >"''*• ^ ^^^ '^^V* (''ttn^Icd unto 
fix.feven.oreighthimdred, their generatioas would be propordonably mul- 
tiplied; titcir times of generation being nut only mul(i[4ied, buttbeirrub- 
fiftencc continued. For though the great Grand-child went on.ihe FarueiHi 
and firft Original would fubfill and make one of the world ; [bough be out- 
lived all the tecmt of confanguinity, and bc«.aaie a granger unto his propo' 
progeny. So by compute ofScripture jidttm lived unto the ninth generation, 
umoibed>yiot'/,4«ff/j (be father of AWi; AitthufcUh unto the year of 
tlieflood: aniNoaJ} wasc(»atemp«>raryuflCQallfiromi:iM(iunto jthtAdm. 
So that although Ibmedicdttbefaiha'bclit^dingfominy deftents, the num- 
ber of Sorvivcri mull Hill be very great; for if half the men were now alive, 
which lived in thelaUCeatnry, thecarcii would fcarce (^oatain their number. 
Whereas in our aVidged and fcptuagcfimal Ages, it is very rare, anddcfcrves 
^aDiiltctvtobcbuId thefourthgoieraiion. Xerxti txiTopbint. fiill remaining ^ 
sod wliac hciamenu-d in his Atmy, being almoU deplur^lc in the whole 
-wiirld ; men Icldum orrivingseto (liofe yciu whereby Mtt^ffUh exceeded 
mine hundred^md what Adam cam« Ihort of a iboufaiid, ^tkfincd long ago 
Hto bcjheageof man. 

Now aldiGi)^ the leogtti of dayt conduccth mainly unto tlic numeroCicy 
'Of luaiciAd, aiHl it be mftnifell from Schpture tbey lived vcrj' long, yet it 
hotihepertod of their lives detenninibic, and fome might be longer livers, 
tben we account tJat any were. For f toomit that conceit of fome, that 
vUaMtvu.theoldciiman. in wmuchathcis conceived to be acated in tb<l 
macuricyaf mankind, that is,ac 60. Cforio choc age itiilcc down they begat 

cbilcTncn ) 

Tbe term for 

ligin ■hgm 



III lb t A.Ur 


H/atr titm 


the grcaceft 
City of 

Enqmries iM$ Vnlgur 

Bo OK 6. 

children^ fo chat adding this namber ante bit 930, be was 21 years cider 
then any of his profterity ) chat even MethufeUA was the longeft liver of ail 
the children oiAiim^ we need not grant •, nor is it definitively fee down by 
Mofes. Indeed of thofe (en mentioned in Scripture,with their fever all agei 
it muft be true ; bnt whether thofe feven of the line of ^4m and their pro- 
geny, or any of the fons or daughters pofterity after them out*lived tfofe, 
is not expreffed in holy Scripture; and it will fecm more probabiet that of 
the line of Cuin^ fome were longer lived thtmny oi Setb -^ ifweceoMde 
chatleven generations of the one lived as long as nine of the other. As for 
what is commonly alledged, that God would not permit the life of any onto 
a thoafand, becaufe f alluding unto that of DisviW^ no man fliould live one 
day in the light of the Lord •, although it be urged by divers, yet is it mecbinla 
an inference fomewhat Rabbinicall i and not of power to perfwade a (erioos 

Having thus declared how powerfiilly the lengch of lives conduced unto po- 
puloficy ofxbofe times, it will yet be eafier acknowledged if we defcend to 
particularities, and confider how many in feven hundred years might dclcend 
from one man •, wherein confidcring the length of their days, we may conceive 
the greated number to have been alive together. And this that no rcafonablc 
fpirit may concradi A, we will declare with manifeft dtfadvantage; for whereas 
the duration of the world unto the flood was above 1600 years, we will make 
our compute in lefs then half that time. Nor will we begin with the firft man, 
but allow the earth to be provided of women fit for marriage the fecond or 
third firft Centuries ^ and will only take as granted, that they might beget 
childrenat fixty, and at an hundred years have twenty, allowing ^r that 
number forty years. Nor will we herein fingfe oat MttbmftUk^ or account 
froin the longeft livers, but make choice of the ihorceft of any we find record* 
ed in the Text, excepting fMfit ; w1k> after he bad lived as many years ms 
there be days in the year, was tTMflated at 3 6 5. And thus iiom one flock 
of feven hundred years, mnlopfying ftill by twenty, we (hall find tbc prodnd 
to be one thoufand, three hundred rorty feven millions, three baodrcd fixty 
eight thouland, four hundred and twenty. 

riT 20. 

2 I 400. 

3 I 8000. 
Century^ 4 i<$o,ooo. 

5 • 3,200,000. 
5 46,000,000. 
7 i,28o,ooo,ooo» 

The Prodad 

i 1,347,368,420 \ 

Now had we computed by MetbmfeUh^ the fumme had exceedediive hundred 
^ufand millions. At large a number from one ftock as may be conceived in 
Europe j efpecially if in Ctmftdntmpple, the grcateft City thereof there be I 
no more then B^tero accounteth ; feven hundred thoufand foob. Which 
duly confidered, we (hall rather admire how the eanh contained its inliabi- 
tants, then doubt its inhabitation; and might conceive the deluge oocfimply 
penalK but in (bme way alfo necefl&ry , as many have conceived of crufli- 
ons, ifAJdmhsid Ml finned/ and the race ofman had rennined upon c«ch 

Now wberea ibme to make good their longevity, have tmagkoid that die 
years of their coidpute were Lunary;untothefewefiiuft reply : Thacif iiya 
; Lunary 

Bu a% €i 

Ekrok 1. 

.•Luii ■'.',:" . ' r' ,- Moon, tbtt is 354 

dii'. ■ i'C no grar djic- 

rtji . ciiucliioo- Umif 

by a :.»N.i>y s.'*i Lit:) iiiCJni-i.'^ Louiui.i.'!! i>Uucitimii>, iliat n, A UiOnClh ; 

thry ftrit in««dii« * ycw oevtr ufed by tbc Hebrew* , m tlkir Cuil ac- 
compli i anj wlut i( fldivcrrJ bcibrt of ibc (Jnklein ynrt (" » A'rwif Jwi 
givmciuiionj waiunlymTiVftliotJK(.J)rOiioIitgyot [hnrArct. >ctnnd' 
ly,ilievtoa(radi<^theScnf)airr, whirbtDAknn [>litfi enumer«ion of many 
iiionaiwm tbcuxotincoftlKDclu^c; fireloKti «x[>rc(r«lin die 'icu. In 
cbcccntb noucUi, IB the lirft lUy ol die mooccli were tlic to[)s ofcbc inotui' 
taint (cen : Coocorduc wbrreunto ii ibc relBOon of huiDaoe Autbun , 
iHMMtUiicw:! pliftj fufr: . friarn fvvimtfirU inunndMlio Itn-Mrint* fni 
frifc* OtJ^r. Mtmimft W /«» fmr tfi p*Jt frimttm Jiiutimm Of/X* 
ttmftritai mtj^MOt , cmm Mavtm tf- mmfUiu miifiiiu Sam ctmim* mx m- 
Mmtrdfrt^ Dtim Mute trnvi tfrmt rMiiiii fr/iii4bnmiiiaiim ftnititmifm tx to 
tumt9. Aotf litily, dieyiallupouBa ftblunlt[>-,forchey tDikt Emsh to be- 
get cbtldrcn tbont lix ytariof tgc. For whcreu it )■ fiJa be bcgu MethuftUb 
«t6j,it'«rtflnllB(;coui)c evcrf monctti 1 ye«r, be wu u tbst diDeromc fix 
year>an<Jimh4lt', fur (bman^-tnoiKtlitiifcopauiaed iatlni fpiceofdiDr. 

Having tbu» ticclved hew mucb tbelength ofoicas livei condurcd umo 
ibe fK)()ul(i6iy yii tbdr kind, oQrrecaiwt fouodttion mull be ibe large cx- 
unc of tiaie, lirora die Ci cation umu the Dctoge , that il ( accordiag onto 
received compitecs about 1655 years) a longer [imc riicn batii [Ki0ed llnce 
tbe nativity af our SaTiout ; and this wc cumoc bat conceive fuffiacnt for 
a very Urge increafc, if wedo bat affinDwhurcafoaablcraquirtrs will not 
Idenyt Tluctbeeaitbiii^titbcas populout in that nuitibcr of yean bclbrc 
itbeflood, vwecaomtiuftll it tnu in tbc fame number after. Andwbcreai 
I there may be conceived (baie diiadvantage, in regard that tc the Creatioo 
'the original of manland wat in two prrlons, but after cbc flood clieir pro- 
pagatiifQ iffued at leaU from Gx ( againll chit vn might rcry well fet cbe leigtb 
oftiicirlivesbdttrcibefiood, which were abbreviated after, and in half olii 
^ fpacc contrtded incD handrcds and ihreefcom. Notwitbllaodiagco eqoa- 
'itxeaccounu, ne will allow three hundred yeen, and futongaiimcuwe 
unmanifdi (torn the Scriptare, There were Anir men aEJeatl ibac be^c 
children, AdMit, C«w(, .$r/i,and Eutt •, So iball we fairiyand ^voUrably 
pi occcd,if we atEmi the world to hive been at poptiloui io liucen faundtiedUM 
lifiy years bctarctbedood, wit watin thirteen hoDdrcd after. ^k>w bow po> 
puloui and largely inhabtied it wat within thic period of time , we fluU de- 
clare from probabilities , and Icvcral teftimoDtet of Scnpnnc and baihaae 

And nrA, To manifien ibe fameneei' thofepimof theexrth where the 
Ark is prcTutnfd tobaverdVd, wc have the rclahon of holy Scripture x- 
I oouoting the genealogy of fd^im, Chsm and iem, and in this jall, foar 
IddVefKB onto tbe divinon of the earth in thedayi uf ft/tv, whidi ciitiv«1<. 
Iihou^ i[ were nt>t opon common compute mod) aboi'c an hundred feart, 
[ yet were ihcy at this time mightily increafcd. Nor can we wdl cunccivc it 
I odicrwife,if wcconftdcrtlicy b^an already to wander tirom ihcir firfthibi- 
j caDon^andwercable to attempt foinight\' awork atibe building of a Ci;y 
I and a I ower, wlnfe copfhcntid reach umo the heavcni. Whercaoto there 
I wu reqmrcd n't HcndcT number of perlonf , if we conQder the mignitode 
tlicrcof, exprrffed b^fome, and conceived to bcr«im; ^</j in hirrtdtint; 
I and [be muUiindctot people recordedat the orAing of the like or inferiout 
I lirudurest lor at tbe building oi StUmeiu Temple theie were (lircetcure 
' and ten tbouland ibac catried burdeas, and fourfcort chOuGuid beweri in ibe 

i a5i5 


Who N'lmod 
and A(fitr 



Who oyis 

and Sgturtim 


wcrr . 


Enquiries into Vulgur 

Book 6. 


mountains, bcfide ibe chief of bis officers three cboufand and three bondrcd 
and at the ereft ing of the Pyramids in the reign of King Cheeps ^ as HtroJ$tMs j 
reporcs^tbere were decern mjridde/^ that is an hundred thoufand men. And j 
though icbefaidof rhe ty££yptUns, Parrum & cape nefas vUUre &frMgere 
m^rfu ; yet did the fummes expended in Garlick and Onyons amount unto no 
\tk then one tbouland fix hundred Talents. 

The firft Monarchy or Kingdom oiBdbjhn is mentioned in Scripture under 
the foundation of Nimrod^ which is alfo recorded in humane biftory ; is be- 
fidc Ber^fus^ in Dkdor MS ^d Jufiine^ for Nimnd of the Scripcores is Beltu 
of the Gentiles, zndAjfmr the lame with Nmubi» fncceffour. There isalfo 
mention of divers Cities, particularly of iViVut^ and £f/rir exprefled empbaci- 
cally in the Text to be a great City. 

That other Countries round about were alfo peopled, appears by the Wars 
of the Monarchs of jiffjrid wUi the BMariaMs,lMMMm^ScnhiimSju£tUQfidms^ 
Armemmu^ Hyrcamans^ PsmfUms^ PerRdnSy SupMns •, they vanqniihing ( as 
1)14?^/^ relateth ) ^gJpt^SyrU^ and all Afla minor, even from ^^/^Wji/ 
unto TdHdis. And it is laid, that Semirsmii in her expedition againft the Im- 
dians brought along with herjthe King of itfr4^i4. About the lame time of the 
AffjriM Monarchy, do Authors place that of the SjcionisHs in Greece , and | 
foon after that of the ^r^it^r/, and not very long after, that of the Athetudm \ 
under Cecroft , and within our period afliuned are hidorified many meiaora- j 
bleaftionsof the Greeks, as the expedition of the ArgoMUtes^ with the mod 
Bunous Wars of Titf^r/ and Tn;;. 

That CdtiMH alfo and ^J^gjft were well peopled far within this period, be- 
(ides their plantation by CiCMm and il/f/r4iii0> appeareth from theiiiftoryol 
rjd[^4i&4Mi,whoinle($ then 400 years after the Flood, journied from A^tfe- 
fQtamid unto Cdnddmnd^^gypt, both which, he found well peopled and; 
policied into Kingdoms -. wherein alfo in 43 o years, from threefcore and cen 
perfons which came with fdcot into v^Egypt^ he became a mighty Nation ; for 
it is faid,at their departure, there journeyed from Rhmneps to Smccoth about 
Hx hundred thoufand on foot, that were men, belides children. Now how 
populous the land from whence they came was, may be colleded not only | 
from their ability in commanding fuch fubjedions and mighry powers under- 
them,butfromthe feveral accounts of that Kingdom delivered by Herodotus. 
And how foon it was peojrfed, is evidcrcedrrom the pillar of their King Ofjris^ 
with this infcription in Dioderns •, Mihipdur eft SdtHrnHsdeeri$mJHniur[fitm 
vero Ofyris rex qsti tot urn perdgrdvi orkem tify', ddludortfrn fines , ddeos ymo^\ '■ 
frnn profeElus qui fipteHtriotd JtAjdcent nfy^dd Jftri fontes^ & dUds fdrtei mfj-^ • 
dd OcedMnm.Novt according unto the belt determinations Ofyris W9$Mifrdim^ , 
and SdtHrnus ^gyptins the fame with Chdm ^ after whole name ty£gypt is i 
not only called in Scripture the land of Hdm Jbiit thus much is alfo teftiiicd by 
PlutdTch J for in his Treatife ^ O/jn'dr, he delivereth that o£^pr was called 
Chdmid d Chdmo Noe filio^ that is from Chdm the fon of 2(odh. And if ac- 
cording to the content of ancient Fathers, Addm was buried in the fame place 
where Chrift was crucified, that is Mount C^/MrjF, the firft man ranged far j 
before the Flood, and laid his bones many miles from that place, wtere its 
prefumed he received them. And this migration was the greater , if as tk I 
text expreffeth, be was caft out of the Eaft-fide of Paradifeto tdl the ground ^ j 
and as the Pofition of the Cherubins implieth, who were placed at the eafi end . 
oftbe garden to keep him from the tree of life. ' 

That the extream and remote paits of the earth were in this tim e inhabited ; 
is alfo indttceable from the like teftimooies ^ for ( omitting the numeration 
offofephus^ and the geneal(^ies of the Sons of Nodh) that Jtdly wis in- ; 
habiced,appeareth from the Records of Zivif, OindDionyfins^ HdlkdrsidffedSy 



Book 6, 

*nd CMMMIt E KH. K S • 

I d»iksr| of «/£««/. fi II f Im iii.ilnw.rfmigdtfrttoHiHililii 

" OiorDgnpbenof iM^.domkecobeihe GUKVMJHpktThitJkM^ina 
tifo peoplu^E mtde one frgm [be freqaeoc nMotiDO bPB. tq £i«affr>, the fiiB- 
cords or Dudfmt tnd ochcn ; bat efpeciiUy from i motrJoblc ptfbge rooch- 
ed by Arttitu and j;«fi««Mr Bilbop of Liutriam, fau fiiUy apUined by tW 
DMjfifuy/f inhls accurace Hiftoiy of fwi/^ v ^^ u,froin uucienc inferipcU 
on in a ftone ac /*4Mnw,Mprcfled by him in its proper cbuiden, tnd by a f/- 
fiw thus cnoflated, NenrJtalimjDeMjfrttiriiMimDtMm, mm tfi sluts ftttiu 
prdter tiudtm Deiam. ntij\ tfi mUmi viSar frsttr eumJtm ^ume^imMt 21km ■• 
HnJMs turrit frafrSms tji Sapha filitu Elipbar^ti Etau/r^T-w Jacob ^ii Iliac, 
jf^ii Abraham ; ti" turri quitUm ipfiiumenefiBiyA,fidi»irrihHic froitii»n»- 
min efi Pbaratb. The anciquicy of cbe int^bitacion of SfMi» is alto coofirma^ 
ble, not only from BtMfnt in the plancation of TiAnl^ and a City concinaiag 
yet in his name ; but the flory of £?en'm,tbc travels of HercuUs andhis pillars -. 
and efpecially a pafTage in Straho .vihich advanceth unto the time of JV'iMu,tfaus 
delivered in bis fourth book.The SfAindfdi(iii'i\i be)afiirm that they have bad 
Lawsand Letcen above fix thoufand years. Now the SpMUrds or jhridms ob- 
' fervingCas Xcnofh§n hath delivered) Ammm tjmsdrimefirem, faur moneths unto 
a year,this cotnpuce will make up 2000 folary yearf,wbicb is about the fpace of 
time from ^f'r4^a,who lived in the days of AMiHfl)U,unto the reign of Mmms. 
That MaHritMnla and the coaft of Africa were peopled very the con- 
jeAure of many wife men,and that by the PhxHicUHs,vi\i<i lef: their Countrey 
upon the invafion of Cjnjitn by the IfraeRtet. Forbcfidethc conformity of 
the Pitnick^ or CarthAginiAn language with that of PhAJticid^ there is a preg- 
nane and very remarkable t^imony hereof in Procop'iMj, who in his fecond de 
^f//ai'4M£j^/iVa,recordeth,tIiatin itownof MawitAnia Tinpnuj, there was 
to be l^enupun two white Columns in the P^«niVM» language thefeenfuing 
words ; Not Af.iHrici fuirus (jui fiigimus Af*cit f^ofchHA^la Nunii prAdsio- 
ris.'WK fortunate 111 md^ or CAn»ries were not unknown^tor fo doth Strnha in- 
terpret that fpeech in Honur wi Protent unto AicnAUus, 

I Sed ti (jtta urrs poftrcMMs terminus extAt^ 

1 hlyfium in CAmpntn cixIcJUm nrnmiHA due tint. 

Tlic like mif.^hc we affirm from credible hiflorics both oiFiAact and GermA- 
nj, and proSaWy al lb out of our own Couiirrey. tor omitting tbc fabulous 
and TrujAn original delivered hv feofrrj of Monrntftth, and the eicprcfsccxL 
■ of Scripture ; tliar the race of japhec did people the 1 lies of the 6'f«f(V«i the 
' Brittipi OriginiJ wasfooblcurein C<y<tr/ time.thatheatlirineth the Inland 111- 
, habitants wetL- Ab.rigin:!, that is, fuch asreportcd that they had their bc- 
i ginningin the lfl.ind. I ha: /«/.(»ii our ncigbourlfland was not long time with. 
I out InLabitanis, may be made probable by I'undry accounts; although we abate 
I the Tradition or" £jr(ia/<jn(/j l\\z Scythian, wboarrived there three hundred 
years after the fl>>od,or the relation of GirAlduj-^ that C^/Aris the daughter of 
NoAhdweW tlierc before. 

Nu.vihi)uU we call in the learned account of £arAi(rr«/, deducing the anci- 
ent naniL-s of Countries from PijAHieiaHj,vrhoby their plancatiom.difcovertes, ' 
and fea negotiations, have left unto very many Countries, PhAMitAn ienotai- rnbi,t.Gtti. 
nitioni ; the enquiry would be much Ihortcr, andif J'/»4i» in the Phtnician S«f. pjic 1. 
Original.bebut [hi;regionof Cenits, LHftAniA.QX PtrtngAtlht Countrey of; 
Almonds if BrittanicA were at tiril BArAtAnACAjar the land of Tin,and IbtmiA ; 
or /rt/.MiJ,werc but lhrinu,or the farthcil habicationjand thefe names impofcd | 
and dil'perfedby i^'ytiVi^R Colonics in their leveralnavigtdont ^ the Antiqui- \ 
.ty ofhibicationsmighcbemorcclccrlyadvanced. \ 

[ Mm ' Thus 


Enquiries into Vulgdr 

Book 6; 

Whether any 
1 {lands before 
the Flood. 

Thus though we have declared how largely the world was inhabited within J 
thefpaceof 1 300 years, yet muft it be conceived more populous then can be ; 
clearly evinced \ for a greater part of the earth hath ever been peopled, then j 
hath been known or defcribed by Geographers,as will appear by the difcoveries | 
of all Ages. For neither in Herodotus or TheucjMJes do we find any mencion of 
Rome^nor in Ptolomy of many parts of Europe, Afid or Africa, And bccaufe . 
many places we have declared of long plantation, of wbofe popuioficy noc^ I 
withftanding or memorable aAions we have no ancient (lory •, if we may con- j 
jeAure of thefe by what we find related of others, we (hall not need many j 
words, nor aflume the half of 1 3 00 years. And this we might illuftrace from ' 
the mighty ads of the AJfjridus performed not long after the flood*/ecordcd ; 
by fufisue and DicJ$ruj,viho makes relation of expeditions by Armies more nu- [ 
merous then have been ever fince. For Ninus King of Affjria brought againft - 
the BaElriAns 700000 foot, 200000 horfe, 1 0600 Chariots. Semnrdmis his ! 
fucceffor led againft the Indians 1 3 00000 foot, 5 00000 horfe, itXKDOO Cha- ' 
riots, and as many upon Camels : And it is faid, StAurobates the ludisn King, ' 
met her with greater forces then (he brought againft him. All which was per-, 
formed within lefs then four hundred years after the flood. • 

Now if any imagine the unity of their language did hinder their difper(ioni 
before the flood, we confefs it fome hindrance at firft, but not much after- ; 
ward. For chough it might reftrain their difperfion^ it conld not their popa- • 
lofity; which neceffarily requireth tranfmigration andemiflion of Colonies,! 
as we read of Romans fireekjyPhJtmcians in ages paft.and have beheld examples 
thereof in our days. We may alfo obferve that after the flood before the 
confufion of tongues, men began to difperfe : for it is faid, they journyed co- 
wards theEaft • and the Scripture it felf expreflfetb a nece/Sty conceived 
of their difperfion, for the intent of creding the Tower is fo delivered in the 
text. Left we be fcattered abroad upon the ^ce of the earth. 

Again, If any imagine the plantation of the earth more eafie in regard of j 
Navigation and (hiping difcovered fince the flood , whereby the I (lands and! 
divided parts of the earth are now inhabited ; he muft confider, that whether j 
there were Iflands or no before the flood, is not yet determined , and is with, 
probability denied by very learned Authors. 

Laftly,lf we (hall fall into apprehenfion that it was lefs inhabited,becaiifeit 
is faid in the fixt of Genefis about a 1 20 years before the flood, and it came to 
pafs that when men began to multiply upon the face of the earth. Befidethac 
this may be only meant of the race of Cmpi, it will not import they were not 
multiplied before , but that they were at that time plentifully encreafed ^ for 
fo is the fame word ufed in other parts of Scripture. And fo is it afterward in 
the 9 Chapter faid, that Nouh began to be an husbandman, that is,he was fo^or 
earneftly performed the Ads thereof^ fo it is faid of our Saviour, that he began 
to caft them out that bought and fold in the Temple , that is , he adually cad 
them out,or with alacrity effededit. 

Thus have I declared my private and probable conceptions in the enquiry of 
this truthibut the certainty hereof let the Arithmetick of the laft day determine^ 
and therefore expeft no further belief then probability and reafon induce. Only 
defire men would not fwallow^ubiofities for certainties, and receive as Princi- 
ples points mainly controvertible^ for we are to adhere unto things doubtfull in 
a dubious and opinative way.It being reafonable for every man to vary his opi- 
j nion according to the variance of hisreafon,and to aflSrm one day what he dc* 
I nied another.Wberein although at laft we mifs of truth • we die notwithftand- 
I ing in harmlefs and inoflFcnfive errors,becaufe we adhere unto that,wbereanto 
' theexamenof our reafons,andhoneft enquiries induce us. 


M4<:tmmmUr*mQ\ < 

■ E^Jf Mdlftfr 

ibatlbc of EiHajiii Wc3 ^ tint k, t^c ptoprlctics iini condlngtrt 

j 4nd (bnicupffupriaic ui5a. . . 

j Wei^orchofrubrcTVabk pcnnuot' itic ^pbe^e,^u«vi'pCk:IJUt3nl} fUufiblc ft^ 
i CYcr.will 001 Up^n enquiry be juCblicd from fucti foundiiioat- 
• . luc CO 1'pc.i^ (friktly, (here it no Eall aod Wefl m nitucc, nor arc tbortf A- 
ifjiQ-.tini iiivirubk, bu: tcfpcdiTC iai muuble poinii, iccorjlng unto diffe- 
rent Ionf;i!U(lef.or;lilUqc piruof Iiabiutioo, whereby chc)' fglfcr many uJ 
I conftiferjiblc vanaiions. lorKrft. unto ibmc die fame pan will be Eall or 
VVclt in rdpcft of one anoihcr,tIa:is,unto focli as inhabic tli? feme pra!lel»0r 
diffirrently dwelt fr(Kn EilUoWelK Tlmsasunioi^jj*, /fJr/jlvccliEaft.utjto 
/uIjGrfttf,ant0Gru£e Perfui^aii unto PirjU ^/jia^.foaglin un:o the conn- 
trcy of C^'m^J'trfiA lyctb WcftjUOto PtrSAGrettr;ua\o Cmct Ii*!]l^i\d mitq 
tt/Uj SfAi; ^ iliac ilic lame Coumxcy is lumeiiitin Eafl and rpnictiili^ W^ i 
and I'trjU chough Ei(t unto Grtt£t,yct is it Weft unto Ctixfi ■ 

Unw other liJutations die &me point will be both Eaf^ and W'cfl ; .is uHw 
chofe liiat ire -iittifodti w feaccd in potouof the Globe diamc:ri(.4Uy oppoled. 
So the Amni^m arc Aacippda! unco tl;c IhMami, »nJ fomc pa of UdU ii 
both Ball 4nd WcU unio Amtricd, according ai ^t (hall be regar Jed irum one 
tiOc or die otbcf, to the rigl*! or lo tlic Ictii andfctting'ouurom .inymiWIe 
point.eilber by Haflot WdV, the ilifiince unto^ 
in the lame fcmce of time m nature alfo pciroroiablc. 

To a third that havcdicPolcsfoctficir vertex, or JwcIIirtcliepofiilonof ■ 
piralleUpberc, tlicrcwUibe neither Halt nor WcU, UleafttHiratael^ pare of 
th« year. Lenf ( as the natnc Orffw/Wirnplyeth , they (halt accoutit t!uc parr 
to be c:il where ever die Sun aiileth, or diat Weft wliccc the Siin ijoccideijral 
or le«ctJ) iBlmoil .half the year they have neither the one nor the nilicrTor bait" 
die ymr it » below their Horiton.and the other half it it condnualty aboVd k , 
•nd eircliiig lojnd about diciii knterfedeth nut tbi HoriJloo, nor leavcch any 
part for ihucompirc. And if (" whiili will fecfii very reafbnatilL' J ihatpat't 
Ihoold be termed the Baltcrn poin(,wheie thc!>un at £^iiinoi:,and but oafx'm 
the year aril'cih,yei will il»* alfo diHurb the cardinal atcoiuiCf.rur will U with 
propriety admit dwit appdiiuon. For diatfurclycannut be actountcd Eaft 
wlmh hath tbc South on both lidc* ; which notwithOahdingthn pofiiiotiinafl 
Iiarcf or if unto (iieh a* hvc under die Polc.chit be only North which it ab6*c 
diem.tUat mutlbe Southerly which i» UcLow them ^ which liall the other potti 
on of ihcGl'>bc,b<r.d«that pirtpofTtircdby ttiem. And tl'usfhcli; point* of 
Ei'iaiiii Weft bong noiabtbluxe in any, tyfpeAivcin fonif.and not ■cillre- 
JfltingujicoodteTi ^ wc cinnot hereon cflablifhfo general confiderationi, npr 
xcafonably creel luch immuubleaiTcUtoiUfUtran To utiQtblc foundadoni. 

Mai- • How 



VVJiactlic Nor- 
thern and Sou- 
thern Poles be. 


Bnqniriis into Vnlg4r 

Book 6. 


Now the ground thac begat or promoted this conceit, was firft a miftakc in , 
the apprehenlion of Baft and Weil, conHdering thereof as of the North aad 
Souch. and computing by theft as invariably as by the other; but herein, npon 
fecondthoughtsthereisagreatdifparity. Vor the North and Southern Pole,! 
are the invariable terms of that Axis whereon the heavens do move; and are 
therefore incommuniable and fixed points- whereof the oneisnotapprc- 
henfible in the other. But with Eal^ and Welt it is quite otherwife ; for the re- 
volution of the Orbs being made upon the Poles of North and Souch, all other i 
points about the Axis are mutable ; and wherefoever therein the Eaft point be I 
determined ; by fucceflion of parts in one revolution every point becomecb j 
Eaft. And fo if where the Sun arifeth,that part be termed Eaft,every babiGition 
differing in longitude, will have this point alfo different ^ in as much as cbe Sun I 
fucceffi vely arifeth unto every one. 

The fecofldgroupd, although it depend upon the fbrmer^approachetb near- 
er the effeA •, and that is the efficacy of the Sun, fet out and divided accordmg 
to priority of ilifcent ; whereby his influence is conceived more favourable unto 
one Couqtrey then another ,and to felicitate India more then any after. But | 
hereby we cannot avoid abfurdities,and fuch as infer effeds controuble by our ! 
fenfes.For firft, by the fame reafon chat we affirm the Indian richer then the yf • ; 
mtrlcan^ the American will alfo be more plentiful then the Indian^ and England \ 
QT Spain more firuitfull then HifpanloU or golden dllle ^ in as Kiuch as the Sun j 
I arifeth unto the one fooner then the other : and fo accountably unto any 
Nation fubjeded, unto the fame parallel, or with a coniidaable divcrlity of 
longitude from each jother. 

Secondly, Ai) unfufferable abfurdity will enfue : for thereby a Country may 
bie more fruitful then it felf : * For India is more fertile then Sf*tin^ becauie more 
Eaft, and thiit the Sup arifeth' firft unto it: Spain likewifeby the l4me rea- 
fon more frultfuU then Amcrita , and America then India : fo that Spain 
islefs fruitfu^thch that Countrcy j whichalefs fertile Countreythe nit felf 

Laftly, If we conceive the Sun bath any advantage by priority of afcent, 
or makes thereby one 0)untry more happy then another, we introduce in- 
juftifiable determinations, and impofe a natural partiality on that Luminary, 
which bein^ equidiftant firom the earth, and equally removed in the Eaft as in 
the Weft, his Fowcr and Efficacy in both places muft be equal, as Bmiiu hath 
taken notice, and Scaliger hath graphically declared. Some have therefore 
forfaken this refuge of the Sun, and to falve the effed have recurred unto the 
iufluence of the liars, making their adivities National, and appropriating 
their Powers unto particular regions. So Cardan conceiveth the tail of Vrfu 
Major peculiarly refpedteth Enr^ve : whereras indeed once in 24 hours it alfo 
abfol veth its courfe over ARa and America. And therefore it will not be eafie 
to apprehend thofe ftars peculiarly glance on us, who muft of necelGty carry 
a common eye and regard unto all Countries, unto whom their revolution and 1 
verticity is alfo common. ; 
The effefts therefore or difierent produftions in feveral Countries, which 1 
we impute unto the aftion of the Sun , muft furely have nearer and morel 
immediate caufes then that Luminary. And thefe if we place in the propriety \ 
of clime, or condition of fotlwberein they are produced, we fhall more rea- j 
. fonably proceed, then they who afcribe them unto the adivityof the Sun. ! 
Whofe revolution being regular, it hath no power nor efficacy peculiar from ! 
its orientality,but equally difperfeth his beams, unto all which equally, and in 
the fame reftriftion, receive his luftre. And being an univerfal and indefinite ' 
agent, theeffefts or produdtions we behold, receive not their circle from tiis 
caufality ,but are determined by the principles of the place,or qualities of that ; 

[ Boo K & 

iwJCrmmsM Ekkoii «. 


AiiJdiiiueviJcQtiHicofllyio gcmnii, niiiKrklf, 
r pijnu and amanlk; wliifcM fDiii': arc com- j 
. I'lmcpcvtilurunioottf , iomt not comnianitahlc ■ , . 
i.idofGtxJ rhAt firtl (rMtedcbccafch, harl. with ' crrd X dif- 
I variety difp-ifi'ii die prmcipIetofilltliKig* ; WirHycoDtriTtrrg them tn ibcic i, wtcjm- 
I proper rciiiir.jnc!, and irhcrir ificy belt m.iinriiin ibe inccncion onhdr fpeoO; mciUtiMal 
■Wlicrcof »' they have iiin utontlirrcncc, ind br not ludgcd in a convcoient ' f'^*'->lt.oiia»i 
nn.unx, they »re not cxcitnl by- the efficacy i>r the Sun ; or ijiJtog m 
l|ttrtkiilir ciafc*, receive it rctjcl' or Sufficient pcomotion trom the Htiiver- 
I fail, tor although fupcfioarpowwi co-operate with inferiour afiivitie*, 
and may ( ai ibfiw conteive) carry a ftrohe in the pUflrck and formatiM 
draught 0^'all thingt, y« do tbeir determinations be'ong uiHO jMrticular 

IagenH.and arc drfiocj injinthfir prujwr pnrciptes. Thuj the i-un which 
wimuti* fruitfull in ihcEenerauon oIKogi.ToadiondScrpeiili.tothrt cf. 
fert [Tpvcs impotent m our neighbour llUnJ ; whurnri as in <ilt othercar. 
Tying a commod atpcft, it toncurrrth but onto prcditpofed etfcfts ; and only 
[lurcttataibalcfbnniiWhofedncnninitiortiarc leniinal,uiii proceed frantbe 
I Now whereat iherebe many obrervadom coiKcrn'ng&nianddivcrscon- 
Iftderaiiomof Artwhtchreem toextoll die quiliiy of that point, ifrigtnly 
: urulcrilood tliey <io not really promote it. That the AElrologcr uket ac- 
count of' nativities from the Afcendmr.thitH, the liril houte o^ thehcaveiu, 
whofe beginning is toward the Eaft,it doth not advantage the conceit. For, he 
cihblifticthnot his Judgerocntupon tlicorientality thereof, but coolidereth 
I thciemhts firll afceni above the Horizon ; atwhich time its efficacy hccomci 
[ obrcrv3bJc,and it coiKcived to have the Cgnification of tire, and to refpcA the 
I condition of' lU thing!, which at the fame time aritefrcmi their caufcs.and af- 
[ cendto their Horizon with It. Now thisafcenlionindeedfailsomrefpcdively 
; iniheEart: but a we lave delivered before, infome poJitions there uno 
I Hailern point from whence to cociipuietbcfe arceniiurif- !>o is it in a parallel 
I I'jilwre: for uniothctn lixhoorftare continually depreffcd.and fixnever ele- 
j vatcd: andibc planctithcairtlve*, whofe rcvolutionsareofmorcfpeed.and 
j influenrciol higher tonfideration , cnuit /ind in tltic place i very imperfeA 
i regard; for halt'their period they abfolvc above, and half beneath ihe Hori- 
zon. And fo forQxycirt, no mancan havethe happinefs to be bornunder 
fafitrrt and for fifteen together all mutt efcape the afcendcnt dominion of 

That Arifisiltin hi* Politicly , tommendi the fituaiion of a City which 
is open toward* the F-ift. and admilteih tberaics of the rifingSun, there- 
by is implied no more particular efficacy then in the Well .- Butthst polttion 
wcommfodcj, mregird thed.imp!aod vaprorous exiulations iogendercd in 
the abfenceofihe Sun,arcby hisretiirning raicsthe (ouner difpelled ; and 
men thereby (iiorecarly enjoy aclear and healthy habitation. Upon the like 
confidcrations it M, ilut Mtreus /Vrecommccideth titciarae fituation, and o:teHuiiia. 
eipofetli h» tarm untoihcequinoxiallafcent of the Sun,and that PalUdmi'ui- 
vifcththe front of hi»cdificc(hooldforcfpcA the South, thatin the lirft angle 
it receive the rifing raiei of the winter Sun, and decline a little from the winter 
fetting the rcof. And concordant hereunto is the inflruAion of dlKmiH* 
Dcpntiiiaar vi'.U : which lie contrivcth intoSummerand Winterbabltationi, 
ordering that the Winter lodgtngi regard the Winter afcetit of the Sun, ibwif 
South-Eart -, ami the room* of tepaft at fupprr. the ;Eqninonall frt* 
ii.g thereof , that u the Vftft ■ that the Suinmer lodging* rt^irj the 
iKqtiinoxial Merididn : but [he rooms of ciena^ion in ttic Summer , he 
' '■*" " * 'utli-Eafl; andihsBalnwrle* 



Luke xz. 




Enquirtti int0 F^lgdr 

Book 5. 

or baching places, chac chey may remain under the Sun uncill evening, he ex- 
pofecb unco the Summer fcccing, tbac is, Norch-Weft, in all which alcbougb 
the Cardinal poincs beincroduccd,\ec is cbe confideracion &olary,and ody de- 
cer mined unco cbe afptd or vilible recepcion of cbe Sun . 

Jews and MahomfBcans in cbefeand our neighbour pares areobferved coufe ! 
fomegeftures cowards cbe Eaft, as accheir benediAion, and che killing of ' 
cheir meat. And chough many ignoranc fpedacors , and noc a tew of ihe i 
adors conceive fome Magick or roylleri^ chcrein, yec is che Ceremony only | 
Topials and in a memorial relacion unco a place cbey honour. So che Jews ; 
do carry a refpeA and caftan eye upon f^rufalemi for which praAice chey . 
arenocwithouccbeexagipleofcbeirfQrenuhers, and che encourageaicnc of j 
cheir wife King \ For fo ic is tiid cba; Danifl wenc into hs houlo, and bis t 
windo ws being opened cowards ^frii/if/^ipf, he kneeled upon his knees three 
times a day, and prayed. So is ic exprefTed in cbe prayer of «fo/pi9M«, What 
prayer or fupplication foever be made by any man, which (hall i'pread forth 
bis hands cowards chis boufe : if chy people go ouc co baccell, and ihail pray 
umo (he Lord cowards che Qcy wbich chou ball ch^'fco, and toward che 
houfc which I have chofcn co build for thy Name , then hear thou in heaven 
their prayer and cheir fupolicacion, s^iid.maincain tl oir cauIc*. Now xhc ob* 
fervacion hereof, unco the Jews thac aredifpeiicdV/eiiw^rd, andtuchas 
moft converfe wich u^ , diredech ih^r regard uncu ifhe bill : But the words 
of fohmoH are appliable unco all q^arccr^ of Heaven ; and by die Jews of cbe 
Baft and Souch mult be regarded in a contrary poliiion So DmcI in 
i74^7/M looking coward Jerufdle^^ had his f^e cpwardcbe WcO. So che 
Jews in cheir own l^nd looked upon ic from all quarters. For (be Tribe of 
fudah beheld it to che North ; Atdfuifes, Zdbnlm^ and Nepthdli unco the 
Souths ReHkenzndGdd unto che Welt; only the Tribe o{D4m regarded ic 
diredly or co che due Eaft. So when it is iiiid , when you fee a cloud j 
rife out of che Weft , you fay there comecb a <^owr , and fo it is ^ | 
che obfervation was refpedive unto ^ffdea : nor is this a reafonablc illation ' 
in all other Nations whatfoeveri For the Sea lay weft unco chatCoqncrey , ' 
and che winds broughc rain from chacquarccr; But this confideracion can- j 
noc be cransferred unco InsUsot Chifts, which have a vail Sea Baft ward ^ i 
and a vafter Continent toward the Weft. So likewiie whco ic is fatd in 
the vulgar Tranflacioo,Goldcofl|icth out of che NQrcb,uisno reafooable in- : 
du^emenc unco us and many QtbcrCouncrics,from fome particular mines fep- • 
tentrionall unto his (icuacion, Co fearch after chac mettal in cold and Northern ' 
regions, which we moft plentifully ditcover in hot and Souchern habitations. [ 

For che Mahomecans, as chey parcake with all Religions in fomething,fo • 
cheyimiacethe Jew in chis. For in their observed geltures, they hold a re- 
gard unio Mechs znd AitMnsTalndbi^tyNoCxmsiw Arabia fdlix\ where 
their Prophet was born and buried ; whicher chey perform cheir pilgrimages : 
and from whence chey exped he fliould recurh again. And chereibre they ! 
direft their faces uoco thefe parts-, which unto the Mahometans of i?ifr^.ir} ! 
and •y^gjft lie Baft, and are in fome point thereof unto many other parts of ! 
Turkie.Wherein nocwichftanding there is no Oriental refpeft j for Wich the j 
fame devotion on che ocher fide chey regard t be fe parts toward the Weft.^nd ' 
fo with variety wherefoev^r chey arc feaced, contorming unto the ground of ! 
their conception. j 

Fourcbly, Whereas in che ordering ofthe Camp of Ifrael^ the Baft quarter j 
is appointed unto the nobleft Tribe, that is the Tribe of ludah^ according i 
CO che command of God , In cbe Eaft-fide coward the riling of the Sun,) 
(hall che Standard of che Tribe of /M^i^ pitch: ic doth not peculiarly eicoli 
that point. For hecein che Eaft is noc co be caken ftridly , hue as ic fignifieth 


Boot £■ 



ortmpliedicheforcaioftplacc-, fiHr^Mfti bi(l3ieVin.aodiuay Couuxia 
chroogbTrbidichcy piffcdwneleiudEdtcriyiintotbcin. TbusmndijsiaN 
plied by cbe Original, and czpreOed by TnnfladoiBwbidi flriAly conform 
[faeretOiSo TrtmrUus ind Jtmms^C^* h^hmmm ak Mttrian fafti Otimtm 
vtrfiUtVtxittMmtfioejifinrHm fadst fo buh M. Salam»»ftmhi. expounded 
ii, tbe foremoft or before, is the Eall qurcer, and the Wm fs called bebind. 
Jini Upon cbis interpretation may all be lalvcd that is tUeageable againft it. 
Forifcbecribeof/M^wtretopiccbbeforetbcTabcrnacle at tbe Eaft.and 
yet to march ftrft, aiii commanded. Numb. lo. there mufl enfue a diT- 
ofder in the Camp, nor could they conveniently obfervc the execution there- 
of ^ For wben they fet out from Mount Siwah where the Command was de- 
livered, they made Northward unto JZtVi&m^ib J from Xijf^h unio £<.ieM£Mhr 
about fourteen tlations they marched South : From ^Imm DiiUthMim 
cbroogh the moantuns oiT^iArim and plains of Aladi towards Jordan the 
&ce of their march was WcH : So thatif ^WiCibwcreUriAIytopicchintbc 
Eaft of the Tabernacle, every night he encamped in the Rear : And if f at | 
fome conceive ^ thewboleCampcouldnotbclerttlien twelvemiles ,long,ici 
had been prepoillerous for him to have marched foremoft ; or fee out tirfl who : 
was moll remote from the place to be approached, 

Fiiily, That Learning, Civility and Arts had their beginning in the EaH,! 
icisnot imputable cither to the aflionof the Sun, or its Oricr.cality , but' YVhcteibe 
the Hrll plantation of Man in tliofc parts; which unto Europe docarry the ; A^k icftej at 
refpeft of Eaft. For on tticmuuntams of ^r^r^r, thit is part of the hill Tan- iomc think. 
rut, between the EaQ-Indics and ^t'jr^jrf, as Sir f^. Ji.t/fj«iJt accounts it, the 
Ark ofNodh relied ; from the Halt they travelled that built the Tower of 
Babel: from thence they were difpecfedand fuccelfively enlarged, and Learn- 
ing, good Arts.and all Civility communicated. The progrcfTion whereof was 
very fcnriblc ; andtfweconlidcr the diftance of time between the confiifion 
of Subel, and the Civility of many parts now eminent therein, it travelled 
lateandflowly into our quarters-lornotwithnanding the learning of Border 
and Z)r«/iF/ of elder times, he chat (hall pcrufethat work ofTaciimidt mo- 
ribntGermMMorMm, may cafily dilcern how little Civility two thoufand years 
had wrought upon that Nicion: the like he may obferve concerning our 
fclvc<,from thcfamcAuihor in ciic lite of AgricoLi, and more dircdly from 
Straho ; who tothe difbom^ur ofour PrcdeccfTors, and the difparagement 
oflliofc chat glory in tlie Antiquity of thdr Ancellors, affirmech i]\c Brittuns 
were fo fimole.that though they abounded in Milk,they hadnoi the ArtiHce of 
i Checfe. 

I LaRly, That the Globe it fcif is by Cofmographcrs divided into Eafl and 
I Welt, accounting from the Hrll Meridian, it doth not enabtifti this conceit. Vor 
I that divifion is not naturally i'ounded, bucartiticially fet down,aDd by agree- < 
jment; as thcapcefttcrmsto dcnneor commenfurate the longitude of places. ; 
[Thus the ancient Cofmographcrs do place the divifion of the Eafl and Wcftern : 
iHcmifpLere, that is the rttfl term of longitude in the Canary or fortunate , 
'idands; conccivingthcfe pans the extreamcll habitations Weflward : Buc' 
! the Moderns have altered that term, and tranflatcd it unto the Azores or. 
' IflandsoFSaiat Michael i and that upon a plaulible cOnccit of the fmall or in- ! 
■ fenliblc variation of the f'ompafs in thofc parts, wherein ncvenhelefs , and 
j though upon fecond invention, chcy proceed upon a common and no appropri- : 
arc foundation; for even in Meridian farther North or South the Compafs 
obfervably varicth ; and ihcrc arc alfo other places w-hciein it varicth not, as I 
Alfhonfe iiT\<i Rtd^riget d-: Z.i^j will have it about C.ipixi^ /jj y4^«//.*j \aAfri''' 
ca; us M-ntraljCHi affi'fnctli inthj ihoreof /'f/t7)i)»f/«j in Europe : and as i 
GilbertHt irerreth. in the m-.dtl of great regions, in molt parts of the earth. 1 



^p—— ■ ■ — — 

Bnquirits into Vnlgdr 

Book 6. 

How t^^gypt 
firft became 
firm land. 

Chap. Vlllr 

of the River Nilus. 


HEreof uncontroulably and under general confeac many opinions are paf- 
(ant, which not wichftanding upon due examinacion,do admit o&doubc or 
reftriAion. Ic is generally efteemed, and by moft unco our days received, that 
the River of Nilus hach feven oftiaries ; time is, by feven Chanels disburdoeth 
it felf into the Sea. Wherein notwithftanding,befide that we find no concurrent | 
determination of ages paft, and a positive and undeniable refiite of tbeie pre- 
rent-,tbe affirmative is muuble,and muft not be received without til limitation. 

For fome, from whom we receive the greaceft illuftrations of Antiquity , 
have made no mention hereof : So H9mer hath given no number of its Cban- 
ncls.nor fo much as the name thereof in ufe with ail Hiftorians. Erntoftems in 
jhisdcfcriptionofc^jjfff hath likewifc paffcd them over. ^ri/Fo/i^ is fo indi- 
ftinft in their names and numbers, that in the Hrft oi Meteors he plainly afHroi- 
eth the Region of eyi^^r ( which we efteera the anciencell Nation in the 
world ) was a meer gained ground^and that by the fetling of mud and limous 
matter brought down by the River iVi/ivj, that which was at firft a continued 
fea,was raifed at laft into a firm and habitableCountrey.The like opinion he held 
oiMeotii Pdlus^ that by the floods of Tdnais and earth brought down there- 
by, it grew pbfervably (hallower in his days, and would in procefs of time 
become a firm land. A nd though his conje Aure be not as yet fuliilled , yet is 
the like obfer vable in the River Gihcn^ a branch oiEufhrdtes and River of Pa- 
radtfe ; which having in former Ages difcharged it felf into the Perfian Sea , 
doth at prefcnt fall fhort ; being loll in the lakes of Chdldes, and bath lefc be- 
tween the Sea, a large and confiderable part of dry land. 

Others exprefly treating hereof ,have diverfly delivered themfelves \ Hero- 
dotus in his Euterpe makes mention of